Overblog
Suivre ce blog Administration + Créer mon blog
15 avril 2014 2 15 /04 /avril /2014 11:35
Le missile BrahMos : la meilleure dissuasion en cas de conflit indo-chinois

 

 

14.04.2014 Olga Ivascina - La Voix de la Russie

 

La nouvelle version du missile de croisière supersonique de fabrication russo-indienne BrahMos sera le meilleur facteur de dissuasion dans des conflits frontaliers en puissance entre l'Inde et la Chine.

 

Le missile testé avec succès le 7 avril a été développé spécialement pour des opérations en montagne. Sa charge a été conçue pour détruire les cibles terrestres bien protégées telles que des bunkers de béton, les centres de transmission et les postes de commandement souterrains. Un porte-parole de l'Organisation de la recherche-développement militaire de l'Inde a noté que lors des essais la tête « intelligente » du missile avait « frappé la cible après l’avoir reconnue entre plusieurs leurres ».

 

Les médias indiens supposent que la nouvelle version du BrahMos sera mise en service dans le régiment actuellement en formation qui fera partie d'un corps d'attaque de montagne. Cette nouvelle unité tactique de l'armée indienne sera déployée à la frontière entre l'Inde et la région autonome chinoise du Tibet.

 

L'Inde se propose d'achever définitivement la formation de ce nouveau corps de montagne dans 7 ans. Deux divisions d'infanterie de montagne, deux brigades d'infanterie de montagne et deux brigades blindées seront déployées au Ladakh, dans l'Urrarakhand et au Sikkim. Les effectifs du corps s'élèveront à 90 000 hommes de troupe.

 

Les soldats indiens seront confrontés à un groupe de l'armée chinoise dans la région autonome du Tibet fort de plus de 200 000 militaires. En plus l'infrastructure de transport développée permettra au commandement chinois de transférer, le cas échéant, dans les régions frontalières quelque 30 autres divisions.

 

Pour l'Inde il est trop onéreux d'avoir en permanence un groupe aussi nombreux dans les régions frontalières. Car la seule formation d'un corps nouveau qui jouera le rôle de force de réaction rapide demandera une somme avoisinant 650 milliards de roupies. Aussi le commandement militaire a-t-il opté pour une autre version : doter ce corps nouveau d’armes de haute précision les plus sophistiquées. D'autant plus que l'adversaire potentiel ne possède pas les moyens de neutraliser les missiles BrahMos.

 

Les missiles de croisière supersoniques BrahMos sont déjà opérationnels dans l'armée et la marine indiennes. En 2015, ils seront en service dans les forces aériennes. Ces missiles ont un rayon de 290 km. La masse de l'ogive atteint 300 kg. La vitesse est presque trois fois supérieure à celle du son : à l'heure actuelle c'est le missile le plus rapide du monde

Partager cet article

Repost0
15 avril 2014 2 15 /04 /avril /2014 11:35
source china-defense-mashup

source china-defense-mashup

 

15.04.2014 Romandie.com (ats)

 

Xi Jinping a exhorté l'armée de l'air chinoise à accélérer le développement de ses capacités spatiales, rapportent les médias chinois. Ceux-ci présentent cette instruction comme une réponse aux tendances des Etats-Unis et d'autres pays à utiliser l'espace à des fins militaires.

 

En déplacement au quartier général des forces aériennes à Pékin, le président chinois, qui est aussi chef de l'armée, a invité les officiers présents à "accélérer l'intégration aéronautique et spatiale et à aiguiser leurs capacités offensives et défensives", a écrit lundi soir l'agence Chine nouvelle, sans fournir de détails sur les moyens envisagés pour y parvenir.

 

Organe du pouvoir, le China Daily affirme mardi que la Chine doit prêter une plus grande attention au développement de ses capacités défensives dans le domaine spatial.

 

"L'idée de combiner les capacités aéronautiques et spatiales n'est pas nouvelle pour l'armée de l'air chinoise car quantité d'experts soulignent l'importance de l'espace", écrit ce quotidien.

 

"Faire face aux activités des autres"

 

Rédacteur en chef adjoint d'un magazine spécialisé dans le domaine aérospatial à Pékin, Wang Ya'nan juge que l'appel lancé par Xi Jinping répond aux exigences du moment.

 

"Les Etats-Unis accordent une attention et des ressources considérables à l'intégration de leurs capacités aéronautiques et spatiales et d'autres puissances ont aussi évolué progressivement vers une militarisation de l'espace", dit Wang Ya'nan, cité par les médias chinois.

 

"Bien que la Chine ait affirmé qu'elle s'en tenait à une utilisation pacifique de l'espace, nous devons être certains de disposer de la capacité à faire face aux activités des autres dans l'espace", ajoute-t-il.

 

Xi Jinping veut faire de la Chine une superpuissance dans le domaine spatial, où elle est distancée par les Etats-Unis et la Russie notamment.

Partager cet article

Repost0
14 avril 2014 1 14 /04 /avril /2014 16:35
La marine chinoise modifie ses sous-marins de la classe Yuan

Une nouvelle photo publiée sur des sites militaires chinois, montre que la marine chinoise continue de modifier son sous-marin classique Type 041, classe Yuan.

 

14 avril 2014. Portail des Sous-Marins

 

Selon les sources, cette nouvelle version du sous-marin est baptisée Type 039A, Type 039C, Type 039X, ou nouveau Type 041. Les images sont apparues pour la première fois en décembre 2013, après son lancement au chantier naval de Wuhan. La nouvelle photo, publiée le 6 avril, montre que cette nouvelle version du sous-marin possède un kiosque équipé d’un bourrelet, similaire à celui des sous-marins allemands.

 

Ce nouveau kiosque pourrait intégré un sonar haute-fréquence supplémentaire. Le nouveau sous-marin Type 041 est légèrement plus long que ses prédécesseurs. Des sources chinoises non confirmées indiquent que le déplacement de la nouvelle version est de 3.500 tonnes, 500 de plus que le Type 041 actuel et plus de 1.000 de plus que les 2.300 du S20, la version export du Type 041 conçu pour le Pakistan.

 

Référence : China Times (Taiwan)

Partager cet article

Repost0
11 avril 2014 5 11 /04 /avril /2014 19:35
PLAN surface combatant fleet now and future

 

April 11, 2014 by Feng - informationdissemination.net

 

With the recent induction of No. 172 and the appearance of Type 055 full scale land simulation structure, there has been some questions about how many of these ships will join PLAN and the number of sailors that will need to be trained to operate them. This entry will focus on the hardware part, since that is an easier factor to quantify than the software part. Before all of that, I want to take a quick look at Type 055. Based on the dimensions of the land simulation structure, estimate for width of the ship have been 21+ m and length to be 175 m based on photos. That would make this ship larger than the neighboring Atago class and KDX-III class, which are both over 10,000 ton in displacement. It would be comparable in size to Slava class and only smaller than Kirov class and Zumwalt class. Based on work by online PLAN fans, it seems like Type 055 would be able to comfortably hold 128 VLS cells ¬¬¬and still have enough endurance long range missions. To the best of my knowledge, China has only built land based simulation structures for aircraft carrier and nuclear submarine. Therefore, the construction of such a structure shows the high regard that PLAN has for Type 055. Work for Type 055 is said to be starting at JN this year, so it’s quite interesting to me that they are building the training structure so early.

 

Read full article

Partager cet article

Repost0
11 avril 2014 5 11 /04 /avril /2014 11:35
photo China MoD

photo China MoD

 

 

10-04-2014 French.china.org.cn

 

Le conseiller d'Etat chinois et ministre de la Défense nationale Chang Wanquan a rencontré jeudi à Beijing le chef d'état-major de l'armée de l'air française, Denis Mercier.

 

Le président chinois Xi Jinping a effectué en mars une visite d'Etat en France, et les deux pays ont adopté à cette occasion un plan de coopération à moyen et long terme pour faire entrer les relations bilatérales dans une nouvelle ère de développement global et rapide, a indiqué M. Chang.

 

L'armée chinoise accorde une grande importance aux relations avec les forces armées françaises et est prête à promouvoir les relations militaires à un nouveau niveau, a-t-il déclaré.

 

M. Mercier a indiqué que la France et la Chine étaient toutes deux des nations pacifiques et a exprimé l'espoir de voir les deux armées continuer de promouvoir la coopération pratique, notamment entre les armées de l'air et dans le cadre des missions de maintien de la paix.

Partager cet article

Repost0
9 avril 2014 3 09 /04 /avril /2014 21:30
Nucléaire: l'Iran et les Six conviennent de rédiger un document final (Moscou)

 

MOSCOU, 9 avril - RIA Novosti

 

L'Iran et les six médiateurs internationaux sur son programme nucléaire (Chine, Etats-Unis, France, Royaume-Uni, Russie et Allemagne) ont convenu mercredi à commencer à rédiger un document final lors de leur prochaine rencontre, rapporte le ministère russe des Affaires étrangères.

 

"Un examen approfondi de tous les éléments d'un futur accord s'est achevé. Ainsi, lors du prochain round de négociations qui est prévu à Vienne les 13-16 mai, les parties ont convenu à commencer à rédiger un document final", lit-on dans le communiqué.

 

Selon les parties, les négociations sur le programme nucléaire iranien vont dans le bon sens. La réunion de travail qui s'est achevée mercredi dans la capitale autrichienne est la troisième organisée depuis que Téhéran a accepté en novembre dernier de geler une partie de ses activités nucléaires en échange d'une levée partielle des sanctions qui étouffent son économie. L'Iran doit prouver à la communauté internationale qu'il ne cherche pas à se doter de la bombe atomique sous couvert d'un programme nucléaire civil.

Partager cet article

Repost0
9 avril 2014 3 09 /04 /avril /2014 07:35
Pentagon Chief's Visit Exposes US-China Divide

US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel, center, and Chinese Minister of Defense Chang Wanquan, left, review a guard of honor during an April 8 welcome ceremony prior to their meeting at the Chinese Defense Ministry headquarters in Beijing.  DOD photo by Erin A. Kirk-Cuomo

 

Apr. 8, 2014 – Defense News (AFP)

 

BEIJING — Visiting US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel and Chinese military chiefs traded warnings and rebukes Tuesday as they clashed over Beijing’s territorial disputes with its neighbors, North Korea’s missile program and cyber espionage.

 

Both sides were clearly at odds over a litany of issues, despite Hagel and his counterpart Gen. Chang Wanquan calling for more dialogue between the world’s strongest and largest militaries, with the American coming under hostile questioning from a roomful of People’s Liberation Army officers.

