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26 juin 2013 3 26 /06 /juin /2013 10:40
Snowden: les menaces US rapprochent Moscou et Pékin (député russe)

MOSCOU, 26 juin - RIA Novosti

 

Les menaces proférées par les autorités américaines à l'égard de Moscou et Pékin sur fond d'affaire Snowden ne feront que consolider les rapports russo-chinois, estime le chef de la commission des Affaires étrangères de la Douma Alexeï Pouchkov.

 

"Les menaces des Etats-Unis à l'égard de la Russie et la Chine en raison de l'affaire Snowden resteront sans résultat et ne feront que rapprocher davantage Moscou et Pékin", a écrit le parlementaire sur son compte Twitter.

 

L'ex-consultant des services secrets américains Edward Snowden a divulgué des informations confidentielles sur les opérations de surveillance électronique effectuées par les Etats-Unis à travers le monde. Dimanche dernier, il est arrivé à Moscou par un vol d'Aeroflot en provenance de Hong-Kong. Washington a demandé à la Russie d'extrader M.Snowden accusé par la justice américaine de transfert illégal d'informations relevant de la sécurité nationale des Etats-Unis, de transfert prémédité de renseignements secrets et de détournement de patrimoine public.

 

Le secrétaire d'Etat US John Kerry a notamment mis en garde la Russie et la Chine contre des "conséquences" sur leurs relations diplomatiques après le vol Hong Kong-Moscou pris par M.Snowden.

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26 juin 2013 3 26 /06 /juin /2013 10:35
Japon: des missiles balistiques pour défendre les îles contestées (journal)

TOKYO, 26 juin - RIA Novosti

 

Le ministère japonais de la Défense étudie la possibilité de mettre au point des missiles balistiques d'une portée de 400 à 500 kilomètres pour empêcher une éventuelle invasion des îles Senkaku/Diaoyu qui font l'objet d'un différend territorial sino-japonais, rapporte mercredi le journal Sankei Shinbun.

 

Un projet détaillé devrait être présenté en juillet dans le cadre de la révision du programme japonais de sécurité nationale. Si le document est approuvé, la conception de nouveaux missiles pourrait commencer dès 2014. Les futurs missiles devraient être déployés à Okinawa, l'île japonaise la plus méridionale.

 

Selon des experts du ministère japonais, les nouveaux missiles seront capables de couvrir une distance de 500 kilomètres en cinq minutes, ce qui permettra d'empêcher toute tentative d'atterrissage sur les îles contestées. Si ce projet est réalisé, les Forces japonaises d'autodéfense seront pour la première fois dotées d'armes offensives à longue portée.

 

Les îles inhabitées Senkaku/Diaoyu sont au centre d'un litige sino-japonais depuis les années 1970. Le Japon affirme qu'il contrôle les îles depuis 1895 et qu'elles n'avaient appartenu à aucun pays avant cette date. La Chine insiste sur le fait que les îles contestées faisaient partie de l'Empire chinois il y a 600 ans. Les Etats-Unis ont administré les îles après la Seconde guerre mondiale. En 1972, les Américains ont remis les îles Senkaku et l'île habitée d'Okinawa au Japon. Taïwan et la Chine continentale contestent la souveraineté japonaise sur les îles Senkaku.

 

En septembre 2012, les tensions sont montées d'un cran entre le Japon et la Chine suite à l'achat par Tokyo de trois îles de l'archipel Senkaku à leurs propriétaires privés. Une vague de manifestations antijaponaises a alors traversé la Chine, tandis que Pékin s'est déclaré prêt à employer tout moyen pour défendre l'intégrité territoriale du pays et la souveraineté de la Chine sur les îles litigieuses.

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25 juin 2013 2 25 /06 /juin /2013 12:35
H6K In flight

H6K In flight

June 25, 2013 by Noam Eshel - defense-update.com

 

The Chinese People’s Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF) recently received 15 Xian H-6K bombers with nuclear capabilities, according to Jane’s Defence Weekly.

 

The H-6K, an updated version of the H-6 bomber (originally, a locally built version of the 1960s vintage Russian Tupolev Tu-16 bomber), is a medium-sized craft designed for long-range attacks, stand-off attacks and large-area air patrol. Unlike its predecessor, the H-6K can carry cruise missiles under its wings. The H6-K also maneuvers more deftly than the H-6 and requires a smaller crew to operate. H-6K reportedly has a combat radius of 3,500 km. It can carry weapons in the internal weapon bay and on four underwing pylons. The nuclear-capable Changjian-10 (long sword) CJ-10A cruise missiles it carries have a range of 1,500-2,000 km, effectively extending the bomber’s combat range to 4,000-5,000 km – long enough to reach Okinawa, Guam and even Hawaii from China’s mainland.

Variants of the CJ-10 anti-ship/land attack cruise missile can be launched from different platforms. Six are carried by Xian H-6K strategic bomber, The missile is also carried on board the Type 095 and 052D destroyers and on land-based mobile launchers.

Variants of the CJ-10 anti-ship/land attack cruise missile can be launched from different platforms. Six are carried by Xian H-6K strategic bomber, The missile is also carried on board the Type 095 and 052D destroyers and on land-based mobile launchers.

Analysts stipulated that PLAAF missiles be able to reach Taiwan, southwestern Japan and Guam, a range of control that requires a 3,000 km combat radius and powerful attack capability. Only the combined combat radius of the H6-K and Changjian-10 strike range currently satisfy the length requirement for those missions.

Chinese Air Force Gets More H-6K Strategic Bombers

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24 juin 2013 1 24 /06 /juin /2013 11:35
La Marine vietnamienne participer à la 15e patrouille navale. (Source: VNA)

La Marine vietnamienne participer à la 15e patrouille navale. (Source: VNA)

23/06/2013 vietnamplus.vn

 

Sur décision du Premier ministre vietnamien et du ministre vietnamien de la Défense, deux navires de la Marine vietnamienne ont levé l'ancre samedi après-midi du port de Dà Nang (Centre) pour participer à la 15e patrouille conjointe avec les forces navales chinoises.

 

Durant cette patrouille conjointe, les navires HQ 01 et HQ 02 participeront avec les navires chinois à des opérations de recherche et de sauvetage, à des échanges d'expériences en la matière.

 

Les 200 officiers et soldats à bord de ces deux navires rendront une visite de courtoisie aux autorités de la ville de Zhan Jiang, province du Guangdong, et au Commandement de la flotte de Nanhai. Ils participeront à des échanges culturels et sportifs avec des unités de ce Commandement et visiteront des sites de la ville.

 

Cette patrouille conjointe vise à renforcer les relations d'amitié, la compréhension et la confiance entre les deux armées et les deux forces navales, de même qu'à élever l'efficacité de la coordination dans la mise en oeuvre de l'accord sur les patrouilles conjointes avec la marine chinoise, ce pour contribuer à maintenir l'ordre et la sécurité dans le golfe du Bac Bô et dans les zones maritimes du Vietnam. L'objectif étant de créer une atmosphère amicale et de réduire les risques de conflits en mer. - VNA

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18 juin 2013 2 18 /06 /juin /2013 07:35
Beijing débute son recrutement militaire auprès des étudiants universitaires

2013-06-17  xinhua

 

Plus de 1.000 représentants venus d'une trentaine d'universités de Beijing ont assisté lundi à une cérémonie organisée pour marquer le début du recrutement militaire auprès des étudiants.

 

Des brochures présentant les politiques de recrutement ont été distribuées, et des responsables ont répondu aux questions des étudiants lors de cet événement conjointement organisé par le ministère de la Défense nationale (MDN) et le ministère de l'Education.

 

Les étudiants ont également eu l'occasion de parler avec Mme Liu Yang, la première femme astronaute du pays. Cette dernière avait participé à la mission spatiale Shenzhou-9 en juin 2012.

 

Les responsables du MDN ont indiqué que les étudiants universitaires profiteraient d'avantages dans les domaines de l'inscription, des examens physiques, de l'admission et des arrangements pour le recrutement militaire.

 

Un service de recrutement en ligne géré par le MDN est prêt à recevoir les candidatures, et le processus de recrutement débutera le 1er août, selon un communiqué publié vendredi à l'issue d'une téléconférence nationale sur le recrutement.

 

Le communiqué indique que la période de recrutement, qui suit la saison de remise des diplômes, encouragera davantage de jeunes diplômés à s'enrôler dans l'armée.

 

L'armée chinoise a commencé à recruter des diplômés universitaires en 2001

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15 juin 2013 6 15 /06 /juin /2013 16:35
Sri Lanka – China relations elevated to a “Strategic cooperation partnership”

 

 

Beijing, 05 June, (Asiantribune.com):

 

President Mahinda Rajapaksa and Chinese President Xi Jinping agreed to elevate Sri Lanka and China relations to a “strategic cooperation partnership” at the summit talks between the two Presidents during President Rajapaksa’s State Visit to China from 27th – 30th May 2013.

 

During the warm and friendly discussion between the two leaders, President Rajapaksa reiterated Sri Lanka’s support for the One-China Policy and President Xi Jinping stated that China was strongly opposed to foreign countries interfering in Sri Lanka’s internal affairs.

 

Also during the discussion both leaders endorsed the early establishment of a Free Trade Agreement (FTA) between the two countries to further enhance mutually beneficial trade. Towards this end an MoU was signed for the immediate constitution of joint committees to initiate this process. With the advent of an FTA, it is expected that market access would be provided in China for Sri Lankan apparels, tea, rubber, gems & jewelry, light industry products etc.

 

Many Agreements in the fields of political, trade, economic & investment, fisheries, defence-related science & technology and youth were signed during the visit.