 

One member of the audience told Hagel the United States feared China’s rise and was sowing trouble among its Pacific neighbors to “hamper” Beijing because one day “China will be too big a challenge for the United States to cope with.”

 

The Pentagon chief denied the US was trying to hold China back but the tough questioning contrasted with the deferential reception given to his predecessor Leon Panetta at a similar event two years ago.

 

Hagel faced a blunt reprimand in an earlier meeting with a senior officer, Gen. Fan Changlong, vice-chairman of China’s Central Military Commission, according to an account from the official state news agency Xinhua.

 

Referring to critical comments by Hagel earlier in his Asia trip, Fan said the “Chinese people, including myself, are dissatisfied with such remarks.”

 

Hagel’s press secretary acknowledged the two “shared a very frank exchange of views.”

 

In his speech at the PLA National Defence University, Hagel confronted several disagreements head on, scolding China for its support of North Korea while warning against “coercion” in territorial disputes with its smaller neighbors in the South China Sea and East China Sea.

 

Amid rising tensions between China and Japan as well as the Philippines, Hagel emphasized Washington’s military alliance with Japan and other Asian partners, saying: “Our commitment to allies in the region is unwavering.”

Simmering disputes

 

China and Japan are embroiled in a bitter row over disputed islands administered by Tokyo in the East China Sea, raising concerns of a potential armed clash between the Asian powers.

 

And in the South China Sea, the Philippines is at odds with China over a disputed reef, where Beijing recently tried to block a boat ferrying supplies to Filipino troops in the area. China also has disputes with Vietnam and others in the area.

 

China’s defense minister, Gen. Chang Wanquan, blamed America’s allies — Japan and the Philippines — for the tensions, suggesting Washington needed to restrain its partners.

 

Beijing hoped the United States would keep Tokyo “within bounds and not be permissive” Chang told a joint press conference in the Chinese capital.

 

“China has indisputable sovereignty” over the islands in dispute with Japan, Chang said, calling territorial sovereignty a “core issue” on which “we will make no compromise.”

 

But he suggested China would not take pre-emptive action: “We will not take the initiative to stir up troubles.”

 

Last November Beijing unilaterally declared an air defense identification zone (ADIZ) over the East China Sea, including the disputed islands, prompting condemnation by Washington.

 

Beijing requires aircraft flying through its ADIZ to identify themselves and maintain communication with Chinese authorities, but the zone is not a claim of sovereignty.

 

Hagel said countries have a right to ADIZs but said setting them up without consulting other governments was risky as it could lead to “misunderstandings” and “eventually get to a dangerous conflict.”

 

Hagel also called on China to play a more constructive role on North Korea, saying Beijing risked damaging its image in the world by failing to rein in the regime, which has recently test-fired medium range missiles.

 

“Continuing to support a regime that engages in these provocative and dangerous actions, and oppresses its people, will only hurt China’s international standing,” he said.

 

The discord on Tuesday came after an initially positive tone on Monday, when Chinese naval officers gave Hagel a tour of the country’s new aircraft carrier at a base in Qingdao, a rare move for the normally secretive PLA.

 

Hagel thanked the Chinese for the ship tour and called it a promising step, but another sore point emerged Tuesday as Hagel prodded Beijing to pursue a more open dialogue on cyber espionage.

 

Hagel said the Pentagon had “for the first time ever” recently shared its cyber warfare doctrine with Chinese government officials.

 

“We have urged China to do the same.”

 

The United States has made no secret of its “concerns about Chinese use of networks to perpetrate commercial espionage and intellectual property theft,” Hagel said.

 

The United States, which is investing heavily in a new cyber warfare command of its own, suspects PLA units are behind an increasing number of digital attacks on government and US corporate networks.

 

But China accuses the US of hypocrisy, pointing to revelations of far-reaching electronic espionage by the US National Security Agency, including media reports the spy service hacked into telecoms giant Huawei’s network.

Partager cet article

Repost0
8 avril 2014 2 08 /04 /avril /2014 19:35
La Chine "mécontente" des propos de Chuck Hagel : responsable militaire chinois

 

2014-04- xinhua

 

La Chine est "mécontente" des propos tenus par Chuck Hagel, secrétaire américain à la Défense, lors de la réunion des ministres de la Défense de l'Association des nations de l'Asie du sud-est (ASEAN) et au Japon, a déclaré mardi un responsable militaire chinois.

 

Fan Changlong, vice-président de la Commission militaire centrale de Chine, s'est ainsi exprimé lors de sa rencontre avec Chuck Hagel.

 

"Je peux vous le dire franchement, les propos que vous avez tenus lors de la réunion des ministres de la Défense de l'ASEAN et aux politiciens japonais étaient durs. Le peuple chinois, moi y compris, est mécontent de ces remarques", a-t-il déclaré au secrétaire à la Défense en présence de la presse.

 

M. Hagel est le premier secrétaire américain à la Défense à avoir visité la Chine après l'entrée en fonction de M. Fan.

 

Chang Wanquan, conseiller d'Etat chinois et ministre de la Défense nationale, a rencontré M. Hagel mardi matin.

 

"J'ai accordé une attention particulière à vos récents voyages et discours", a poursuivi M. Fan, mentionnant en particulier les propos tenus par M. Hagel lors de la réunion des ministres de la Défense de l'ASEAN à Hawaï et au Japon.

 

Dans une interview accordée samedi au journal japonais Nikkei, M. Hagel a qualifié l'établissement de la zone d'identification de défense aérienne en mer de Chine orientale de provocation et d'initiative unilatérale, blâmant la Chine pour la montée des tensions dans l'une des régions les plus géopolitiquement sensibles.

 

M. Hagel s'est entretenu la semaine dernière avec les ministres de la Défense de l'ASEAN à Hawaï, où il a abordé le sujet de l'inquiétude croissante des Etats-Unis concernant les différends territoriaux en mer de Chine méridionale.

 

M. Hagel effectue une tournée de dix jours au Japon, en Chine et en Mongolie.

Partager cet article

Repost0
8 avril 2014 2 08 /04 /avril /2014 19:35
Hagel Visits Chinese Aircraft Carrier Liaoning

April 8, 2014 defense-aerospace.com

(Source: US Department of Defense; issued April 7, 2014)

 

Hagel Visits Chinese Aircraft Carrier Liaoning

 

QINGDAO, China --- On Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel’s first official visit to China, the Peoples’ Liberation Army allowed him, in response to a request made in January, to become the first foreign visitor to tour the sleek refitted Russian aircraft carrier -- the PLA’s first -- called Liaoning.

 

China is Hagel’s third stop after multiday meetings in Hawaii and Japan on his fourth trip to the Asia-Pacific region since becoming defense secretary. After a day of meetings here tomorrow, Hagel will stop in Mongolia to meet with government and military leaders there before starting home April 10.

 

Liaoning is moored at Yuchi Naval Base in its home port of Qingdao in east China’s Shandong province.

 

"The secretary was very pleased with his visit today aboard the carrier Liaoning,” Pentagon Press Secretary Navy Rear Adm. John Kirby said in a statement.

 

Hagel understood the significance of the PLA’s granting of his request for the tour, Kirby added, and the secretary was impressed by the professionalism of the ship’s officers and crew.

 

“He hopes today's visit is a harbinger of other opportunities to improve our military-to-military dialogue and transparency,” the press secretary said.

 

A defense official traveling with the secretary described the ship’s tour as lasting about two hours, beginning with a briefing about the ship, its capabilities and operating schedule conducted by the two-star strike carrier group commander and the ship’s commanding officer, Capt. Zhang Zheng.

 

The briefers were good, and they invited and encouraged questions, the official said. Hagel and his guest, U.S. Ambassador to China Max Baucus, and others on the tour all asked questions, the official added.

 

“The briefing lasted about 30 minutes, and then we saw medical facilities on the ship, some of the living quarters, the flight control station where they control flight operations, the pilot house, and the bridge, where they drive the ship,” the defense official said.

 

The secretary and his group also took a walking tour of the flight deck and saw launch stations and helicopter recovery stations as well arresting cables, “and got a briefing on how what we call in the U.S. Navy the ‘landing signals officers’ guide the aircraft in for an arrested landing on the flight deck,” the official explained.

 

He said the ship was extraordinarily clean, and the crew was sharp and informative.

 

”Every sailor at every station where Hagel [stopped] for the tour knew exactly what their job was, and how important their job was, and exactly how to explain it to the secretary,” the official said.

 

Hagel had a lot of give-and-take discussions with the crew throughout the tour, and talked to them just as he talks to U.S. troops when he goes out to visit them, the defense official added.

 

“The tour ended with a stop in the officers’ dining area, where Hagel had a chance to sit down with junior officers, have some refreshments and just talk to them,” the official said. “We all did. I sat down at a table with two junior female officers, and everybody did the same thing.”

 

The crew members were very impressive and very dedicated, he observed.

 

“It's a new capability they're trying to develop, and I think they all appreciate the importance of it to the PLA, but also the difficulty of it,” the official said. “On more than one occasion, the officers who were with us said quite frankly they know they have a long way to go in naval aviation. It is a difficult military capability to develop and to perfect, … and they expressed that they believe they can still learn much from us in terms of how to get better at it.”

 

The ship has three launching stations for jet aircraft, four arresting wires, a complement of about 1,500 sailors, one sixth of whom are officers, and there were 90 women in the crew, both officers and enlisted service members, the defense official said.

 

Liaoning has been out on sea trials almost 20 times, and officials know they still have to do more, he added.

 

Compared with U.S. aircraft carriers, Laioning isn’t as big or fast, and it doesn’t carry as many aircraft or as many types of aircraft, the official said, but it’s a real aircraft carrier, capable of launching and recovering jet combat aircraft.

 

“We asked them when they would have an operational naval air wing on the ship, and the captain said there's no timeline for that right now,” the official said. “They aren't at the state where they're declaring that sort of operational readiness.”

 

The defense official said the opportunity for Hagel and his group to tour the aircraft carrier today was a significant step in China’s attempts to be transparent and open.

 

“I would say that as this trip to Beijing begins for the secretary, today was a good first step in terms of trying to develop more openness and transparency,” the defense official said.

Partager cet article

Repost0
8 avril 2014 2 08 /04 /avril /2014 19:20
DOD photo by Erin A. Kirk-Cuomo

DOD photo by Erin A. Kirk-Cuomo

 

08 avril 2014 Romandie.com (AFP)

 

PEKIN - Le secrétaire américain à la Défense Chuck Hagel et de hauts responsables militaires chinois se sont accusés mutuellement d'être responsables de la tension dans la région lors de réunions mardi à Pékin.

 

Les deux grandes puissances militaires se sont montrées en désaccord sur de nombreuses questions - disputes territoriales entre la Chine et ses voisins, Corée du Nord et cyber-espionnage - mais ont aussi proclamé leur volonté de dialogue.

 

M. Hagel a dû faire face à un auditoire hostile d'officiers de l'Armée populaire de libération (APL). L'un d'eux a affirmé que les Etats-Unis craignaient la montée en puissance de la Chine et qu'ils semaient le trouble dans la région afin de gêner Pékin parce qu'un jour la Chine sera devenu un défi trop important à gérer pour les Etats-Unis.

 

Plus tôt, il avait essuyé les vives critiques du vice-président de la Commission centrale militaire, le général Fan Changlong, lors d'un entretien avec ce dernier, selon l'agence de presse officielle Chine Nouvelle.

 

Faisant référence à des propos tenus par le chef du Pentagone lors de sa tournée asiatique, le haut responsable militaire chinois a déclaré: Le peuple chinois, y compris moi-même, est mécontent de tels commentaires.

 

Le porte-parole de M. Hagel a convenu que les deux avaient eu un échange de vues très franc.

 

Dimanche à Tokyo, M. Hagel avait mis en garde Pékin contre toute action unilatérale pour résoudre ses contentieux territoriaux, en invoquant le précédent ukrainien.

 

Tous les pays ont droit au respect, qu'ils soient grands ou petits, avait-il déclaré après une rencontre avec son homologue japonais, Itsunori Onodera, ajoutant: Je veux en parler avec nos amis chinois.

 

Dans son discours à l'université de défense nationale de l'APL, M. Hagel a évoqué sans détours les points de discorde avec Pékin, reprochant à la Chine son soutien sans faille à la Corée du Nord et mettant en garde Pékin contre toute action de coercition vis-à-vis de ses plus petits voisins en mer de Chine méridionale et orientale.

 

Alors que les tensions sont vives entre la Chine et le Japon et les Philippines, M. Hagel a réitéré le soutien de Washington à ces pays, disant: Notre engagement aux côtés de nos alliés dans la région est indéfectible.

 

Une vive rivalité oppose Pékin et Tokyo à propos d'îles en mer de Chine orientale, qui fait craindre une confrontation armée entre les deux puissances asiatiques. La Chine est également engagée dans une bataille de souveraineté sur d'autres îles en mer de Chine du sud, notamment avec les Philippines et le Vietnam.

 

Le ministre chinois de la Défense, le général Chang Wanquan, a accusé le Japon et les Philippines d'être à l'origine des tensions, invitant Washington à modérer ses alliés.

 

Il a réitéré, lors d'une conférence de presse conjointe, que la souveraineté de la Chine est indiscutable sur les îles que Pékin et Tokyo se disputent et a assuré que la Chine ne fera jamais de compromis sur cette question centrale.

 

Il a toutefois affirmé que la Chine ne serait pas la première à provoquer des incidents.

 

En novembre dernier, Pékin avait déclenché un tollé régional en proclamant unilatéralement une Zone aérienne d'identification (ZAI) en mer de Chine orientale, dont le tracé incluait des îles Senkaku, administrées par le Japon, mais revendiquées par la Chine sous le nom de Diaoyu.

Partager cet article

Repost0
8 avril 2014 2 08 /04 /avril /2014 11:35
China: The Pundits Of War Are Unleashed

 

 

April 8, 2014: Strategy Page

 

China watched, and supported the recent Russian operation to take the Crimean Peninsula from Ukraine with great interest. The land grab had a bracing effect on the other countries that, until 1991, were part of the ancient Russian Empire. The Crimean operation was the second such land grab Russia has undertaken in the last five years. The first was against tiny Georgia in 2008. Many of these former Russian subjects feel that the Russians are trying to get their empire back. Ask many Russians that question and most agree that it would be a nice thing. Some Russians are more outspoken and bluntly call for the empire to be reassembled no matter what.  Poland and the Baltic States managed to join NATO after the Cold War ended and are hoping that the mutual defense terms of the NATO alliance will dissuade Russia. Nevertheless all four, plus Finland, have increased their military readiness this year and are seeking assurances from the West that they will have help against Russia. Many Finns have called for Finland to join NATO, but a large minority has opposed this because of the fear it would anger the Russians. There was a similar division in Ukraine but now more Finns are thinking that NATO membership is preferable to trusting Russia to always behave. Even Sweden, never part of the Russian empire and successfully neutral since the early 19th century is thinking about joining NATO for protection from an increasingly aggressive Russia.

 

China sees an opportunity here. That’s because the former Soviet stans of Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) have another option; China. The stans have been very receptive to Chinese diplomatic and economic cooperation. This bothers Russia, but not to the extent that threats are being made, as was the case with the former imperial provinces to the west. The stans also have a problem with never having been democracies. When the Russians conquered them in the 19th century the local governments were monarchies or tribes. When the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, locals who were former Soviet officials held elections and manipulated the vote to get themselves elected "president for life." But many people in the Stans want clean government and democracy, as well as continued independence from Russia. China is no help with that because the Chinese prefer dictators. But China does offer more economic opportunities and protection from what happened ti Ukraine and Georgia.

 

Another reason for China to back Russia is the fact that China is also an empire trying to reclaim lost territories. That some of those territories are currently Russia’s Far East (areas bordering the Pacific) is not officially discussed in Russia or China but is no secret to many Russians and Chinese. That is a problem for another day as currently Russia and China support each other’s imperial ambitions (as in Ukraine and the South China Sea) and help each other out to deal with any associated problems, especially the UN or economic sanctions. China is also helping by putting economic pressure on Ukraine by suing Ukraine to cancel a $3 billion loan.  

 

Yet another reason China is watching this carefully is because China is violating an international maritime borders treaty it signed by claiming all of the South China Sea. What happens to Russia for violating the 1994 agreement to protect Ukrainian borders in return for Ukraine getting rid of its Cold War era nukes. Russia simply says the 1994 agreement does not apply and that attitude will influence what China does with its numerous offshore territorial disputes. Another problem with violating the 1994 agreement is the message it sends to states like Iran and North Korea. The message is that if you really want to keep invaders out you need nukes. Iranians believe the negotiations to limit Iranian nuclear research and development are an effort to block Iran from getting nuclear weapons. Most Iranians see nukes as a necessity for maintaining Iranian dominance in the region. Iran has been the regional superpower for thousands of years. Once you get a taste of superpower status, it’s a hard thing to put behind you.

 

Russia and China are using nationalism, in this case the promise of the restoration of lost imperial territories, to distract the population from the corruption and mismanagement of their government officials. This is an ancient political technique that depends on near-total control of information available to their populations. The Internet threatens that and this is a new risk for those planning to build and maintain an empire. That’s because empires are costly and inefficient. Britain realized that by the 1940s and that’s the main reason they got rid of theirs so quickly after 1945 and why the United States never took advantage of its power to create one. But the allure of empire remains, sort of as the ultimate luxury a state can indulge. Again, the Internet spreads the bad news about the real cause, and effect of empire. China tries to cope with this by concentrating on imperial ambitions (natural resource rights from the ownership of uninhabited rocks and reefs in the South China Sea and elsewhere off the coast) that have some practical appeal. When empires involve conquered people the cost goes way up, as the Chinese are rediscovering in their northwest (Turks) and southwest (Tibetans). A growing number of Russians and Chinese are aware of these angles and are not happy about it. But both Russia and China are still police states with state-controlled media. Holding anti-government opinions is dangerous, especially if you express these traitorous thoughts in public.

 

To expand their empire as cheaply as possible China is relying a bullying, not battles. So in the last year the Chinese Coast Guard has received over a dozen new patrol ships. These are vessels of from 1,000-3,000 tons displacement with relatively small crews but lots of storage space and not many weapons. Coast guard ships are not usually heavily armed but the Chinese ships are increasingly being seen equipped with water cannon, extra searchlights and equipment for grappling with other ships. These tools are used to interfere with foreign fishing ships and transports that go to parts of the South China Sea that China has declared Chinese territory (even though other nations have a stronger legal claim). Using water cannon, bright searchlights (to blind the crews of other ships) and aggressive maneuvering (to include grappling with smaller foreign ships and forcibly moving them) the foreign ships can be “persuaded” to back off. The Chinese coast guard vessels will also use these tactics against foreign warships and if the foreigners shoot back the Chinese can declare themselves the victims of an unprovoked attack and call in more fire power.

 

The Chinese are also preparing for the possibility that the victims of this bullying might shoot back. Thus it was not surprising that Chinese Army WZ-10 helicopter gunships have been seen practicing operating from LST type amphibious ships, which have a landing pad similar in size to that found on larger Coast Guard patrol ships. The seven ton Z-10 is smaller than the 10 ton American AH-64 and also has a crew of two. The Z-10 is armed with 30mm autocannon and can carry up to a ton of rockets or missiles. This gives China immediate backup if the Coast Guard harassment tactics fail and additional firepower is needed in a hurry. Then again, a helicopter gunship coming off the back of a Coast Guard cutter can be pretty scary if you aren’t expecting it.

 

China is carrying out its military buildup with Chinese made weapons. One benefit of that is that is provides yet another export. Over the last five years China has displaced France as the fourth largest arms exporter in the world. While Russia had a record year for arms exports in 2013, moving $13.2 billion worth of weapons, military equipment and defense services, those sales are increasingly threatened by more rapidly growing exports from China. Russian officials admitted that they did not expect to increase weapons sales over the next few years, largely because arms sales worldwide, both for export and domestic consumption is shrinking. Currently about half of Russian sales are aircraft (jets and helicopters) and 25 percent are anti-aircraft systems. Russia still gets orders because they are cheaper than Western stuff, and nearly as good. What the Russians were less willing to discuss was the growing competition from China.

 

Some areas of the Chinese military buildup are for protecting China from internal threats. Thus China is now training police to be hackers. Not just imparting defensive skills, but training selected cops to launch attacks. It’s unclear what this is for although it’s most likely related to the growing incidence of Internet based criminal activity inside China. Apparently several units of police Cyber War experts are being organized. Some will probably be dedicated to helping Chinese firms and local governments improve their network security, but at least one of these new organizations will have an offensive capability, probably for harassing groups perceived as internal (foreign or Chinese) enemies of China.

 

There are more serious internal threats that police hackers won’t help solve. China is suffering from some catastrophic long-term problems that gets little attention in the news but are nevertheless very real and unavoidable. For example, there are several disastrous demographic problems approaching. This began in the late 1970s when, to control population growth most couples were restricted to only one child. This has been widely enforced, to the point where the average number of children per couple has been 1.7. But many of those couples aborted a child if it was a female, because much more importance is attached to having a male heir. Thus there are 35 million more males than females, and the number is growing. These surplus males are coming of age, and the competition for wives is causing problems. Women are taking advantage of their scarcity, but men are also going to neighboring countries to buy, or even kidnap, young women to be wives. This is causing ill will with neighbors.