 

Chinese President Xi Jinping assured China’s continued support for future developmental projects in Sri Lanka. China pledged a grant assistance of RMB 200 million to be utilized for the building of an international convention centre in Kandy and an arts theatre in Anuradhapura.

 

Upgrading of the Colombo National Hospital and the Colombo North General Hospital at Ragama; the extension of the Southern Expressway from Matara to Kataragama and the extension of the Beliatta Kataragama railway track would also receive Chinese assistance. The construction of new water supply schemes for Attanagalla, Minuwangoda and Kurunegala will also commence shortly. The construction of the Colombo – Jaffna Expressway (through Kurunegala) was endorsed during the discussion with an estimated private investment of US$ 1500 million. A US$ 400 million road rehabilitation programme will also be undertaken to complete the remaining national road network including roads in the Jaffna Peninsula and connecting roads to the A9 highway. China also agreed to support Sri Lanka tourism authority to promote the country amongst Chinese tourists to increase arrivals from China to 100,000 by 2015.

 

Endorsing President Rajapaksa’s rural development and economic programme (Divinaguma) initiative, President Xi Jinping offered agriculture equipment and small machineries to Sri Lanka as a means for further capacity building.

 

In further strengthening bilateral cooperation in the field of education a new university township development for Moratuwa University and the development of the National School of Business Management at Homagama were finalized. Other areas discussed for collaboration were the fisheries sector and youth cooperation.

 

Prior to the official talks between the two Presidents, the Chinese President Xi Jinping held a welcome ceremony for President Rajapaksa at the Square outside the East Gate of the Great Hall of the People. Present at the ceremony were Mme. Peng Liyuan, wife of President Xi Jinping, Yan Junqi, Vice Chairwoman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, Yang Jiechi, State Councilor, and Chen Xiaoguang, Vice Chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference. President Xi Jinping and Mme. Peng Liyuan also hosted a dinner banquet for President Rajapaksa, Mme. Rajapaksa and the delegation.

 

During the visit, President Rajapaksa also had a bilateral meeting with Chinese Vice President Li Yuanchao. Vice President Li requested President Rajapaksa to encourage young parliamentarians of Sri Lanka to visit China on Familiarization Programmes on a regular basis with a view to ensuring the continuity of the warm and friendly relations between the two countries. Following the meeting the Chinese Vice President hosted President Rajapaksa, Mme Rajapaksa and the delegation to a luncheon banquet. During the talks with Prime Minister Li Keqiang, both sides spoke highly of the traditional friendship between the two countries and the Chinese Prime Minister reiterated China’s support for future developmental projects in Sri Lanka including the Hambantota Industrial Zone.

 

President Rajapaksa also addressed the distinguished gathering of prominent leaders from foreign governments, the services sector, the business world and academia at the opening ceremony of the Global Services Forum, “Beijing Summit”, organized by UNCTAD together with the Ministry of Commerce of China and the Beijing Municipal Government. The Forum, organized on the occasion of the China International Fair for Trade in Services (CIFTIS), was held at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing and was presided over by Prime Minister Li Keqiang of China. The Forum was a unique platform for promoting trade in services and fostering sustainable development.

 

During the visit President Rajapaksa also addressed the 2013 International Conference of Asian Political Parties (ICAPP) Special Conference on “Promote Green Development & Build a Beautiful Asia Together” organized by the International Department of the Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee and the Shaanxi Provincial Committee of the CPC in Xian. The ICAPP is a forum of political parties from Asian and Oceanic countries and attracted representatives from about 50 political parties from Asian countries and many observers from Latin American and African political parties. While visiting Xian, President Rajapaksa, Mme. Rajapaksa and the delegation were hosted to a dinner banquet by the Governor of Shaanxi Province.

 

President Rajapaksa paid a visit to the Lingguang Temple in Beijing on the first day of his visit and paid homage to the precious tooth relic housed at the Temple and exchanged views on religious and cultural cooperation between the temple and Sri Lanka with the Chief Priest of the Temple. The Chief Priest of Lingguang Temple blessed President Rajapaksa and Mme Rajapaksa and for the peace and prosperity of Sri Lanka.

 

The President of EXIM Bank and the Chairman of China Development Bank paid courtesy calls on President Rajapaksa during the visit and pledged their support and cooperation of the two institutions towards the developmental process in Sri Lanka.

 

On the sidelines of the visit, a Sri Lanka – China Business Forum was held with the participation of top Sri Lankan and Chinese business entrepreneurs. External Affairs Minister G.L. Peiris addressed the gathering and provided an overview of the investment and economic opportunities in Sri Lanka. Minister Peiris also addressed a press conference in Beijing with the participation of about 60 foreign and local journalists.

 

President Rajapaksa, accompanied by the Vice Mayor of Beijing also visited the Sri Lanka Pavillion, organized by the Embassy of Sri Lanka at the China International Fair for Trade in Services (CIFTIS) in collaboration with the Ministry of Economic Development, the Sri Lanka Tourism Promotion Bureau and the Export Development Board of Sri Lanka.

 

At a brief ceremony held at the Embassy of Sri Lanka in Beijing, President Rajapaksa received statues of the Chinese Buddhist monk Fa-Xian and the Chinese navigator Admiral Zheng – He donated by the President of the International Tour Management Association of China, Zhao Xian Zhang for the proposed Sri Lanka – China cultural museum in Galle.

 

First Lady Shiranthi Rajapaksa held warm and friendly talks with the First Lady of China Peng Liyuan and the President of the All China Women’s Federation Shen Yueyue who is also a Vice Chairperson of the National People’s Congress of China.

 

The two countries issued a Joint Communiqué at the end of the visit.

 

President Mahinda Rajapaksa was accompanied by First Lady Shiranthi Rajapaksa; Minister of External Affairs Prof. G.L. Peiris; Minister of Traditional Industries & Small Enterprise Development Douglas Devananda; Minister of Construction, Engineering Service, Housing & Common Amenities Wimal Weerawansa; Namal Rajapaksa M.P.; Monitoring M.P. of the Ministry of External Affairs Sajin de Vaas Gunawardena, A.H.M. Azwer M.P.; Secretary to the President Lalith Weeratunga; Chief of Staff to the President Gamini Senarath; Secretary to the Ministry of Finance & Planning P.B. Jayasundera; Secretary to the Ministry of Highways R.W.R. Premasiri; Sri Lanka’s Ambassador to China Ranjith Uyangoda and senior officials of the Ministry of External Affairs of Sri Lanka.

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14 juin 2013 5 14 /06 /juin /2013 12:35
Snowden: le renseignement US piratait des ordinateurs en Chine (journal)

MOSCOU, 14 juin - RIA Novosti

 

L'ex-employé de la CIA Edward Snowden, auteur des fuites sur l'affaire d'espionnage de données privées Prism, a fourni des documents indiquant que l'Agence américaine de sécurité nationale (NSA) piratait des ordinateurs à Hong Kong et en Chine, écrit vendredi le South China Morning Post.

 

Auparavant, le journal américain Foreign Policy, citant des sources au sein du NSA, a affirmé l'existence au sein de l'Agence d'un Bureau d'accès spécialisé (Tailored Access Operations, TAO), qui aurait espionné dessystèmes informatiques et de communication chinois pendant 15 ans.

 

Selon le South China Morning Post, Snowden aurait fourni une liste d'adresses-IP hébergées à Hong Kong et en Chine continentale soumises à des attaques du NSA depuis 2009.

 

L'ancien employé de la CIA a indiqué que ces informations concernaient uniquement des particuliers et ne contenaient pas de données miliaires.

 

Le Washington Post et The Guardian ont révélé la semaine dernière l'existence d'un réseau mondial de surveillance des échanges par mail, messageries instantanées, téléphone et réseaux sociaux qui impose aux sociétés du secteur américaines, et même étrangères, un accès à leurs serveurs, archives et données d'utilisateurs.

 

Ce programme baptisé Prism permet à la NSA et au FBI d'accéder à des données concernant des personnes vivant hors Etats-Unis via neuf géants de l'Internet, dont Apple, Facebook, Google, Microsoft, PalTalk, Skype, et Yahoo.

 

Le président US Barack Obama a justifié les mesures de surveillance des communications par téléphone et internet qui, selon lui, ne violent "en rien" la Constitution américaine et permettent de protéger la sécurité nationale.

 

Edward Snowden, actuellement réfugié à Hong-Kong, a reconnu avoir transmis les données confidentielles aux journalistes. Il a justifié son geste par un souci de justice et son refus des intrusions dans la vie privée des citoyens américains.

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13 juin 2013 4 13 /06 /juin /2013 16:35
New Nukes Overshadowed By Massive Retirements

June 13, 2013: Strategy Page

 

The great nuclear disarmament that began in the 1990s continues. While China, Pakistan, India and North Korea together added 40-50 warheads, the U.S. and Russia continued to reduce their huge Cold War era nuclear stockpiles by some 1,800 warheads. It was only three years ago that the major powers confirmed how many warheads they had. The holdings were; Britain- 225, France- 300 and the U.S.- 5,113. Unofficially China was believed to have 300, Israel 80, India 70 and Pakistan 75. The U.S. and Russia each had about 2,200 usable warheads and a new treaty in 2010 pledges to reduce that to at least 1,550. The U.S. has 7,700 and Russia 8,500 warheads but most are disassembled or partially disabled. Recycling the nuclear material as power plant fuel takes time.

 

At the end of the Cold War, the U.S. still had over 20,000 warheads. This is way down from its Cold War peak (in 1967) of 31,225.  Since 1945, the U.S. has built over 70,000 nuclear warheads. Only 1,054 were detonated, all but two of them in tests. Detonations ceased, because of a treaty, in 1992. Over the last two decades most of these Cold War era warheads have been demilitarized, and their nuclear material recycled as power plant fuel. This was one of the more successful nuclear disarmament efforts since the Cold War ended. It was a joint effort by the United States, Russia and the successor states of the Soviet Union to round up and secure or destroy thousands of nuclear weapons. It worked. In particular, the smaller weapons (nuclear artillery shells and "backpack" nukes) never fell into terrorist hands.  By the end of the 1990s, Russia reported that it had accounted for, and dismantled all its nuclear armed rocket warheads and artillery shells.

 

All this was accomplished by an agreement between the United States and Russia to account for all Soviet nuclear weapons, and dismantle most of them. The U.S. would provide funding and technical assistance, but the hard work would be carried out by Russian experts and diplomats. Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine inherited nuclear weapons when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991 (and everyone agreed that whatever Soviet assets were on the territory of the 14 new nations created from parts of the Soviet Union, were the property of the new country.) Russia, with the financial and diplomatic help of Western nations, bought and dismantled the nukes owned by those three nations.

 

Russia was quick getting rid of their smaller nuclear warheads because they had fewer of them (than the U.S.) and wanted to rid themselves of a serious security threat. These small weapons were ideal for terrorists, and if the bad ahold of one and used, it could be traced back to the manufacturer (via analysis of the radioactive reside). It took the U.S. another three years to get rid of their small nukes. By the early 1970s, the United States had over 7,000 nuclear warheads stored in Europe, most of them 8 inch and 155mm artillery shells. The last of these was finally dismantled in 2003.

 

Meanwhile, the Russians had other, uniquely Russian, problems. They had a lot (tons) of other highly radioactive material in circulation, much of it in power form, and largely used for medical and industrial purposes. Particularly worrisome are the hundreds of Radiothermal Generators (RTGs) Russia set up in remote parts of the country during the Soviet era. The RTGs were similar to the power supplies found on some space satellites, using radioactive material to generate heat, and thus electricity, for radio beacons and signal repeaters in remote areas. In the early 1990s, the Russians weren't even sure where some of these RTGs were, and there were cases of civilians finding them, cracking them open and being injured, or killed, from the radiation. The Russians noted that there have been many attempts to steal radioactive material in Russia, but none, so far as is known, have succeeded. All of the RTGs were eventually found and destroyed.

 

There was one last problem. Russian officials admitted that, during the 1990s, 5-10 pounds of enriched uranium and several ounces of weapons grade of plutonium had been stolen from their nuclear power facilities. Some of this stuff was later discovered, in small quantities, in Western Europe, Turkey and Russia as the thieves sought to sell it. The amount the Russians admit to losing is not enough to make a bomb, and much of the missing stuff could be accounting and handling errors (both common in the Russian bureaucracy.)

 

In the last two decades, the only radioactive material smuggled out of Russia was small quantities, and usually low-level stuff unsuitable for a bomb. Most Russian nukes have been disassembled and their nuclear material turned into power-plant fuel. The remaining nukes are under very tight security and most of their nuclear scientists were given financial and career incentives (paid for by the U.S.) to leave nuclear weapons work behind. Nevertheless, for two decades, breathless new stories of Russian "loose nukes" were a media staple on slow news days.

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12 juin 2013 3 12 /06 /juin /2013 17:35
Two ex-PLAN frigates Type 053H2 (Jianghu-III) guided missile frigates, the Huangshi (535) and Wuhu (536) from the East Sea Fleet

Two ex-PLAN frigates Type 053H2 (Jianghu-III) guided missile frigates, the Huangshi (535) and Wuhu (536) from the East Sea Fleet

12.06.2013 militaryforces.asia

 

The Bangladesh Navy began a shopping spree in recent years and finally things are coming in to fruition even with economic constraints.

 

Two ex-PLAN frigates Type 053H2 (Jianghu-III) guided missile frigates, the Huangshi (535) and Wuhu (536) from the East Sea Fleet will join the Bangladesh Navy later this year after what observers call a “heavy refit”.

 

The frigates were both built by Hudong and commissioned in December 1986 and December 1987 respectively.

 

Before the refit they were armed with 8 X C-802A SSM, 2 x Type 79A dual-100 mm guns, 4 x Type 76 dual-37 mm AA guns, 2 x 5-tube Type 81 ASW rocket launchers (30 rounds), 4 x Type 64 DC projectors, 2 x DC racks, 2 x Mk. 36 RBOC 6-barrel decoy rocket launchers.

 

MilitaryForces.Asia sources stated that the vessels would possibly be refitted with updated electronics and weapons.

 

Bangladesh Navy has recently adopted the H/PJ26 76 mm dual-purpose naval gun in its major surface combatants.  The same model would be installed on the Huangshi and Wuhu considering their Type 79A dual-100 mm guns were removed along with antiquated air defence guns.

 

Their sistership Xiangtan joined the Bangladesh Navy in 1989 and still serves today renamed as BNS Osman (F 18). It was upgraded with 8 x C-802 SSM’s in recent years.

 

Highlighting Bangladesh Navy’s eagerness to acquire off the shelf solutions in recent times they acquired a US Coast Guard Hamilton class cutter, which is undergoing refit in California before setting off to Bangladesh for joining the fleet.

 

The Hamilton class cutter is to be converted to a guided missile frigate in Bangladesh by installation of 8 x C-802A SSM and a Chinese origin SAM system, possibly FL-3000N according to a bdmilitary.com analyst.

 

Earlier the Bangladesh Navy negotiated with Italy for two improved Sauro class diesel-electric submarines and a number of frigates but it failed due to the steep asking price by the Italian government. Similarly an earlier negotiation with Montenegro also ended negatively due to unreasonable price and poor condition of the warships.

 

Bangladesh Navy officers confirmed to MilitaryForces.Asia that the new warships purchased from China and United States were in ‘good condition’.

 

The addition of three new frigates will provide the growing navy with increased patrolling capabilities in the Bay of Bengal as well as ensure they can bring enough fire power to naval confrontations with neighbouring countries.

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12 juin 2013 3 12 /06 /juin /2013 16:35
Why China May Limit “Carrier-Killer’s” Range

June 12, 2013 By Harry Kazianis - Flashpoints

 

Recently, the U.S. Department of Defense released its annual report on China's military entitled Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China 2013. While last year's report was panned by some as being short on details and substance compared to prior years, the new 2013 version is much more comprehensive and offers a balanced analysis concerning China's rising military might.

In reading over the report, there was a line that struck me, but at the time was more a passing thought than a true revelation. A recent report detailing China's highly touted DF-21D anti-ship ballistic missile (ASBM) or "carrier-killer" deserves credit for highlighting the significance of the passage (hat tip to Andrew Erickson).

From the DOD report:

"Current trends in China’s weapons production will enable the PLA to conduct a range of military operations in Asia well beyond Taiwan, in the South China Sea, western Pacific, and Indian Ocean. Key systems that have been either deployed or are in development include ballistic missiles (including anti-ship variants), anti-ship and land attack cruise missiles, nuclear submarines, modern surface ships, and an aircraft carrier."

While the wording is far from definitive, there is the possibility that China could in the future develop its ASBM into a weapon with a much greater range. While most estimates (including the DOD's own report) place the range of the ASBM at "1,500+ km," as China is able to develop the weapons system and solve the challenge of hitting a moving ocean going vessel (not easy), Beijing's missile forces may begin to experiment with the idea of increasing the system’s range.

As Erickson recently noted in his report for China Brief:

"Now that the initial challenge of deploying an operational ASBM is completed, China has the option of developing other variants with different, likely complementary, characteristics. As China slowly builds the intelligence infrastructure to guide ASBMs toward their targets, future variants can be integrated more quickly into the force at higher levels of readiness. The advanced nature of ASBM development may become less the exception than the rule for future Chinese weapons programs."

China's possible mastery of ASBM technology with the added possibility of later fielding new variants with increased range would have wide-ranging regional consequences not only in the Asia-Pacific, but in the wider Indo-Pacific theatre. As many scholars have noted, China's anti-access/area-denial (A2/AD) missile-centric forces are at their strongest off the coast of China extending out to about the range of the DF-21D, approximately 1,500 km. While growing stronger in recent years, Beijing does not possess a navy or air force that can project power into the mid-Pacific. True, Chinese naval forces have deployed into the Indian Ocean, but the PLA Navy can hardly be considered a force to be reckoned with alongside India in that theatre.

Having an ASBM that could again, in theory, reach such important regions would allow Beijing to project power to areas of the globe that would have taken it years via more conventional methods. If China were able to field an ASBM that could put in play the navies of India, Indonesia, and possibly Australia, the regional security environment could shift dramatically.

There would also be dramatic consequences for the United States. Currently, U.S. naval forces are largely secure in the mid-Pacific with no peer competitor challenging its mastery. An ASBM with a longer range could take away a potential safe zone for U.S. forces and possibly push combat forces out even further away from areas of tension like the South and East China Seas, and further endanger commitments made to Taiwan. Taking an even longer view, picture this: a U.S. Navy no longer safe when docked at Pearl Harbor? Scary thought.

Considering all this, China may want to give pause in creating such an ASBM variant. Nothing unites nations with competing interests like a shared threat.  While India-U.S. ties have warmed, New Delhi has not fully embraced America's pivot to the degree Washington would like. Would India reconsider and push for stronger military ties, perhaps even purchasing advanced American missile defense systems? Would New Delhi strengthen ties even further with Japan or others who share security concerns regarding China? Such ideas are not out of the question.