 

The biggest problem, though, is the growing shortage of workers. As the population ages, all those one child families means there will be more elderly than the economy can effectively support. Currently there are 11 working age Chinese for every retiree. By 2050, there will only be two for each retiree. At that point, retirees will comprise 30 percent of the population (versus 13 percent now.) Traditionally, children cared for their parents in multi-generation households. That model is dying out, and China is faced with huge pension cost increases at the same time they expect their economy to be the mightiest on the planet. But at that point, the largest single government expense will be the care of the elderly, and this will impose crushing taxes on those of working age. Many working age Chinese are worried about this, for there is no easy solution in sight. China can relax the one-child policy, which it is apparently doing, but the newly affluent Chinese are less eager than earlier generations to have a lot of kids. To make matters worse there is not much in the way of pensions or health care for most of the elderly to begin with. The government recognizes this is a real problem but does not, and will not have the cash to deal with it.

 

Then there is corruption, which has been a problem for thousands of years. The Chinese government continues to proclaim its aggressive efforts against corruption. In 2013 the government said that it investigated 150,000 corruption cases and recovered over $8 billion. Most Chinese still encounter corruption daily and don’t really get the impression that the government is making a serious dent in the problem. The bigger crooks still seem to get away with it while the little guys get punished. The anti-corruption effort is not the only government program that is underperforming. The Internet censors have failed to keep out all the bad news about the Chinese economy that the government would rather not be publicized. This is mainly about the faltering growth rate (down from ten percent or more to seven percent a year or less since 2008).

 

China also has problems with popular sentiments that contradict official policy. Case in point is the growing anger over pollution. This is the result of three decades of rapid economic growth and a culture of corruption that allowed the pollution to grow and the government to keep it out of the news. But eventually people noticed and have been increasingly open and direct in demanding some action to deal with it. So in late 2013 the government responded in a way no one expected; pollution data was declared public data and all government organizations and businesses were ordered to make their pollution data public. Not everyone is complying but given the growing boldness of angry citizens and availability of pollution monitoring equipment, any cheaters are vulnerable to getting caught and then exposed to a public shaming on the Internet. For commercial firms this can mean lost business. For government officials this can mean more scrutiny than corrupt bureaucrats are comfortable with. With this new openness policy the government is making itself less unpopular and harnessing the power of the anti-pollution groups (who represent most of the population) for a joint effort in dealing with the dirty air and water.

 

Senior Chinese leaders are becoming increasingly bold in dealing with popular discontent, aware that throughout Chinese history such discontent often led to popular uprisings that brought down dynasties and made life very unpleasant for those in charge. Many of the lower ranking bureaucrats are less concerned with this as they are more interested in stealing as much as they can while they have the opportunities. But if decisions at the top can make this more difficult to do, then there will be less corruption and bad behavior by officials. The most senior people are making moves like this because they understand that they do not “rule” China as much as they preside over a huge bureaucracy which resists unpopular orders and is more responsive when the senior leadership makes decisions that simply put more pressure on bureaucrats to behave.

 

The other item the government wants kept out of the news is the problem in the banking system and how decades of corruption there are catching up with the government ability to keep the plundering and manipulation from crippling the economy. The fact of the matter is that there are a lot of zombie banks operating, that were essentially bankrupted by uncollectable debts (the corruption angle) that the government cannot cover for. There is also the property bubble, caused by all the building loans banks issued for stuff that is still unsold. This has caused growing downward pressure on property prices, which is lowering the net worth of a lot of Chinese. More and more Chinese (especially business owners and executives) are asking important questions about all this but the government would rather not discuss the issues.

 

The international financial community is getting nervous about the Chinese government’s ability to deal with this uniquely Chinese financial bubble. While in the West the usual bubble is one based on real estate or stock market speculation, in China there is a less well known bubble involving an unofficial banking system that provided loans to highly speculative (and often, by Chinese standards, illegal) undertakings. These “shadow banks” were also very corrupt, doling out bribes and fees to corrupt businesspeople and government officials. The problem is that all this off-the-books financial mischief has got its hooks into legitimate assets (as collateral or a source of cash to keep operating or expand). The number of bad loans (that are not, and probably never will be repaid) has been growing and that is threatening to reduce the cash the official banks have free to keep the economy going. If the government mishandles this mess the Chinese economy could suffer widespread bankruptcies and high unemployment. It could take several years to recover and during that time there could be a popular uprising. A dip in the Chinese economy (at $8 trillion second only to the American $14 trillion) would ripple throughout the global economy. It would be 2008 all over again, but possibly worse. So it’s not just China’s problem.

 

That economic growth has been good to the military. The Chinese defense budget increased again this year by over ten percent to $132 billion. Some U.S. intelligence analysts believe the real defense spending is now closer to $200 billion. Like other communist nations the Chinese keep a lot of military stuff outside the defense budget, so their actual defense spending is much higher. Official Chinese defense spending has more than doubled in the last decade. This has triggered an arms race with its neighbors. Russia is in the midst of a new military upgrade program that would increase defense spending by a third and devote over 700 billion dollars into the next decade to buying new equipment. Japan, already possessing the most modern armed forces in the region, is increasing spending to maintain their qualitative edge. A decade ago China and Japan spent about the same on defense, but now China spends more than three times as much. Even India is alarmed. Spending only a third of what China does, the Indian generals and admirals are demanding more money to cope. India and China are actually devoting a lot of their additional spending to just bringing their troops up to date. Both nations have lots of gear that was new in the 1960s and 1970s. They don't expect to be as up-to-date as the U.S., which spends over $500 billion a year, but there's plenty of newer, much better, and often quite inexpensive equipment to be had.

 

China insists that its growing military power is for defense only. That makes sense, as a lot of money is going into the navy, which protects the imports (mainly of food and raw materials) and exports (of manufactured goods) that are driving the unprecedented economic growth. The Chinese try to explain away the military buildup opposite Taiwan as political theater. This may be true, for a failed attempt to take Taiwan by force would not only disrupt the economy (and create a lot of unhappy Chinese) but would be a major failure by the government. Dictatorships cannot survive too many such failures, or too many angry citizens. So it makes sense that the Chinese military growth is largely for defense. But those large defensive forces can also be used to bully or intimidate neighbors, which is what the neighbors are worried about.

 

Despite the official Chinese line that the growing military is only for defense, the government also maintains a list of approved (as pundits for electronic media and books) retired generals and admirals who will say things that the government approves of but does not want to openly and officially discuss. This often involves the possibility 0f war with various potential enemies. For over a decade these guys have talked about the coming war with the United States. Now they are talking about the “inevitable” war with Japan over territorial disputes and lingering Chinese anger for all the damage Japan did to China during World War II.

 

April 7, 2014: Responding to Japanese concerns about the growing ballistic missile threat from North Korea and China, the U.S. agreed to send two more Aegis ballistic missile defense ships to Japan. These Burke class destroyers will arrive by 2017 and be based in Japan.

 

April 5, 2014: China has made it clear (and rather public) to Pakistan that massive (and much needed) Chinese investment is contingent on keeping the Islamic terrorist violence away from these Chinese financed (and often Chinese run) projects. The government is taking extraordinary measures to provide the security the Chinese demand but time will tell if it is adequate.

 

April 4, 2014: After two years of negotiations India and Israel have agreed to a deal where Israeli defense firms will work with DRDO (the Indian Defense Research and Development Organization) and several state-owned defense firms to design and build an integrated anti-missile defense system. India already has a tested and proven anti-missile ABM (Anti-Ballistic Missile) but wants something like the anti-missile system Israel has developed and deployed over the last two decades. This new arrangement implies that Israel is willing to share some of its ABM technology (among the best in the world) with India to provide some defense against Chinese and Pakistani nuclear missiles.

 

April 1, 2014:  Japan has overturned its long-time (since World War II) ban on exporting weapons. This makes it possible for Japan to equip other members of the growing anti-Chinese coalition with the most modern weapons. Japan is immune to Chinese threats of economic retaliation, which is what China usually employs to keep its neighbors from getting modern weapons from Europe or the United States.  

 

March 31, 2014: This month China commissioned the first of twelve Type 052D destroyers. This was no surprise because in late 2013 this ship was seen on sea trials in the East China Sea. This new destroyer design appears very similar to the American Aegis equipped destroyers (especially the Burke Class). Five more 52Ds are under construction and one of them is ready for sea trials. China plans to build at least twelve. The development of the 52Ds was a deliberate, and apparently successful, effort to considerably close the quality gap between American and Chinese destroyers and do it quickly.

 

Talks between North Korea and Japan and hosted by China ended on a positive note with North Korea agreeing to actually talk about kidnapped Japanese in future sessions. These were the first such talks since 2009. Actually there was some contact in 2012 in Mongolia between Red Cross officials from both countries. Then, as now, the main topic was Japanese citizens that North Korean agents kidnapped 13 Japanese in the 1970s and 80s. The talks in Mongolia produced nothing except an agreement to continue the process later with more senior officials. That was aborted when North Korea announced the resumption of long range missile tests at the end of 2013. Obtaining more information on these kidnapping victims is a big issue in Japan, but North Korea has never been eager to release anything, other than the fact that the kidnapping program did exist. Japan refuses to resume foreign aid, which North Korea needs, until the questions about the kidnapping program are answered. This has become a big issue in Japanese politics but the North Koreans refuse to cooperate. Now North Korea says it is willing to talk about cooperating.

 

March 30, 2014: The government revealed that it had formally charged Gu Junshan, the former deputy head of logistics for the army of corruption and had already seized more than $20 million from him, friends and family members. All this began in 2012 when Gu Junshan was removed from his job and the government introduced new rules which forced senior military officers to disclose their personal financial details. It was later revealed that Gu Junshan had used numerous methods to enrich himself. This included taking bribes from suppliers and officers seeking jobs in logistics (where there were more opportunities to steal). Corruption in the military has been a problem in China for thousands of years. The communists thought they had cured it, but after they took control of China in the late 1940s the rot began to reappear. There have been several major efforts since then to keep the corruption from getting out of hand (and doing serious damage to combat capabilities). This latest public anti-corruption effort is an indicator that the government believes the generals and admirals are a little too corrupt. The investigation and prosecution of Gu Junshan indicates that the most senior military officers are not immune to justice. The government has also announced more anti-corruption inspections of military bases and those who work there. These are audits seeking to detect corrupt practices and find out who was responsible.

 

In Taiwan there have been growing public demonstrations against a proposed new law that would allow massive Chinese investment in Taiwan. For decades it has been the other way around. But allowing Chinese investors in is seen as a way for China to take over Taiwan by, literally, buying most of it. 

 

March 29, 2014: The Philippines defied a Chinese blockade of Second Thomas Reef and evaded a large Chinese coast guard ship that was literally blocking the approach of Filipino ships. China was angry at the Philippines because of the continued presence of eight Filipino marines on Second Thomas Reef. Today’s successful resupply mission leaves the marines well stocked. China says this is an intolerable affront to Chinese sovereignty. This sort of statement is how China warns victims that an attack is coming and the Philippines has asked the United States for some backup here. The U.S. responded by saying it supported peaceful resolution of this dispute. By that the Americans mean they want the Chinese to wait for the recent submission of the dispute to the Permanent Court of Arbitration. This could result in a legal decision by 2015 but China has indicated that it will not abide by any such ruling. Challenging such a decision exposes China to trade sanctions, which would stall economic growth and create a recession that could cause unrest. The Chinese leaders are eager to avoid that. A military assault on the Filipino LST would also create the risk of legal and economic backlash as well as the lesser risk of military escalation. The next step appears to be a tighter blockade of the Filipino garrison to starve them out. Chinese civilian and military ships blocked two earlier efforts by Filipino supply ships to deliver food and water to Second Thomas Reef and stationing more ships there to enforce the blockade might work. The supplies can and have been air dropped. Resupply by air is expensive and uncertain during bad weather. For the last year China has been increasing pressure on the Philippines to remove small detachments of sailors and marines stationed on nine islets and reefs in the Spratly Islands. In particular the Chinese want this detachment, stationed on a World War II era landing ship (the BRP Sierra Madre) removed. The Filipino navy deliberately grounded the LST on Second Thomas Reef in 1999 to provide a place for an observation team. In 2013 Chinese patrol ships came within nine kilometers of the LST, which China insists is there illegally. The Philippines warns China that it will resist any attempts to use force against the grounded ship. The initial response from China was constructing more buildings (on stilts) on nearby Mischief Reef (which is only 126 kilometers from the Philippines’ Palawan Island). Second Thomas Reef and nearby Reed Bank are 148 kilometers west of the Philippines (Palawan Island) and well within the Philippines’s EEZ (Exclusive Economic Zone). Although the EEZ is recognized by international law (and a treaty that China signed and uses to defend waters off its own coast) China says that does not apply here because all the islets in the South China Sea belong to China and there is no room for negotiation on that point.  Most countries in the region (except Japan, which would rather not dwell on this) note that this was how Japan behaved before World War II. Official U.S. policy is to try and get everyone to calm down and be less provocative. American P-3C maritime patrol aircraft regularly fly over the Spratly Islands and photograph Chinese installations and naval activities. This data is shared with the Philippines and perhaps others. China is the biggest offender in the Spratly Island disputes and shows no sign of slowing, or backing, down. Now China is warning the world that it is ready to escalate but is afraid that the world will call their bluff.

 

March 22, 2014: In the United States it was revealed that the United States had been hacking into one of China’s major computer hardware companies (Huawei Technologies) in order to secretly plant Cyber War software to be activated in wartime or to deal with any Chinese aggression. This was no surprise to the Chinese and revealing details enabled China to improve its Cyber War defenses.

Partager cet article

Repost0
7 avril 2014 1 07 /04 /avril /2014 17:35
Japan's New Export Rules Broaden Global Role

 

 

Apr. 5, 2014 By PAUL KALLENDER-UMEZU – Defense News

 

Defense Export Rule Change Could Balance China Threat

 

TOKYO — Japan’s recent decision to set up a regulatory system to export arms should boost Tokyo’s future role in global weapons consortiums and potentially help balance against the threat of China, analysts say.

 

An April 1 decision by the Cabinet of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe approved principles that continue to prohibit Japan from exporting arms to countries involved in conflict and that violate UN resolutions. But they also create a screening mechanism to allow weapons makers to sell arms if they contribute to international cooperation and security interests, and to alliance partners who agree not to resell them to third nations without Japan’s approval.

 

Under the new rules, the ministries of Defense, Foreign Affairs, and Economy, Trade and Industry will screen applications for sales, with the National Security Council making the final decision. The council was set up in December to speed decision-making on defense policy.

 

The new rules codify export relaxations first announced in 2011 under previous Prime Minister Yoshihiko Noda, but with two critical changes, said Satoshi Tsuzukibashi, director of the Defense Production Committee (the Japan Business Federation), Japan’s most powerful industrial and business lobby.

 

New guidelines mandate “strict examination” of all export cases, but with a “flexible” approach that contains a caveat allowing quicker decisions in cases of emergency, for example a contingency on the Korean Peninsula.

 

A second critical change relaxes the 2011 stipulation that every potential sale to a third country be written into any initial development, co-production or licensing deal in advance. Now, applications for sales to third countries will be considered on a case-by-case basis.

 

“This is an important first step forward, as it means, for example, we can export parts for the F-35, which we couldn’t and which Noda didn’t understand, and build in the principle of the ability to export to a range of countries in future deals. We can now negotiate with more countries in good faith. It means we now have a system that opens new doors,” Tsuzukibashi said.

 

An ability to cooperate on programs will be critical because countries are leaning on cost sharing as defense spending in many places falls, said Phil Finnegan, an analyst with the Teal Group.

 

“Cooperation, that is a direction that the industry is going,” Finnegan said. “Japan is now moving in that direction as well.”

 

But Finnegan said opportunity for economic gain through military equipment sales is likely years down the road because of the high manufacturing costs Japanese companies face.

 

“Nothing is going to change quickly; maybe in the long run, they can play a role in the international market,” he said. “It’s a very insular industry, and by its nature, it’s going to be expensive.”

 

Japan’s actions have become a hotly debated regional issue, with both South Korea and China signaling concern that the rule changes show Japan is on the path to remilitarization, and calling for “transparency.”

 

Jun Okumura, a visiting scholar at the Meiji Institute for Global Affairs, said the new regulations represent a significant change for Japan, not because Japan is remilitarizing but because the decision draws Japan closer to the US and to other global partners, a worrying development for China.

 

“Yes, Abe is chipping away at the postwar pacifist regime, and the question is how far Abe wants to change Japan. But he won’t go ‘all out’ ” and remilitarize, Okumura said. “The point is, he is aware of the repercussions for the Japan-US alliance, and anything that reinforces that alliance is a negative for China as they extend a more aggressive policy of projecting their military power.”

 

Critics offer both prosaic and deeper concerns that they avoid mentioning publicly, said Narushige Michishita, director of the Security and International Studies Program at the National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies.

 

“China and South Korea are proactive in selling their weapons overseas, and in a way, they are concerned about Japan becoming a competitor,” he said.

 

Michishita said Japan wants to play a more active role in maintaining Asia’s balance of power, so the changes will build a “win-win-win” situation not only for the US, but for Japan’s increasingly important partnerships with Australia, South Korea and India. This extends to emerging Southeast Asian countries, particularly the Philippines and Vietnam, all of whom are increasingly concerned about China, he said.

 

“If it’s possible to sell arms to the US [that South Korea might not want to buy from us], Australia, India and partners in Southeast Asia, our targets include the Philippines and Vietnam; it’s a great step forward. By providing arms to these countries we can make money, we can balance China, and strengthen and institutionalize our partnerships and empower these countries. It’s a win-win-win situation,” Michishita said.

 

Since Japan’s defense industrial base accounts for less than 1 percent of the country’s industrial output, and its defense products often cost multiples of the prices of US gear, it may be some time before the Mitsubishi conglomerate’s three diamonds are emblazoned on radar kits globally.

 

“Japanese weapons are not battle tested, and problems with Sumitomo Heavy Industries machine guns were covered up for many, many years, so we don’t know if potential buyers can trust Japanese systems,” Michishita said.

 

Nonetheless, Japan has a smorgasbord of specific, component level and small systems technologies, wrapped in a huge swath of dual-use technology that it can bring to future partnerships.

 

Just recently, for example, Japan politely walked away from attempts by Turkey to buy Type 10 (TK-X) lightweight main battle tanks, which one analyst said contained capabilities that emerging countries are eager to obtain. Other technologies include the Type 99 155mm self-propelled howitzer, specialized armor, and sensor and radar technologies.

 

They also extend to aero and marine engine technologies, including Soryu-class diesel-electric submarines fitted with air-independent propulsion systems, which are sought after by Australia in particular, Michishita said.

 

“Japan’s defense budget is due to grow an extra 2 percent annually over the next five years, but while that is small in real terms, this growth will be augmented when and if Japanese companies engage in [international] consortiums in the joint development of next- or next-next generation weapons,” Okumura said.

 

There also is great potential in Japan’s dual-use capabilities, he said, which range from electronics and sensors to information technology products to advanced materials and carbon and composite technologies. These include excellence in partially or highly integrated technologies like those found in Mitsubishi Heavy Industries’ advanced MRJ commercial passenger jet.

 

“The good news is [that] in parallel with this progress in terms of arms sales, the Japanese government has made a decision to promote dual-use science and technology,” Michishita said.

 

“Certainly, in a best-case scenario, as we’ll be able to purchase more, unit costs will go down and we might be able to exercise some kind of influence on international security while we can ease our fiscal difficulties,” he said. “But by also engaging in international joint research and procurement, we can boost our competitiveness, and make and procure better weapons systems at lower prices.”

 

But Paul Giarra, president of Global Strategies & Transformation, warned that the change won’t necessarily tie Japan to feeding the US, and it could, in fact, help Japan emerge as a competitor.

 

“This is a most important development. Whatever the government manages will be consequential, but developments will not work out in a straight line,” Giarra said.

 

“Also, many appear to think that somehow this will give priority to American interests, but I disagree. American defense technology and industrial interests will have to compete with other global alternatives from which Japan will choose. This will be an uncomfortable competition for some,” he said.

 

Tsuzukibashi said such concerns would take a long time to materialize, although such a scenario is possible.

 

“There is this image of the Zero-sen [fighter plane], but that was a long time ago during World War II,” he said. “Japan’s defense base is not that strong, we don’t have the size, and [in] the technology to compete with companies such as Lockheed Martin or BAE, we are no threat.”■

 

Zachary Fryer-Biggs contributed to this report.

Partager cet article

Repost0
7 avril 2014 1 07 /04 /avril /2014 11:35
Chuck Hagel, patron de la Défense américaine, sur le porte-avions chinois

 

 

07 avril 2014 Romandie.com (AFP)

 

QINGDAO (Chine) - Le secrétaire américain à la Défense, Chuck Hagel, est arrivé lundi en Chine pour une visite de trois jours qu'il a inaugurée par une visite à bord du premier porte-avions chinois, symbole des ambitions navales de Pékin.