Would other nations in the region make similar calculations and consider stronger relations with Washington, express greater interest in American made missile defenses, or consider responding by developing their own missile forces or building up their own conventional forces? Would Japan and South Korea put to rest recent tensions and forge stronger military ties out of shared concern that Washington may not be able to come to their aid as easily in a crisis?

Truth be told, such considerations could be a long ways off. China may not see the need for expanding the range of its "carrier-killer," and instead remain content with increasing its military power across multiple domains along its coast. There is also the argument that Beijing may not have yet even mastered the technology of its existing ASBM. Yet, it is clear missile technology, cruise or ballistic, will create more problems for the surface fleets of the future, "carrier-killer" or not.

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12 juin 2013 3 12 /06 /juin /2013 16:35
India Adding 40,000 Mountain Troops at China Border

Jun. 12, 2013 - By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI  - Defense News

 

NEW DELHI — Shortly after new Chinese Prime Minister Li Keqiang visited here, India has decided to proceed with a plan to add more than 40,000 troops in the form of a mountain corps to bolster its strength on the Chinese border.

 

The Ministry of Defence prepared the plan two years ago and has awaited consideration by the Ministry of Finance, which has given approval. Now, it must be cleared by the Cabinet Committee on Security, an MoD source said.

 

About US $12 billion will be spent to raise the additional troops, and the new corps is expected to be functioning within 10 years, an Army official said. Additional weapons and equipment will be purchased.

 

“The elite mountain corps will be able to fill this gap in preparedness, thereby adding to the conventional stability in the medium to long term, though in the short term it may be perceived as destabilizing,” defense analyst Rahul Bhonsle said.

 

Last month, China’s Li visited New Delhi, his first foreign visit after taking office, amid reports that Chinese troops had intruded into Indian territory. The issue was discussed during a meeting with Indian Prime Minister Manmohan Singh, though the point was passed off as “an incident,” an Indian External Affairs Ministry source said.

 

“The raising of additional troops to be deployed along the border with China is bound to raise tempers in Beijing,” the source said.

 

Analysts here, however, are unanimous that India and China can ill afford to go to war in the immediate future as both are building themselves economically.

 

“Given the track record of handling their military and diplomatic showdown ... China and India are not likely to go to war anytime soon,” said Swaran Singh, professor for diplomacy and disarmament at Jawaharlal Nehru Univer­sity. “It’s not a strong possibility even in their medium-term trajectories. It is not in their interest and the interest of the international community, which will ensure it does not occur.

 

“The strongest incentive against war is their historic chance to achieve their peaceful rise followed by greater recognition and participation in world decision-making bodies.”

 

But Bhonsle said New Delhi must manage the issue carefully.

 

“India will certainly have to make extensive efforts to manage concerns that may be raised by China; [otherwise], the move will prove counterproductive and will only lead to increases in force levels on both the sides,” he said. “Confidence-building measures on the boundary and greater transparency in raising the force, including the fact that it is being positioned in the interior, should assuage Beijing.”

 

The Army official welcomed the new, because the service is operating at only 60 percent of its required capability level.

 

As the troops will be deployed in hilly terrain, new purchases will include light tanks, specialized vehicles, light artillery guns and advanced infantry equipment.

 

The Army also will buyammunition and small arms, hand-held thermal imagers, UAVs, aerostat-based radar, portable missiles, air-defense artillery and lightweight radar.

 

The service will establish network-centric warfare systems for the elite troops, including advanced C4ISR equip­ment, and information warfare systems, Army sources said.

 

On the composition of the weapons required, Bhonsle said, “the weapons and equipment will include the whole gamut from reconnaissance, surveillance and target acquisition, firepower, tactical and logistics mobility including helicopters, communications and so on. Five years for forming up and almost eight to 10 years for full-spectrum effectiveness may be reasonable to assume.”

 

The 4,057-kilometer Line of Actual Control is India’s current border with China. The eastern sector, bordering the states of Sikkim and Arunachal Pradesh, is the most contentious, where China claims 90,000 square kilometers of territory that India occupies.

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12 juin 2013 3 12 /06 /juin /2013 07:20
The 'O' Word: Offense vs. Defense in Cyber

Jun. 10, 2013 - By ZACHARY FRYER-BIGGS  - Defense News

 

WASHINGTON — Offensive attack, attack back, active defense, defensive response. All of these phrases can refer to the same activity — using cyber force to stop an attacker.

 

But choosing a way to describe that response can be tricky, a linguistic complication created by advances in technology and a policy world still struggling to find a place for cyber.

 

Part of the difficulty lies in a deep-seated aversion to describing any government endeavor as offensive. The US fights wars with an agency called the Department of Defense (DoD). But as cyber capabilities have advanced, so has the difficulty in finding ways to describe attacks used for defensive purposes.

 

“Offense and defense are tied at the hip, and at sufficiently advanced technical levels, offense and defense merge,” said Ed Skoudis, a cyber expert with the SANS Institute who has taught many military and intelligence community cyber defenders.

 

“Offensive techniques can be used to achieve defensive ends, defensive means can be used to achieve offensive ends, and often, the skills are identical.”

 

One example is the idea of cyber reach-back, a term used by experts to describe going after attackers’ systems. Defense News ran an article May 27 that described efforts to codify this use of cyber force in the Standing Rules of Engagement as “offensive efforts.” Several DoD officials objected to the description, instead referring to the capabilities as “defensive response,” focusing on the intent of the use of cyber force.

 

Intent is one of the criteria some experts use to define the use of cyber force.

 

“Offensive is when you’re doing things that are unprovoked,” said Bob Ackerman, founder of Allegis Capital. “This is where you run into some sensitivity within the Department of Defense. The posture is one of protecting; it comes down to what is the intent.”

 

Ackerman said that recently, the use of cyber force is more frequently being described under the term “active defense.”

 

“A couple of years ago, when people were talking about offensive cyber technology, that’s what today we call active defense,” he said. “The technology is so far ahead of the rules that we’re struggling with this. When is the best defense a good offense? Do you wait for them to bring it to you, or do you reach out and engage them in their turf on your terms?”

 

But active defense is a phrase that’s exceedingly difficult to define. Every expert interviewed for this article had a different definition of the phrase.

 

“Active cyber defense is a complete Rorschach,” said Jason Healey, director of the cyber Statecraft Initiative of the Atlantic Council. “Whatever person you’re talking to, whatever thing a person has in mind that they’re not currently allowed to do, that’s what active defense is.”

 

One of the distinctions Healey said might be used is differentiating the types of tools from the overall cyber action.

 

“There’s certainly a spectrum when you’re doing a counteroffensive thing that’s still defensive, but we still call it a counteroffensive move,” Healey said.

 

The one agreement seems to be that programs like Olympic Games, which featured the cyber attack in the form of Stuxnet, are clearly offensive.

 

But the use of offense is gaining traction as a necessary component of defense, said Ian Wallace, a visiting fellow with the Brookings Institution and a former official with the British Ministry of Defence who helped develop the UK’s cyber strategy.

 

“Throughout the history of conflict, there has always been a view that one of the best forms of defense is attack, and that is certainly a view held by some of those in the cyber field,” he said. “It’s also true that in cyber, unlike in many other forms of conflict, the most tricky problem is gaining access rather than the destruction itself. And therefore, one of the best ways to protect yourself could be considered to be getting to the attacker before they get to you.”

 

US companies, often the target of attacks for data theft but without legal authority to go after their attackers, have quietly been doing it for some time, Skoudis said.

 

“We all know that companies have hired people to attack back; we’ve all been approached for that,” he said.

 

The problem, from an international relations standpoint, is that attacks that might be defined as defensive action by one country might not be so defined by another, Wallace said.

 

“Given the potential for miscalculation in cyber conflict, anybody who engages in active defense has to factor into their decision the possibility that the other side sees whatever you’re doing as an attack, even if you believe that it’s a legitimate way of defending yourself from an attack,” he said.

 

That question of understanding could be critical as the US considers options to deal with increasing attacks from China, a topic President Barack Obama was due to raise with Chinese President Xi Jinping over the weekend.

 

Obama Talks Cyber With China

 

Tension between the US and China has been heating up for months, as the administration has begun to publicly point the finger at China for significant breaches and data theft. In a historic move, the Defense Department named China as the likely source of attacks in its annual report on China delivered to Congress last month.

 

And in February, the Obama administration released a document that outlined plans to increase diplomatic pressure on countries that have engaged in data theft. The strategy, which was clearly aimed at China, said that diplomats would be raising the issue of theft in upcoming meetings.

 

“The Department of State will track scheduled diplomatic engagements and meetings by senior administration officials with governments of countries where there are regular incidents of trade secret theft or that may be complicit in trade secret theft,” the document said. “During these meetings, senior administration officials will deliver appropriate messages to their foreign counterparts to express the administration’s focus on reducing incident of trade secret theft, including improved legal frameworks, stronger enforcement of existing laws and strong and efficient remedies for trade secret owners.”

 

In April, when Secretary of State John Kerry visited China, the two countries agreed to set up a working group to address cybersecurity issues. Now, Obama will have his chance to further the discussion.

 

“A lot has been put on the table recently: US requests China to stop theft of intellectual property, China requests demilitarization of cyberspace, many countries want to exercise more government control over their segments of cyberspace,” said Eneken Tikk-Ringas, senior fellow for cybersecurity at the International Institute for Strategic Studies.

 

“To move things forward for the international community as a whole, these goals need to be first addressed between the key players and only after some clarity between them be brought back to tables of the UN or regional organizations. All in all, it is about time for all those interests and requests to prove their weight and right to life in the international community,” Tikk-Ringas said.