 

Chuck Hagel a atterri en provenance du Japon dans la ville portuaire de Qingdao (est) qui abrite la grande base navale de Yuchi et le porte-avions Liaoning, entré en service en septembre 2012.

 

Le responsable américain a ainsi été le premier étranger à monter à son bord, une visite jugée significative par un haut responsable militaire américain, à l'heure où Washington cherche à établir un dialogue avec Pékin pour désamorcer les tensions régionales et l'encourager à plus de transparence en matière de défense.

 

Nous avons sollicité (cette visite du porte-avions) et ils l'ont accordée, a déclaré ce responsable sous couvert de l'anonymat, soulignant que le Liaoning symbolise les ambitions de l'APL (Armée populaire de libération) de projection d'une puissance navale.

 

La presse étrangère n'a pas été autorisée à accompagner le chef du Pentagone sur la base navale.

 

De conception soviétique, le Liaoning est un porte-avions à propulsion conventionnelle dont le rayon d'action est ainsi beaucoup plus limité que ses homologues américains à propulsion nucléaire. Il ne dispose pas de système de catapulte pour les décollages.

 

Les ambitions navales chinoises ne laissent pas d'inquiéter le Japon et d'autres pays de la région qui ont des différends territoriaux avec Pékin en mer de Chine orientale ou méridionale.

 

Pour souligner la détermination de Washington, M. Hagel avait annoncé dimanche l'envoi en 2017 au Japon de deux navires équipés du système antimissile Aegis en plus de ceux déjà présents, pour répondre à la menace nord-coréenne.

 

Dimanche également, M. Hagel avait mis en garde Pékin contre tout action unilatérale pour résoudre ses contentieux territoriaux, en invoquant le précédent ukrainien.

 

Tous les pays ont droit au respect, qu'ils soient grands ou petits, avait-il déclaré après une rencontre avec son homologue japonais, Itsunori Onodera, ajoutant: Je veux en parler avec nos amis chinois.

 

A Pékin mardi, le chef du Pentagone doit s'entretenir avec son homologue chinois, le général Wang Wanquan, avant un discours devant l'Académie militaire chinoise.

 

Le Japon est depuis l'automne 2012 en très mauvais termes avec la Chine en raison d'un conflit territorial et des querelles liées à l'Histoire.

 

Pékin revendique sous le nom de Diaoyu un archipel inhabité en mer de Chine orientale que Tokyo administre sous le nom de Senkaku.

 

Le Liaoning est le premier d'une série de quatre porte-avions dont la Chine entend se doter. La presse officielle a annoncé en janvier que les travaux de construction du second porte-avions avaient commencé et dureraient six ans.

 

Les premiers escadrons de l'aéronavale chinoise devraient compter 30 appareils et être opérationnels dès la fin de l'année à partir du Liaoning.

 

La flotte chinoise s'est considérablement renforcée et modernisée ces dernières années, avec de nouveaux sous-marins et des frégates lance-missiles notamment.

 

Le président chinois Xi Jinping a affiché ouvertement son ambition de faire de la Chine une puissance navale, posant de facto un défi à la domination américaine dans le Pacifique.

 

Attendu dans la soirée à Pékin, le secrétaire américain à la Défense a été accueilli à son arrivée par des officiers chinois et le nouvel ambassadeur américain à Pékin, Max Baucus.

Partager cet article

Repost0
4 avril 2014 5 04 /04 /avril /2014 07:35
China to Get Former Greek Zubr Hovercrafts

 

 

3 April 2014 asian-defence.net

 

Greek government has given the green light for the Hellenic Navy to sell its four Russian-built Zubr landing ships to China, Hong Kong newspaper reported.

 

At more than five hundred tons, the Zubr is the world's largest hovercraft. The massive ships can carry up to three tanks and at least 300 troops over hundreds of miles of ocean, and can also lay mines.

 

The People's Liberation Army Navy already operates several Zubrs, with the most recent vessel delivered from Ukraine several weeks ago. Chinese units differ from the Russian originals, featuring a stealthy version of the AK-630 cannon, a Type 364 search radar, and the locally-produced OFC-3 optical fire control device.

 

Hellenic Navy staff spokesman Kleftos Priapos confirmed the sale in an interview.

 

"As the Zubrs were all constructed in either Russia or Ukraine, the sale of these hovercraft does not violate any current NATO rules against arms transfers to China," said Priapos in response to questions from Filipino reporters. "This is a perfectly legal transfer, and besides, we need the funds."

 

Priapos cut short the interview after several Filipino reporters became visibly agitated, sources report. It cannot be confirmed whether Priapos forcibly ejected the reporters for "rubbing him the wrong way" with aggresive questioning, as YouTube commentators have claimed.

 

Reports of the sale have alarmed many in the Philippines, which is embroiled in a fractious territorial row with China over the disputed Spratley Islands. Filipino troops are still involved in a rigid standoff with the Chinese military on the tiny Scarborough Shoal, which both countries claim.

 

Chinese military officials declined to release a statement, but reports indicate that the first of the newly purchased Zubrs, numbered 1337 (formerly the Zakynthos), will be delivered at the end of this year.

Partager cet article

Repost0
3 avril 2014 4 03 /04 /avril /2014 17:55
Accès aux espaces communs et grandes stratégies : vers un nouveau jeu mondial



03/04/2014 Frédéric Ramel - IRSEM

 

Espaces non-terrestres accessibles à tous mais détenus par personne tels que l’espace aérien international, l’espace extra-atmosphérique, la haute mer et le cyber, les global commons ne sont plus « contrôlés » par les Etats-Unis. Aujourd’hui, la rivalité des puissances émergentes s’intensifie, se traduisant par une posture dite de « déni d’accès » aux dépens des forces armées américaines : c’est-à-dire une forme de campagne conduite à de longues distances qui peut aller jusqu’à une interdiction de zone. Une telle configuration entraîne l’élaboration d’une nouvelle Grande stratégie aux Etats-Unis ayant comme visée de maintenir les flux dans mais aussi et surtout l’accès à ces espaces. L’objectif de la présente étude consiste à analyser les caractéristiques conceptuelles et doctrinales des global commons dans la production officielle de l’administration Obama (de la QDR 2010 aux documents préparatoires de celle de 2014) mais aussi à identifier la manière dont la Chine et la Russie incorporent cet enjeu dans leur propre posture stratégique. Ce qui permet d’identifier un nouveau grand jeu mondial pour cette première moitié de XXIème siècle assez éloigné de la perspective classique d’un grand échiquier ayant l’eurasie comme cible. Il a pour objet central la liberté de mouvement dans les espaces communs. Il n’est pas non plus sans conséquences comme les tendances à la militarisation de ces espaces. Cette étude entend également mettre en relief deux autres apports pour la pensée stratégique : une homologie entre les espaces communs favorable à des options offensives, ainsi qu’une conception extensive de « l’état de guerre ».

 

Etude de l'IRSEM n°30 - 2014

 

Partager cet article

Repost0
3 avril 2014 4 03 /04 /avril /2014 17:45
Atalante : Exercice Golden Star avec la marine chinoise

3 avr. 2014  FORCESFRANCAISES

 

Les 19 et 20 mars 2014, dans le Golfe d'Aden, à l'Est de Djibouti, le Transport chalands de débarquement (TCD) Siroco a participé à une série d'exercices avec un groupe de navires de la marine Chinoise.

Partager cet article

Repost0
3 avril 2014 4 03 /04 /avril /2014 07:35
Xichang satellite launch centre

Xichang satellite launch centre

 

Apr 03, 2014 Spacewar.com (Voice of Russia)

 

Moscow  - To compensate the frustration over the endless search for missing the Malaysian airliner, Chinese scientists have doubled efforts to promote their project of a huge satellites network, which will enable Beijing to monitor the whole world.

 

As the mission to find the passenger jet MH370 which disappeared off the radars on March 8 with 239 people on board, 153 of them Chinese, is yet to yield to any substantial result, the space surveillance net project is gaining strong backing from key government officials in Beijing, the South China Morning Post reports.

 

China currently has satellites in the orbit but they largely focus on its region and surrounding area. The exact number of them is a state secret.

 

"If we had a global monitoring network today, we wouldn't be searching in the dark. We would have a much greater chance to find the plane and trace it to its final position. The plan is being drafted to expand our regional monitoring capability," Professor Chi Tianhe, a researcher at the Chinese Academy of Sciences' Institute of remote Sensing and Digital Earth, told the SCMP.

 

After the Malaysian Boeing 777 went missing, the Chinese Academy of Engineering submitted a letter from senior scientists to state leaders advising them to begin building a global satellite-surveillance network.

 

If the project is given the green light by the Chinese government it could be up and running in as little as two years from now, says Chi. But it won't be cheap, a satellite costs 400 million Yuan ($64 million) to build, this would mean the project as a whole would need a budget of at least 20 billion Yuan.

 

According to statistics from the US-based Union of Concerned Scientists there are about 1,000 satellites currently orbiting the earth, but the vast majority of those are for communication and only about 150 are for observation, remote sensing and military-surveillance.

 

Professor Liu Yu, an expert at Peking's University's school of earth and space sciences, believes the project could be game changing for China's ability to spy from space.

 

"International earth-observation services today are dominated by the US and European countries, but if China launches more than 50 satellites for this purpose, the whole landscape will be changed," said Liu.

 

But the project is by no means set in stone and it faces a number of technological hurdles. One of them is that the existing space centers in Jiuguan, Taiyuan and Xichang are involved in other missions, like manned space flights and plans to explore the Moon.

 

At the moment China launches about 15 satellites every year, but this would need to be at least doubled.

 

Space experts believe that with an upgrade at the Wenchang launch center in Hainan, which is now complete, it might be possible to increase China's rocket capacity and thereby make the project possible.

 

While the quality of the imaging equipment also needs to be improved, says Liu.

 

Professor Zhao Chaofang, an oceanographer at the Ocean University of China in Qingdao, also said that China needs to develop more ground stations, to ease and speed up sending data back to earth.

 

"Many Chinese satellites can only offload their data when they are flying over China, so the data we receive is sometimes only a fraction of the amount collected by the satellites. To build up a global monitoring network as efficient as that of the US, our ground stations overseas must be expanded as well," he said.

Partager cet article

Repost0
2 avril 2014 3 02 /04 /avril /2014 11:30
China’s Push for Turkish Missile Sale


 

April 2, 2014 defense-aerospace.com

(Source: The International Relations and Security Network; issued March 28, 2014)

 

Is The FD-2000 An Albatross Or A Raptor-Killer?

 

Why is China proposing to sell FD-2000 anti-aircraft missiles to Turkey? James Hasik thinks there are three possible reasons – Turkey is impressed with the system, China isn’t expecting a military confrontation with America any time soon, or internal disputes are clouding Beijing’s decision-making processes.

 

The Hurriyet Daily News reported [...] that enthusiasm has begun to wane amongst local subcontractors in CPMIEC’s proposed sale of FD-2000 anti-aircraft missile batteries to Turkey. CPMIEC has been blacklisted by the US government under the Iran, North Korea and Syria Nonproliferation Act, and Turkish firms are wary of winding up on the wrong side of the world’s biggest customer. As early as last October, Raytheon and Eurosam (MBDA and Thales’s joint venture) were asked to extend their pricing, and the bidding was again extended in January, so this deal is hardly done. Yet unexplained remains the motivation from the Chinese side. Why did Beijing allow CPMIEC to offer an important missile system to a NATO ally of the United States?

 

The actual quality of the product is hard to discern through public sources, and the heritage can be confusing. The FD-2000 is the export version of the HQ-9, itself originally a clone of the S-300 from Russia’s Almaz-Antey. Allied governments assuredly have better information. As I wrote earlier, the Slovak Air Force first brought its S-300s to a NATO exercise in 2005. The Hellenic Air Force has had 12 launchers since 2000, and test-fired some missiles back in December. The Bulgarians have the weapon too. Consider the Croatian battery that was actually sold to the US in 2003, and you can guarantee that the S-300 has been analyzed down to the smallest screw.

 

The Chinese missile is not quite the same, though it’s not clear whether it’s better or worse. Many Chinese companies are excellent contract manufacturers, and the industry may have tricked out the old Soviet technology. The record, however, is not good. Chinese efforts to copy Russian aircraft and engines have been thus far unimpressive, so one might wonder about the radars and missiles too. Indeed, in one second-hand report, I heard the FD-2000 described as the air defense equivalent "of a 1991 Hyundai.” Even at a Volkswagen price, that’s not a good deal.

 

But actual quality is not the issue: what matters in discerning motivation is Chinese perception of that quality. So suppose that the Chinese government actually would agree that the FD-2000 is effectively junk. Selling it to Turkey would put it into the NATO exercise cycle, and as many as 20 air forces could eventually fly against it to test its mettle. If CPMIEC had indeed sold the Turks a $3 billion albatross, word would get around, and the brand image of Chinese weapons would drop even lower than it is today. The Americans would be expected to grasp just how unimpressive China’s air defenses really were. So it’s unlikely that the export version could really be much less impressive than the domestic model.

 

On the other hand, over at Airpower Australia, Carlo Kopp and Peter Goon are much more impressed with the HQ-9, and it’s conceivable that their sources are Chinese and trustworthy. Suppose then that the Chinese government is quite proud of the quality of the FD-2000. Selling it to Turkey would put it into the NATO exercise cycle, and as many as 20 air forces could eventually fly against it. Then, if the FD-2000 were indeed a Raptor-killer, the Americans could be expected eventually to have a full understanding of just how impressive China’s air defenses really were. But they might not stay impressive for long, as the Americans would furiously work on countermeasures, and with the actual threat system in hand. So it’s unlikely that the Chinese expect to rely on a weapon like the FD-2000 for defense against the US.

 

This leaves at least three possibilities. The first is that the Chinese have advanced so far in air defense technology that the HD-2000 will be at least modestly impressive to the Turks and their allies, but still nothing compared to what the HQ-9 really is. That certainly would fit with the image that the most alarmed observers hold of China’s ballistic missile technology. But again, the track record in other areas in less impressive.

 

The second possibility is that the Chinese don’t care, as they consider the prospect of war with the United States quite remote. In that figuring, the posturing over shoals in the South China Sea, the bumper-car games with American ships, the Hainan Island incident, and every other “act of belligerent idiocy from Beijing," as Sydney Freedberg recently termed the histrionics, really are just a game. They’re all stage-managed Cold War antics, just like the Soviets used to enjoy. The bluster and the accompanying military modernization campaign is to show that China is not just the world’s outsourced manufacturing floor, but a modern state that should be taken seriously politically. They could do this with far more class and subtlety, but a variety of factors foreign and domestic keep them on the edge.

 

The third possibility is that the Chinese decision wasn’t all that strategically coherent. Perhaps this intended sale is not the result of a deep calculation by the Chinese government, but instead the outcome of a power-contest among Chinese elites, or the resultant of the military’s export sales regime just doing what it does.

 

Unfortunately, there is no clear evidence to support any of these scenarios. The first could be rather comforting around the Pacific Rim, depending on Chinese intentions. The second is quite unsettling for the US and its allies in that region. The third is intriguing, and would argue for a greater effort to understand Chinese interagency politics. Regardless, if the Chinese have badly misjudged their own product, we would know—assuming that the deal closes—when the Turks start howling. If they do know what they’re selling, we might never know—or just not know until the shooting starts.

Partager cet article

Repost0
2 avril 2014 3 02 /04 /avril /2014 07:35
Sweden Sells UAVs to China

 

4/3/2014 IsraelDefense

 

The Swedish CybAero will sell unmanned helicopters to China, in an order estimated at $7.5 million. The helicopters is destined to be operated from ships by the Chinese costumer

 

CybAero, a vertical lift UAV developer, said the Swedish Agency for Non-Proliferation and Export Controls approved export permits for a $7.5 million order a Chinese customer placed for its APID 60 unmanned helicopter, the company’s largest order, as published on ainonline website.

The approval of the transaction seems puzzling given the fact that similar transactions by Israeli manufacturers were vetoed by the US.

In a press release, CybAero said the end user will operate the APID60 from ships. The company will begin deliveries later this year.

“We are extremely excited about the confidence we received from the customer. This is our biggest-ever order and proof that we are an interesting provider in a geographic market that is rapidly growing in use and needs of our system,” said Mikael Hult, CybAero CEO

CybAero, based in Linköping, Sweden, was formed in 2003 from a research collaboration between Linköping University and the Swedish Defense Research Agency dating to 1992. The company became profitable in 2010.

The APID 60 is the successor to CyAero’s earlier APID 55, which the company developed with funding and technical assistance from Saab Aerosystems. In 2004, CybAero signed its first major contract to supply seven APID 55 systems to the UAE armed forces.

Partager cet article

Repost0
2 avril 2014 3 02 /04 /avril /2014 07:35
Crimea and South China Sea Diplomacy

 

April 01, 2014 By Sophie Boisseau du Rocher & Bruno Hellendorff – The Diplomat

 

Russia’s big move shows both the limits and importance of diplomacy in territorial disputes.

 

On March 18, China and ASEAN gathered in Singapore to pursue consultations on a Code of Conduct (COC) for the South China Sea, alongside talks on the implementation of the Declaration of Conduct (DOC). The gathering came at a time of rising preoccupation over a perceived creeping assertiveness by China in pursuing its maritime claims. Just one week before, Manila and Beijing experienced another diplomatic row, after Chinese Coast Guard vessels barred the resupply of Philippine marines based in the Spratly Islands.

In broader terms, several high-profile developments have hinted that China is becoming more inclined to consider the threat and use of force as its preferred vehicle for influence in the South China Sea. China’s considerable maritime build-up has been accompanied by the merging of its maritime agencies into a unified Coast Guard unit, the publication of maps with a 10-dash line covering Chinese claims in the South China Sea, and even the announcement of an Air Defense Identification Zone (ADIZ) in the East China Sea, covering the disputed Senkaku/Diaoyu islands. All have contributed to turning the South China Sea into “Asia’s cauldron,” as one renowned expert titled his last book. A widely circulated photograph picturing Chinese sailors forming the slogan “The Chinese dream, the dream of a strong military” on the deck of the Liaoning did nothing to help mitigate nervousness over Chinese aims and strategy in the region.

The timing of these China-ASEAN discussions coincided with rising tensions in Eastern Europe around the fate of Crimea. In recent days, neither international law nor European pressure have proved of much value in the face of Russian resolve. Illegal in many respects, the Crimean referendum was still deemed valid in Moscow, which subsequently annexed the region. The Ukrainian military bases in Crimea were rapidly overwhelmed by pro-Russian forces as the last vestiges of political control from Kiev were swept aside, making a return to status quo ante increasingly remote. Russia clearly has the upper hand in Crimea. It successfully promoted its interests through a combination of intimidation and crawling assertiveness while answering European and American criticisms by pointing to Western interventions in Kosovo and Libya. The larger consequences of this strategy for Euro-Russian relations and stability in Eastern Europe remain unclear. However, this demonstration of how, in certain situations, force prevails over diplomacy, a notion long fought by the European Union, has opened a new Pandora’s box.

Certainly, Russia’s bid to bend international norms in its favor through the use of force, and Western reactions to it are being watched with great interest, and probably some trepidation, in Beijing and Southeast Asia. Whether the Crimea issue will have influence in Southeast Asia, in the context of competing territorial claims, is far from clear. However, the Crimean and South China Sea issues have several elements in common. One of the most prominent is the complexity of managing—let alone solving—territorial disputes, especially when dealing with an evolving power. Another is that both cases stress the necessity but limited efficacy of diplomacy.

Confronted with a complex and contradictory China, Southeast Asian countries may derive a sense of urgency from developments in the Crimea. For ASEAN and its members, the crucial question may well be whether they can succeed in convincing China of the long-term benefits of diplomacy over force and fait accompli. It may well be ASEAN’s last chance: Negotiations began 22 years ago, in 1992, and have yet to produce convincing results for either party. If the 2002 Declaration reaffirmed a commitment to international law and freedom of navigation, there has been obvious evidence of unilateralism by certain parties, be they the Filipino government, the Chinese military or even the Hainan authorities. The case may be pressed further in light of the Crimea events: should a Code of Conduct be effectively agreed, with—as China made clear—no deadline for its actual implementation, will it suffice to curtail national frustration from any party, limit tensions and therefore avoid escalation?

Diplomacy is important. It is the channel through which the different stakeholders can showcase and explain their diverging perceptions and interests, communicate, negotiate, and ultimately create a path to de-escalation and stabilization for future common benefit. But it could also prove limited in that it is largely dependent on power configurations and functions under a series of conventions and norms that can either facilitate or constrain discussions. In the Crimean and South China Sea cases, diplomacy is largely, yet not exclusively, undertaken under the particular framework of one international institution (the EU or ASEAN) engaging one great power (Russia or China). Facilitating discussions is the fact that in both situations, stakeholders are connected through a series of strong economic, political and institutional interests. The bad news is that these networks of interests look rather fragile when history becomes a self-asserted, and emotional, argument. Moreover, internal divisions within both the EU and ASEAN have the consequence of blurring the common vision that their members may seek to promote, weakening their negotiating position and constraining the options available to their diplomats. In both cases, the basic worry for the EU and ASEAN alike is to come up with a compelling response to political and military resolve, with international law and negotiations offering little assistance.