 

Part of the problem with talks may be that the Chinese government doesn’t have complete control over the People’s Liberation Army cyber wing, said Jun Isomura, senior fellow at the Hudson Institute. “I do not know whether the PLA’s cyber arm is controllable by the new administration in Beijing,” he said. “Beijing may not even know what the PLA is doing.”

 

That may be part of the reason the Chinese government has denied any activity in cyber attacks, which is the biggest problem for negotiations, Isomura said.

 

“At present, China is denying it,” he said. “If they don’t acknowledge it, some sort of sanction should be considered. This is a national security issue.”

 

Wendell Minnick in Taipei contributed to this report.

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10 juin 2013 1 10 /06 /juin /2013 11:35

25 nov. 2012 RT.com

 

China has successfully landed a jet on its first aircraft carrier. The new J-15 fighter touched down on the Liaoning, refurbished Soviet-made ship which was delivered to the People's Liberation Army Navy in September - READ MORE http://on.rt.com/bo91fa

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10 juin 2013 1 10 /06 /juin /2013 11:35
Korea : China Gives The North An Order It Cannot Refuse

June 10, 2013: Strategy Page

 

The North Korean nuclear test in February was the last straw for many Chinese leaders and now the North Koreans are being threatened (often in public, which is very embarrassing) and told they must change their ways (no nukes and lots more economic reforms.) China has cut back on economic aid to the north and cracked down on North Korea smuggling operations (via China). This is hurting the north financially and China has made it clear that things won’t change until the north does what China demands. North Korea has begun repairing relations with South Korea and has implemented more economic reforms. This includes a bonus program for farmers, who for decades have been treated like factory workers, receiving a salary and given few incentives to do a better job. Many farmers know that their Chinese counterparts got performance incentives decades ago and prospered. But that was China and North Korea condemned the Chinese for capitalist tendencies. No more, as the North Korean government has also loosened state controls on all worker pay in the country. This allows managers to reward more productive workers.

 

North Korea is being invaded by more than Chinese ideas. The Chinese currency has become the most widely used cash in much of the economy. This was a result of the ill-conceived 2009 currency reforms, which wiped out the savings of many entrepreneurs. Now these business-minded North Koreans prefer to do as much of their business as possible using Chinese and American currency. The local currency (the North Korean won) has lost most of its value (in terms of how many won it costs to buy a dollar or Chinese yuan) in the last four years.

 

The government is building a ski resort in the northeast (near Wonsan). The area has heavy snow from November to March and will be open to foreigners as well as North Koreans who can afford it (senior officials and the wealthier entrepreneurs). The resort is another perk for the ruling class, and a way to extract more cash from tourists and North Korean entrepreneurs. Soldiers are doing a lot of the construction work. There are already some ski runs in North Korea, but these were built for military training or to help athletes prepare for international competitions. The big competition will be with their South Korean counterparts during the 2018 Winter Olympics that will be held in South Korea (which already has lots of ski resorts and many medals from the Winter Olympics). 

 

A lot of North Koreans still believe in their government, if only because decades of intense propaganda have created a reality that is difficult to abandon. It’s also illegal, and often fatal, to show disloyalty. But the growing information from the outside is causing more and more confusion among North Koreans. The propaganda stressed how North Koreans were special and the Kim dynasty appreciated the unique purity and specialness of the North Korean people and struggled to preserve that unique character. Alas, many North Koreans are more concerned with personal survival and a better life. These malcontents are proliferating and already there are too many to send them all to prison camps. This growing shortage of true believers is seen as a trend that could destroy the North Korean ruling class. The only solution is more money and nuclear weapons are seen as the wonder weapon that can make it all better. But the nukes are annoying China, which is the only source of emergency economic aid North Korea has left.

 

Increasingly the cultural threats are coming from China, not South Korea. Videos of Chinese movies and TV shows are easier to get than the South Korean ones. The Chinese vids need subtitles, although many North Koreans (of the sort who have access to these videos) understand Chinese. It’s the kids who are most susceptible to this form of mental “pollution.” While government propaganda can criticize South Korean culture, the Chinese are officially friends and allies and that kind of criticism is not allowed.

 

The government is trying to deal with the growing bad behavior by using the “mobilization” (ordering people out for unpaid work on the farms or simply to clean up public areas). Avoiding this sort of thing, or not making an effort is a crime, although the affluent can usually bribe their way out of it. But for most people the growing number of “mobilizations” is tiring and another reminder of the power of the state.

 

It’s not just ordinary citizens who get mobilized, but also members of the military. Even border guards and police units have farms they must tend and during planting and harvesting time most of these uniformed personnel are farming rather than dealing with their usual chores. But the borders must still be guarded, so a lot of the guards pull double shifts, often for weeks on end. This is not only bad for morale, but lowers efficiency or simply makes the border security less effective. The overworked border guards are more susceptible to bribes during these times, despite the increased secret police presence (and a long stint in a labor camp if they catch you taking a bribe).

 

June 9, 2013: North and South Korea agreed to resume high level discussions on matters of mutual interest (economic aid for North Korea and South Korean firms operating factories inside North Korea as well as the North Korean nuclear and missile programs). These talks will begin in a few days. It is believed that North Korea has been forced by China to make peace with South Korea, get their economy in order and shut down their nuclear weapons program. North Korea is resisting that last demand.

 

June 8, 2013: For the first time in two years there were official talks in the DMZ border village (the traditional neutral ground for such talks). It lasted only an hour and mainly dealt more extensive talks to be held next week. North Korea asked for the talks and South Korea was reluctant to do it believing it was just another propaganda ploy. But China convinced the South Koreans that the northerners were eager to make nice and repair some of the damage northern belligerence had created in the last few months. This includes reopening the recently closed Kaesong Industrial Complex (in North Korea but financed and run by over a hundred South Korean firms employing more than 50,000 North Koreans).

 

The leaders of the U.S. and China completed two days of talks and agreed that North Korean nuclear weapons had to go.

 

June 7, 2013: North Korea restored the telephone hotline with the south. The north shut down the hotline in March.

 

May 26, 2013: China has openly called for denuclearization of the Korean peninsula. Since South Korea does not have nukes, this call was aimed squarely at North Korea. The U.S. had nukes in South Korea during the Cold War but removed them in 1991. China fears that South Korea might develop nukes to counter the threat from North Korea.

 

May 25, 2013: This month the army began using the locally made KUH (Korean Utility Helicopter). The 8.7 ton chopper is nicknamed “Surion", carries two pilots and 11 passengers and can be armed with 7.62mm machine-guns and six missiles. Some 60 percent of the components are made in South Korea. The 8.7 ton KUH looks similar to the Eurocopter Puma because technology was purchased from European firm EADS.  South Korea spent a billion dollars developing the KUH, and it was designed for civilian and military use. Thus South Korea becomes only one of 11 countries that produces helicopters. Full scale production began last year. The South Korean military is buying KUHs to replace its UH-1s and 500MDs.

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10 juin 2013 1 10 /06 /juin /2013 07:35
China, Vietnam set up naval hotline to ease tensions

Jun 07, 2013 brahmand.com

 

BEIJING (PTI): China and Vietnam have agreed to set up a hotline between their navies amid escalating maritime tensions over the disputed South China Sea islands.

 

The Defence Ministries of China and Vietnam have agreed to establish a naval hotline, Vietnam's Deputy Defence Minister Nguyen Chi Vinh was on Friday quoted as saying by the state-run China Daily.

 

China currently has hotline facilities with India, the US, South Korea and Japan. The hotline between India and China is established between the Prime Ministers of the two sides.

 

Mr. Nguyen dispelled rhetoric of Vietnam aligning with other nations to counter China, saying such a strategy does not exist. He was apparently referring to reports that Vietnam is getting closer to US, Japan and India in order to bring about balance in its ties with China.

 

Mr. Nguyen said despite the current controversies, a peaceful and secure maritime environment in the South China Sea should be nurtured by the military of China and Vietnam.

 

"Without a peaceful environment in the disputed waters, which is the basis for bilateral discussions, it would be a disaster for the two nations as well as for the region and the world," said Mr. Nguyen, who was in Beijing for the seventh China-Vietnam consultation on defence and security.

 

The move came at time when the two countries experienced tensions over the disputed islands in South China Sea over which China has already started exercising its control with heavy deployment of its maritime vessels.

 

Recently Vietnam has complained that one of its boats was driven away by Chinese naval vessels, which Beijing denied.

 

Vietnam along with Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei and Taiwan have serious disputes with China over South China Sea.

 

Analysts said the move signals a stronger will for communication and cooperation between the two neighbours, whose ties have been strained by maritime disputes.

 

Chinese experts welcomed the hotline, but said Beijing still needs to closely watch what measures Hanoi will take to guarantee peace and stability in the South China Sea.

 

Li Guoqiang, deputy director of the Centre for Chinese Borderland History and Geography at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, said any improper actions by Vietnam military in related waters would greatly damage bilateral ties.

 

In a meeting with Mr. Nguyen on Wednesday, Qi Jianguo, deputy chief of the general staff of the People's Liberation Army, urged Vietnam to evaluate bilateral ties from a strategic and overall perspective, and meet China halfway.

 

"Amid rapid changes in international and regional situation, it is significant that the two countries hold talks on defence and security issues, seek effective control of the current disputes and solutions to related issues," Mr. Qi said.

 

Mr. Nguyen said the defence talks, an annual activity, reflected the urgency of bilateral military communication, confronted by "very complicated and very intense" maritime problems. "Cooperation is still the mainstream. On the basis of cooperation, the two governments can face divergences and disputes together," he added.

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8 juin 2013 6 08 /06 /juin /2013 11:35
Le général Nguyên Chi Vinh. Photo : VNA

Le général Nguyên Chi Vinh. Photo : VNA

07/06/2013 vietnamplus.vn

 

Le 4e Dialogue stratégique de la défense Vietnam-Chine a une signification importante, car les deux pays célèbrent cette année les dix ans de la signature de leur accord de coopération bilatérale dans la défense.

 

C'est ce qu'a souligné le général Nguyên Chi Vinh, vice-ministre de la Défense lors d'une interview accordée au correspondant de la VNA à Pékin (Chine) sur les contenus de ce Dialogue tenu mercredi dans la capitale chinois.

 

Il s'agit d'une bonne occasion pour le Vietnam et la Chine de passer en revue le processus de coopération ces dix dernières années et de définir certains points importants.

 

Premièrement, les deux parties ont affirmé la justesse de l'Accord de coopération dans la défense Vietnam-Chine. Ces derniers temps, cet accord a aidé à promouvoir la coopération bilatérale dans la défense tant en ampleur qu'en profondeur.

 

Deuxièmement, les relations dans la défense entre les deux pays sont devenues un des liens très importants dans les relations de partenariat stratégique intégral Vietnam-Chine.

 

Troisièmement, le Vietnam et la Chine ont défini les orientations de coopération pour la période 2013-2016 et jusqu'à 2020 avec des contenus plus complets et concrets.

 

Plus particulièrement, Vietnam et Chine ont officiellement inauguré une ligne téléphonique directe entre leurs deux ministères de la Défense.

 

Concernant les avantages et difficultés dans la construction de la confiance stratégique entre les deux pays dans l'avenir, le général Nguyên Chi Vinh s'est félicité que le concept de construire la confiance stratégique entre les responsables des deux armées avait été lancé par le général Shi Jian Guo en marge du 12e Dialogue Shangri-La. Cela contribuera à cultiver aussi la confiance stratégique entre les deux Partis et les deux Etats pour la coopération au développement.

 

C'est la première fois que les deux parties fixent la tâche concrète qui est de construire la confiance stratégique dans la défense et la sécurité, a-t-il dit.

 

Pour atteindre cet objectif, les deux parties doivent s'appuyer sur deux questions importantes. Primo, assurer la paix dans les régions frontalières, en mer, pour créer environnement pacifique et amical. Secundo, cette confiance doit être bâtie en suivant les contenus de coopération concrets.

 

Dans le dialogue stratégique de la défense, les deux pays ont déterminé des tâches concrètes, dont appronfondir les contenus de coopération actuels et promouvoir de nouveaux contenus concernant la prochaine participation du Vietnam aux opérations de maintien de la paix de l'ONU.

 

Le ministre chinois de la Défense Chang Wanquan a affirmé que la Chine était prête à partager ses expériences en la matière avec le Vietnam, en souhaitant que les deux parties élargissent les contenus de coopération et exploitent au maximun les atouts disponibles entre les deux ministères de la Défense.

 

S'agissant des perspectives de signature d'une convention de non recours à la force ou menace d'y recourir concernant les deux Marines, le général Nguyên Chi Vinh a affirmé que la proposition du Vietnam de ne pas recourir à la force ou menacer d'y recourir en Mer Orientale manifestait que le Vietnam faisait preuve de calme dans le règlement des problèmes dans cette zone maritime sur la base de la coopération et de l'assurance des intérêts légitimes et égaux. La partie chinoise a pris note de cette proposition du Vietnam et l'étudiera sérieusement.

 

Le ministre chinois de la Défense Chang Wanquan a également dit que les deux pays ont donné des déclarations communes sur le non recours à la force dans le règlement des litiges en Mer Orientale. Dans l'immédiat, les deux armées doivent observer absolument ces engagements, a conclu le général Nguyên Chi Vinh. - VNA

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3 juin 2013 1 03 /06 /juin /2013 11:35
Chinese patrols in Asian seas ‘legitimate’: general

June 3rd, 2013 defencetalk.com (AFP)

 

Chinese warships will continue to patrol waters where Beijing has territorial claims, a top general said Sunday, amid simmering rows with neighbouring countries over the South China Sea and islands controlled by Japan.

 

Lieutenant General Qi Jianguo, deputy chief of the general staff of the People’s Liberation Army, defended the patrols as legitimate and said his country’s sovereignty over the areas could not be disputed.

 

“Why are Chinese warships patrolling in East China Sea and South China Sea? I think we are all clear about this,” Qi told the annual Shangri-La Dialogue security conference in Singapore.

 

“Our attitude on East China Sea and South China Sea is that they are in our Chinese sovereignty. We are very clear about that,” he said through an interpreter.

 

“So the Chinese warships and the patrolling activities are totally legitimate and uncontroversial.”

 

Qi was responding to a question from a delegate after giving a speech in which he sought to assure neighbouring countries that China has no hegemonic ambitions.

 

“China has never taken foreign expansion and military conquering as a state policy,” he said.

 

One delegate however said there appeared to be growing regional scepticism over China’s peaceful intentions because it was inconsistent with moves to send naval patrols to waters where other countries also have claims.

 

China is locked in a territorial dispute with Brunei, Malaysia, the Philippines and Vietnam in the South China Sea.

 

The four states have partial claims to islands but China says it has sovereign rights to nearly all of the sea, including areas much closer to other countries and thousands of kilometres from the Chinese coast.

 

China also has a dispute with Japan over the Senkaku islands, which Beijing calls the Diaoyus, in the East China Sea.

 

“I do hope the statements of the good general today will be translated into action,” Philippine Defense Secretary Voltaire Gazmin told reporters.

 

He said Qi’s remarks about China having no hegemonic ambitions were “far from what is happening” in the sea.

 

Manila last month protested at what it called the “provocative and illegal presence” of a Chinese warship near Second Thomas Shoal, which is occupied by Philippine troops.

 

Among the other moves that have caused alarm were China’s occupation of a shoal near the Philippines’ main island last year, and the deployment in March of Chinese naval ships to within 80 kilometres (50 miles) of Malaysia’s coast.

 

Competing claims have for decades made the area — home to rich fishing grounds and vital global shipping lanes and believed to sit atop vast natural gas deposits — one of Asia’s potential military flashpoints.

 

China and Vietnam fought in 1974 and 1988 for control of islands in battles that left dozens of soldiers dead.

 

The US-China strategic rivalry also loomed large during the conference, with US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel on Saturday accusing Beijing of waging cyber espionage against the United States.

 

But General Qi on Sunday allayed concerns that China had dropped a pledge not to be the first to use nuclear weapons in a conflict.

 

Omission of the “no-first-use” pledge in a recent defence white paper had created ripples in military circles and sparked speculation that China may have abandoned the policy.

 

Qi also distanced his government from claims by some Chinese scholars that the Ryukyu Islands, which include Okinawa, do not belong to Japan.

 

“This is only an article of particular scholars and their views on these issues… it does not represent the views of the Chinese government,” he said.

 

Maritime disputes and the risks of conflicts that could hurt Asia’s economic growth were a running theme during the three-day conference that ended Sunday.

 

“Asia holds great promise for ourselves and the world but continued peace and prosperity in this region are neither fait accompli nor automatic,” Singapore Defence Minister Ng Eng Hen told the conference.

 

“Instead, if we are to continue to enjoy stability and progress, we must work effectively in unison to strengthen areas of common interests.”

 

The Philippines’ Gazmin defended Manila’s move unilaterally to bring its territorial dispute with China before a UN tribunal after China refused to take part.

 

“We hope that the arbitration tribunal will issue a clarification in accordance with international law that will direct China to respect our sovereign rights,” Gazmin told the forum.

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3 juin 2013 1 03 /06 /juin /2013 07:35
China to train Lankan army, to provide military technology

Jun 01, 2013 brahmand.com

 

BEIJING (PTI): Firming up its ties with Sri Lanka, China has granted fresh development loan worth USD 2.2 billion for infrastructure projects and agreed to provide defence technology as well as training to the island nation's army.

 

Both sides agreed to further deepen defence cooperation and maintain exchanges between the two defence ministries and would continue to carry out cooperating in defence technology, personal training and other fields, Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesperson Hong Lei told media briefing here on Friday.

 

He was replying to questions on the just concluded visit by Sri Lankan President Mahenda Rajapaksa during which both the nations signed a defence agreement besides a host of deals to beef up infrastructure projects in the country, deepening China's foothold there.

 

Hong did not disclose the details of the agreements including the one related to development of Colombo port and read out some of the highlights from joint statement issued by both the countries.

 

According to Sri Lankan Foreign Minister G L Peiris, China has offered USD 2.2 billion worth of new loans.

 

The countries agreed on USD 1.5 billion investment of private sector in the northern express highway linking Kandy in the central part of Sri Lanka to Jaffna in the north, he earlier told the media here.

 

The two sides agreed on the extension of a railway, the southern highway and the development of the port of Colombo, Peiris said.

 

This is in addition to the construction of Hambantota Port with the multibillion dollar assistance of China.

 

According to reports in Sri Lankan media, Chinese Premier Li Keqiang told Rjapaksa during their meeting that China will explore the possibility of establishing an industrial zone in Hambantota.

 

China will support Sri Lanka to develop capabilities in satellite communication, space technology and maritime industries, he said.

 

Hong said China has become major development partner of Sri Lanka and has played very important role in recent years.

 

Both sides agreed that terrorism, separatism and extremism have posed severe threat to regional security and would carry out practical cooperation to jointly tackle the three forces, he said.

 

"In a nutshell President Rajapaksa's visit has elevated our bilateral strategic partnership. This kind of partnership will promote bilateral political mutual trust and common development and will maintain regional peace and stability," Hong said.