The Singapore round of consultations on a Code of Conduct in the South China Sea produced no notable progress. That is not much of a surprise to experts already of the opinion that the very process is merely cosmetic and deserving of little attention, arguing that China will not give way on what it considers its national and sovereign territory. Other authors have explained that Chinese diplomats are content with the DoC, and will not push for quick progress on a CoC as the latter would inevitably hurt the national interest. Such speculation and doubt over the scope and effectiveness of the negotiations did not alter ASEAN’s official line: sanctions do not help; consultations are always better. Will the future prove that correct? It appears that ASEAN’s bet is to prove that China sees an interest in these talks and would gain in following certain rules not just in terms of image and status but also in promoting its views and “dream” through an ASEAN platform.

Before the recent events in Crimea, ASEAN’s diplomacy was considered adequate by most stakeholders—with the possible exception of the Philippines, which nonetheless ceaselessly appealed to the bloc for help. All claimant countries and their neighbors found an interest in pursuing dual-track negotiations with China, bilateral and multilateral, the latter stage mainly serving, via ASEAN, communication purposes. But now may be the time to consider adding more substance to the discussions, and more glue to the Southeast Asian claimants.

The Crimea is far from the South China Sea, and the two contexts certainly differ in many respects. But Russia’s bold move has shown that resorting to international law to contain a great power’s resolve is not always effective. Even in Moscow, few would disagree, pointing to the invasion of Libya or that of Iraq as counterexamples. Whether the events of the Crimea provide lessons to Chinese and ASEAN diplomats is unknown, but they have made a Code of Conduct for the South China Sea an urgent diplomatic imperative. Success would showcase China’s “peaceful rise” as it would ASEAN’s diplomatic capacity. The efforts of both partners to create stability and security would also be welcome news to a heavily challenged international community.

 

* Bruno Hellendorff is a Research Fellow and Dr. Sophie Boisseau du Rocher is an Associate Researcher at the Group for Research and Information on Peace and Security, Brussels.

Partager cet article

Repost0
1 avril 2014 2 01 /04 /avril /2014 07:35
Lutte antiterroriste: l'OCS tiendra un exercice en Chine

 

 

MOSCOU, 31 mars - RIA Novosti

 

Les pays membres de l'Organisation de coopération de Shanghai (OCS) tiendront fin août en Chine un exercice antiterroriste baptisé Mission de paix 2014, a annoncé lundi le porte-parole de la Région militaire Est (Russie), le lieutenant-colonel Alexandre Gordeïev.

 

"Les représentants des délégations militaires de la Région militaire Est et leurs collègues de Chine, du Kirghizstan et du Tadjikistan ont convenu de tenir l'exercice Mission de paix 2014 dans la dernière décade d'août sur le polygone de Zhurihe situé dans la Région autonome de Mongolie intérieure (Chine)", a déclaré M. Gordeïev.

 

Lors de l'exercice, la Russie sera représentée par plus de 600 militaires de troupes motorisées. Il s'agit notamment d'éléments motorisés et blindés, d'une batterie d'obusiers automoteurs et d'une unité de DCA. L'exercice doit également réunir plus de 100 unités de matériel de guerre et d'équipements spéciaux.

 

Le troisième volet des consultations sur la planification de l'exercice antiterroriste Mission de paix 2014 aura lieu fin mai-début juin.

 

Créée en juin 2001 à Shanghai, l'OCS est une organisation régionale qui regroupe à ce jour la Russie, la Chine, le Kazakhstan, le Kirghizistan, le Tadjikistan et l'Ouzbékistan. L'organisation compte également cinq Etats observateurs (Afghanistan, Inde, Iran, Mongolie et Pakistan) et trois partenaires de discussion: la Biélorussie, le Sri Lanka et la Turquie.

Partager cet article

Repost0
30 mars 2014 7 30 /03 /mars /2014 18:50
La Défense prend en charge la cérémonie d'accueil du président chinois

30 mars 2014  Belgian Defense

 

Grâce à la contribution de la Défense, le président chinois Xi Jinping a pu profiter d'une impressionnante cérémonie d'accueil. Celle-ci s'est déroulée le 30 mars sur la Place des Palais à Bruxelles. Le Chef de la Défense était également présent et a inspecté les troupes avant le début de la cérémonie.

Partager cet article

Repost0
29 mars 2014 6 29 /03 /mars /2014 22:35
La Russie livrera des missiles S-400 à la Chine (journal)

 

MOSCOU, 28 mars - RIA Novosti

 

La Chine deviendra le premier pays étranger à acheter les nouveaux systèmes de défense antiaérienne russes S-400 Triumph, rapporte vendredi le journal Kommersant citant des sources proches du dossier.

 

Selon le quotidien, les parties sont en train de négocier le nombre de systèmes à livrer ainsi que le montant final du contrat, dont la conclusion a été approuvée par le président Vladimir Poutine début 2014.

 

Le consortium Almaz-Anteï, qui produit les S-400, a déjà livré les premiers systèmes à l'armée russe, qui devra en compter 28 à l'horizon 2020. Dans le même temps, le ministère de la Défense poursuit la conception d'un système de missiles de cinquième génération S-500.

 

D'après Kommersant, l'achat des S-400 permettra à la Chine de contrôler non seulement son propre espace aérien, mais également celui de Taiwan ainsi que le ciel au-dessus des îles Senkaku/Diaoyu, qui constituent l'objet d'un litige territorial entre Pékin et Tokyo.

 

Depuis plusieurs années la Chine figure dans le top 5 des importateurs mondiaux de matériel militaire russe. Ainsi, en 2013, Pékin a acheté des armes et des équipements russes pour plus de 1,8 milliard de dollars.

 

Le S-400 Triumph (code Otan: SA-21 Growler) est un système de missiles sol-air de grande et moyenne portée destiné à abattre tout type de cible aérienne: avions, drones et missiles de croisière hypersoniques. Le système est capable de tirer simultanément 72 missiles sur 36 cibles éloignées à une distance de 400 km.

La Russie livrera des missiles S-400 à la Chine (journal)

Partager cet article

Repost0
29 mars 2014 6 29 /03 /mars /2014 22:30
Turquie : un haut responsable de la défense démis de ses fonctions

 

28/03/2014 lorientlejour.com (AFP)

 

Le président turc Abdullah Gül a démis de ses fonctions le secrétaire d'Etat aux Industries de défense Murat Bayar, réputé favorable à l'achat par la Turquie de missiles sol-air à un groupe chinois controversé, ont rapporté vendredi les médias turcs.

 

Les raisons du départ de M. Bayar, qui dirigeait depuis dix ans dans ces fonctions les grands programmes d'armement turcs, n'ont pas été précisées.

 

Ankara a annoncé en septembre avoir retenu l'entreprise China Precision Machinery Import-Export Corporation (CPMIEC) pour l'acquisition de missiles sol-air de longue portée Hongqi, un contrat estimé à 4 milliards de dollars (2,9 milliards d'euros).

 

La Turquie a justifié son choix par des raisons de prix et de transferts de technologies.

 

La préférence accordée par les Turcs à cette entreprise, qui fait l'objet de sanctions américaines pour avoir livré des armes à l'Iran et à la Syrie en dépit d'un embargo, a irrité ses alliés de l'Otan, notamment les Etats-Unis.

 

La Turquie a alors autorisé les concurrents de CPMIEC --l'américain Raytheon, la russe Rosoboronexport et la franco-italienne Eurosam-- à préciser leurs offres.

 

L'annonce du remplacement de M. Bayar intervient au lendemain de la fuite retentissante sur internet du compte-rendu d'une réunion confidentielle de hauts responsables turcs évoquant une éventuelle intervention militaire en Syrie.

Partager cet article

Repost0
29 mars 2014 6 29 /03 /mars /2014 13:45
Atalante : Exercice Golden Star

 

 

28/03/2014 Sources : EMA

 

Les 19 et 20 mars 2014, dans le Golfe d’Aden, à l’Est de Djibouti, le Transport chalands de débarquement (TCD) Siroco a participé à une série d’exercices avec un groupe de navires de la marine Chinoise.

 

Aux côtés de la frégate allemande Hessen, unité de la force Atalante, le Siroco, navire amiral de la force Atalante, a pris part à un exercice conjoint entre la force de l’Union européenne Atalante et deux bateaux de la marine chinoise, la frégate Yancheng et le pétrolier-ravitailleur Taihu.

 

Une délégation de chaque navire a préalablement rallié le TCD Siroco pour définir le tempo des différentes interactions. Les 4 navires ont commencé leur entraînement par une série de manœuvres tactiques et des présentations pour un ravitaillement à la mer avec passage d’une ligne de distance le long du pétrolier Taihu. Les transferts de personnes se sont enchaînés au rythme des vols des trois hélicoptères ou des mouvements d’embarcations rapides entre bâtiments.

 

De leur côté, les équipes de visite françaises, allemandes et chinoises, après avoir réalisé des tirs à l’arme légère depuis le pont d’envol du Hessen, ont effectué en équipes mixtes  sino-européennes,  des simulations de visite de bord sur le Taihu.

 

Cette interaction tripartite a largement contribué au renforcement des liens de confiance mutuelle et de coopération entre les unités de la force navale européenne et la marine chinoise, au bénéfice de la sécurité des voies internationales maritimes de communication dans cette zone clé de la corne d’Afrique.

 

L’opération Atalante a pour mission d’escorter les navires du Programme alimentaire mondial (PAM), de participer à la sécurité du trafic maritime et de contribuer à la dissuasion, à la prévention et à la répression des actes de piraterie au large des côtes somaliennes.

 

La France est un acteur majeur et historique participant à l’opération Atalante depuis ses débuts avec le déploiement régulier de bâtiments de la marine nationale. Le dispositif peut être renforcé ponctuellement d’un avion de patrouille maritime.

Atalante : Exercice Golden Star
Atalante : Exercice Golden Star
Atalante : Exercice Golden Star
Atalante : Exercice Golden Star
Atalante : Exercice Golden Star

Partager cet article

Repost0

Présentation

  • : RP Defense
  • : Web review defence industry - Revue du web industrie de défense - company information - news in France, Europe and elsewhere ...
  • Contact

Recherche

Articles Récents

Categories