 

"This kind of cooperation is not targeting against a third country," he said when asked about concerns in India that the deepening cooperation between the two countries was aimed at containing India.

 

Hong also recalled Li's recent "successful" visits to India and Pakistan which showed that China is actively involved in friendly cooperation with the South Asian countries.

 

"This cooperation will give rigorous boost to regional peace stability and development and will bring benefit to people of China and South Asian countries," he said.

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3 juin 2013 1 03 /06 /juin /2013 07:35
China maintains no-first-use nuclear pledge: general

Singapore (AFP) June 02, 2013 –  Spacewar.com

 

China is maintaining its pledge not to be the first to use nuclear weapons in a conflict, a top Chinese general said Sunday.

 

Omission of the "no-first-use" pledge in a recently released defence white paper had created ripples in military circles and sparked speculation that China may have dropped the policy.

 

"I want to make a solemn statement that the Chinese government will never discard our pledge of no first-use of nuclear arms," Lieutenant General Qi Jianguo told the Shangri-La Dialogue security forum in Singapore.

 

"We have been sticking to this policy for half a century, and its facts have proven that it is not only in the interest of the Chinese people but also of the people of all the world."

 

Qi, deputy chief of the general staff of the People's Liberation Army, was queried about the omission after giving a speech at the two-day conference that ended Sunday.

 

He said the white paper released in April did not go into details which was why the pledge was not explicitly mentioned.

 

Qi however said that a portion in the paper referring to the tasks of the Second Artillery Corps, China's strategic missile force, referred to the no-first-use pledge.

 

"I want to clarify that," he said.

 

After testing its first nuclear weapon in 1964, China promised to never be the first one to use atomic weapons.

 

China does not disclose the size of its nuclear arsenal, but the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute said the rising world power had an arsenal of about 200 operational nuclear weapons for delivery mainly by ballistic missiles.

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3 juin 2013 1 03 /06 /juin /2013 07:35
PLA Navy Liaoning Aircraft Carrier

PLA Navy Liaoning Aircraft Carrier

2013-05-30 By Zachary Keck – china-defense-mashup.com

 

On Saturday India’s Defense Minister AK Antony commissioned the country’s first squadron of Russia-built MiG-29K at the INS Hansa Naval near Goa near the Southern tip of India. The squadron, which will be named INAS 303 Black Panthers, consists of 16 MiG-29K fighters some of which were inducted into the India military three years ago allowing Indian pilots to become comfortable flying the aircraft.

 

India’s Economic Times reported that, “The MiG-29Ks, with a range of 1,300km and a service ceiling of 58,000-feet, are capable of STOBAR (short takeoff but arrested recovery) operations. They are armed with R-73 and RVV-AE guided air-to-air missiles, Kh-35E anti-ship missiles, KAB 500KR/OD TV guided bombs and S-8KOM rockets.”

 

The 303 Blank Panthers squadron fighters are the first of what will be a total of 45 fighters India has agreed to purchase from Russia for over US$2 billion, including 29 more MiG-29Ks.

 

The newly commissioned fighters will continue carrying out training exercises until November or December when the Russian built INS Vikramaditya (formerly Gorshkov) aircraft carrier that is currently being refitted is scheduled to be inducted by India’s Navy. Delhi’s other aircraft carrier, the INS Viraat, is currently undergoing maintenance but will continue operating for at least the next few years and possible through 2018.

 

India also currently has plans to build two indigenous aircraft carriers (IACs). The first is a 40,000 ton vessel currently being constructed at Cochin Shipyard and is scheduled to be inducted into India’s Navy in the next four or five years. It will be placed in the water on August 12 of this year and will undergo its first sea trials 24 months after that, according to Antony.

 

While commissioning the new maritime aviation squadron on Saturday, Antony also marked the 60th anniversary of India’s naval aviation.

 

The day before the ceremony that Antony attended, on Friday, China announced it had formed its first carrier-borne aviation force. Citing PLA sources, China’s state media reported that the forming of the force— which will consist of “carrier-borne fighter jets, jet trainers and ship-borne helicopters that operate anti-submarine, rescue and vigilance tasks”— demonstrates that “the development of China’s aircraft carriers has entered a new phase.”

 

The reports also said that Admiral Wu Shengli, a Princeling member of the Central Military Commission—China’s highest military decision-making body— and the commander of the PLA Navy, attended the ceremony.

 

The media stories also focused heavily on the quality of the pilots that were included in the group. One report stated:

 

“The personnel of the force are more elite than the aviation forces within the PLA. To be able to fly fighter jets, the pilots should have flown at least five types of aircraft and their flight time must exceed 1,000 hours.

 

Rich experience in joint drills and major drills is also a prerequisite. The pilots also received training in courses like warship theory, nautical basics, and maritime meteorology.”

 

It also revealed that the Liaoning, China’s first aircraft carrier, is capable of holding around 30 fixed-wing aircraft, expected to initially be the J-15s.

 

China has plans to build a second, larger aircraft carrier that is capable of carrying more fighters. In its annual report on China’s military modernization last week, the Pentagon suggested that it believed China would complete this indigenous aircraft carrier within a decade.

INS Vikramaditya source Livefist

INS Vikramaditya source Livefist

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3 juin 2013 1 03 /06 /juin /2013 07:35
China, India, Pakistan, boost nuclear arsenals: study

Stockholm (AFP) June 02, 2013 Spacewar.com

 

Three of the world's nuclear powers -- China, India and Pakistan -- have increased their arsenals over the past year, while the other five have cut their strength or kept it stable, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute said Monday.

 

China now has 250 nuclear warheads against 240 in 2012, while Pakistan has increased its warheads by about 10 to between 100 and 120 and India has also added roughly 10 for a total of 90 to 110, SIPRI said in its annual report.

 

According to SIPRI, the arms race is all the more disturbing because of what the institute called a "fragile" peace in Asia, characterised by growing tensions since 2008 between India and Pakistan, China and Japan, and the two Koreas, among others.

 

"While states have avoided direct conflict with each other and have stopped supporting insurgent movements on each other's territory, decades-old suspicions linger and economic integration has not been followed up with political integration," SIPRI said.

 

Only the two old superpowers have cut their warheads, Russia reducing its number from 10,000 to 8,500, and the United States scaling back from 8,000 to 7,700.

 

The warheads controlled by France stayed at 300, while Britain's remained at 225, and Israel's at 80.

 

SIPRI acknowledged that the figures were to a large extent estimates, as the nuclear powers aren't equally transparent, China being totally opaque, and Russia gradually becoming less open.

 

SIPRI does not count North Korea and Iran as nuclear powers yet, as their respective programmes are still considered in their early stages.

 

While the global total of warheads was down, SIPRI said it did not translate into a significantly diminished nuclear threat.

 

"Once again there was little to inspire hope that the nuclear weapon-possessing states are genuinely willing to give up their nuclear arsenals. The long-term modernisation programmes under way in these states suggest that nuclear weapons are still a marker of international status and power," said SIPRI Senior Researcher Shannon Kile.

 

Efforts to reduce arsenals of chemical and biological weapons have also been slow, according to SIPRI, a long-time advocate of abolishing weapons of mass destruction.

 

The United States and Russia have not destroyed all their chemical weapons in 2012 as promised, and Syria has said it is prepared to use them in the case of foreign attack.

 

SIPRI figures also show that the number of peacekeepers deployed around the world fell by more than 10 percent in 2012, reflecting partly the beginning withdrawal of international forces from Afghanistan.

 

SIPRI noted an increase in recent years in the number of intrastate conflicts that are internationalised, as outside states have supported one side or another.

 

"Such involvement often has the effect of increasing casualty rates and prolonging conflicts," SIPRI said in its report.

 

SIPRI's annual report also contains data already published, including figures showing a decline in global arms spending in 2012 of 0.5 percent, the first drop since 1998.

 

The report also said China has overtaken Britain as the world's fifth largest arms exporter after the United States, Russia, Germany and France.

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3 juin 2013 1 03 /06 /juin /2013 07:20
PLA Navy's Newest Type 054A frigate -- FFG-575 "Yueyang"

PLA Navy's Newest Type 054A frigate -- FFG-575 "Yueyang"

2013-05-31 — china-defense-mashup.com

 

 This spring, China’s navy accepted the Pentagon’s invitation to participate in the 2014 Rim of the Pacific — RIMPAC — naval exercise to be held off Hawaii. This will be the first time China takes part in the biennial event.

 

Our allies should signal their intent to withdraw from the exercise if China participates. Failing that, the invitation should be withdrawn. RIMPAC is for allies and friends, not nations planning to eventually wage war on the United States. Russia sent ships in 2012, but while its senior officers may occasionally utter unfriendly words, they are not actively planning to fight the United States. Analyst Robert Sutter was surely correct when he wrote in 2005 that “China is the only large power in the world preparing to shoot Americans.”

 

 

That assessment, unfortunately, remains true today. Beijing is configuring its forces — especially its navy — to fight ours. For instance, China has deployed along its southern coast its DF-21D, a two-stage solid-fuel missile that can be guided by satellite signals. The missile is dubbed the “carrier killer” because it can be configured to explode in midair, raining down sharp metal on a deck crowded with planes, ordinance, fuel and sailors. Its apparent intent is to drive U.S. forces out of East Asia.

 

A pattern of aggressive Chinese tactics also points in that direction. Especially troubling is the harassment in international waters of unarmed U.S. Navy reconnaissance vessels for more than a decade, most notably the blocking of the Impeccable in the South China Sea in 2009. And there was the 2001 downing of a Navy EP-3 and the surfacing of a Song-class attack submarine in the middle of the Kitty Hawk strike group near Okinawa in 2006.

 

Since then, we have been hearing bold war talk in the Chinese capital, from new leader Xi Jinping to senior officers and colonels who say they relish combat — a “hand-to-hand fight with the U.S.,” as one of them put it in 2010.

 

Why do China’s officers want to go to war? There is an unfortunate confluence of factors. First, there is a new Chinese confidence bordering on arrogance. Beijing leaders, especially since 2008, have been riding high. They saw economic turmoil around the world and thought the century was theirs to dominate. The U.S. and the rest of the West, they believed, were in terminal decline.

 

The Chinese military also has gained substantial influence in the last year, perhaps becoming the most powerful faction in the Communist Party. Beginning as early as 2003, senior officers of the People’s Liberation Army were drawn into civilian power struggles as Hu Jintao, then the new leader, sought their support in his effort to shove aside Jiang Zemin, his wily predecessor who sought to linger in the limelight. Last year, the civilian infighting intensified as the so-called Fifth Generation leadership, under the command of Xi, took over from Hu’s Fourth. Like a decade ago, feuding civilians sought the support of the generals and admirals, making them arbiters in the party’s increasingly rough game of politics.

 

The result of discord among civilian leaders has been a partial remilitarization of politics and policy. Senior officers are now acting independently of civilian officials, are openly criticizing them and are making pronouncements in areas once considered the exclusive province of diplomats.

 

The remilitarization has had consequences. As Huang Jing of Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy said: “China’s military spending is growing so fast that it has overtaken strategy. The young officers are taking control of strategy, and it is like young officers in Japan in the 1930s. They are thinking what they can do, not what they should do.”

 

What do China’s admirals want? They are supporting their nation’s territorial ambitions to close off the South China Sea to others. This brings them into conflict with nations surrounding that critical body of water and pits them against the U.S. If there has been any consistent U.S. foreign policy over the course of two centuries, it has been the defense of freedom of navigation.

 

According to a white paper it issued in April, China is building a navy capable of operating in the ocean’s deep water, and has 235,000 officers and sailors. Its navy last year commissioned its first aircraft carrier, and it is reportedly building two more. China has about a dozen fewer submarines than the U.S., but the U.S. has global responsibilities. The Chinese, therefore, can concentrate their boats in waters close to their shores, giving them tactical and operating advantages.

 

While the Chinese plan to dominate their waters and eventually ours, we are helping them increase their effectiveness with invitations to RIMPAC and other exercises and by including them in joint operations like the one directed against Somali piracy. The U.S. Navy at the same time is continuing to reduce its fleet, currently at 283 deployable ships. As Beijing’s behavior has become more troubling, the Pentagon has clung to the hope that military-to-military relations will somehow relieve tensions with the Chinese.

 

Yet as Ronald Reagan taught us, the nature of regimes matter. We are now helping an incurably aggressive state develop its military — to our peril. There is something very wrong at the core of the Obama administration’s and the Pentagon’s China policies.

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3 juin 2013 1 03 /06 /juin /2013 06:35
Time to Admit China Is a Military Competitor

2013-05-27 — china-defense-mashup.com

 

The early-May release by the Defense Department of its annual report to Congress on China’s military developments is a prime opportunity to reevaluate how the United States frames the future of its security relationship with Beijing. For too long, politicians and pundits of both parties have refused to clearly state the obvious: The U.S. and China are engaged in a long-term peacetime competition with economic, diplomatic and, yes, military components. The sooner Washington begins speaking honestly about our relationship with China, the sooner we’ll have policies that adequately address the challenges facing our two countries.

 

As China’s economic development continues and its regional aspirations expand, its military modernization has continued apace. This reality, and the necessity of the United States’ remaining a force in Asia-Pacific for the sake of regional stability, makes many in Washington uncomfortable. Indeed, the pressure to refrain from speaking openly about the issue has led some U.S. officials to begin referring to China as a national “Voldermort.”

 

It’s immensely counterproductive to avoid speaking openly and truthfully about the Sino-American rivalry and its future trajectory. By failing to acknowledge China’s military ambitions and their potential consequences for U.S. interests in the region, American policymakers are choosing timidity when resolute leadership is required.

 

The reality is this: Over the past decade, China has been developing military capabilities designed to deny the United States access to the waters and airspace of the western Pacific. Through the acquisition of anti-ship ballistic missiles designed to target American aircraft carriers, advanced aircraft capable of hitting U.S. and allied bases around the region, and large numbers of modern submarines, Beijing has clearly signaled its intention to subvert the balance of power that has anchored peace in Asia for six decades, and to do so in ways inimical to American interests.

 

This is not simply the case of a rising power seeking a military befitting its economic might; rather, China has specifically geared its military development to areas of perceived American weakness with the objective of restricting U.S. action in East Asia.

 

Speaking clearly about Beijing’s actions and intentions is not a fatalistic acceptance that Sino-American conflict is inevitable, or even likely. Instead, by realistically appraising Chinese intentions, the United States will be better prepared to assess our interests in Asia and act accordingly.

 

With 80 percent of global trade traveling by sea, a substantial amount of that through the waters of East Asia, allowing the United States to be pushed out of the region is simply unacceptable. American military power, particularly our navy, has ensured the peaceful, liberal order that currently predominates in East Asia. As our fleet has slowly atrophied from the nearly 600 ships of the Reagan era to 283 today, the ability of the United States to uphold its obligations and interests around the world has become sorely tested. Even as the Chinese are developing sophisticated systems to target our perceived vulnerabilities, the U.S. is expected to experience major shortfalls in areas from attack submarines and surface combatants to Air Force long-range bombers. Understanding, and speaking clearly about, our interests in Asia and the challenges we face is critical to fixing the military gaps we have incurred over the last decade.

 

The Pentagon’s latest report on Chinese military modernization is an excellent opportunity for leaders in both parties to begin the process of speaking honestly about the China challenge. Our future relations with China are not preordained. Sound policy based on American strength and rooted in longstanding American interests is achievable only through recognition that China is a long-term competitor of the United States across a range of areas, including the military. The sooner we are comfortable admitting this fact, the better our chances of marshalling the resources to maintain a free and prosperous Asia.

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3 juin 2013 1 03 /06 /juin /2013 05:35
Chine, Inde et Pakistan seuls à accroître leur arsenal nucléaire

03 juin 2013 Romandie.com (AFP)

 

STOCKHOLM - Trois pays disposant de l'arme atomique, la Chine, l'Inde et le Pakistan, accroissent leur arsenal nucléaire, alors que les cinq autres le réduisent ou le maintiennent, a indiqué l'Institut international de recherche sur la paix de Stockholm (Sipri) dans un rapport lundi.

 

La Chine a aujourd'hui 250 têtes nucléaires contre 240 en 2012, le Pakistan 100 à 120 contre 90 à 110, et l'Inde entre 90 et 110 contre 80 à 100, écrit-il.

 

Cette course aux armements est d'autant plus inquiétante que le Sipri juge fragile la paix en Asie, vu les tensions croissantes depuis 2008, comme entre Inde et Pakistan, entre les deux Corées, ou encore entre Chine et Japon.

 

Les pays qui réduisent leur arsenal sont les signataires du traité de désarmement nucléaire START, la Russie (8.500 têtes aujourd'hui) et les Etats-Unis (7.700).

 

La France (300 têtes), le Royaume-Uni (225) et Israël (80) le gardent au même niveau.

 

Ces chiffres sont des estimations dont le Sipri reconnaît qu'elles sont plus ou moins fiables selon les pays, la Chine maintenant par exemple une opacité totale, tandis que la Russie est de moins en moins transparente. Le Sipri suppose que la Corée du Nord et l'Iran n'ont pas encore réussi à se doter de l'arme nucléaire.

 

Pour le centre de recherche, la baisse quantitative de l'armement n'est pas synonyme de réduction de la menace nucléaire.

 

Il y avait peu de choses pour nous insuffler l'espoir que les pays possédant l'arme nucléaire aient sincèrement la volonté d'abandonner leur arsenal. Les programmes de modernisation à long terme en cours dans ces Etats montrent que les armes nucléaires sont toujours une marque du statut international et de la puissance, a affirmé le coordinateur de la recherche sur le nucléaire au Sipri, Shannon Kile, cité dans un communiqué.

 

Dans le domaine des armes chimiques et biologiques, la réduction des stocks pour laquelle milite le Sipri n'a progressé que lentement. Les Etats-Unis et la Russie n'ont pas détruit toutes leurs armes chimiques en 2012 contrairement à ce qu'ils avaient promis, et la Syrie s'est dite prête à les employer en cas d'attaque étrangère.

 

Les chiffres du Sipri montrent par ailleurs que le nombre des soldats de la paix déployés dans le monde a baissé de plus de 10% en 2012, le retrait des forces internationales ayant commencé en Afghanistan.

 

Toutefois, le nombre des combattants déployés en dehors de l'Afghanistan a en fait des chances de croître, notamment au Mali, plus largement au Sahel, et potentiellement en Syrie.

 

Ces dernières années, il y a eu une hausse du nombre des conflits intra-étatiques qui se sont internationalisés, à savoir qu'un autre Etat soutient un camp ou l'autre. Une telle implication a souvent eu pour effet d'accroître la mortalité et de prolonger les conflits, a constaté le Sipri.

 

Son rapport annuel reprend des données déjà publiées.

 

Les dépenses mondiales en armement ont reculé en 2012 pour la première fois depuis 1998, de 0,5% en tenant compte de l'inflation. Et la Chine a détrôné la Grande-Bretagne en tant que cinquième exportateur mondial d'armes, derrière les Etats-Unis, la Russie, l'Allemagne et la France.

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2 juin 2013 7 02 /06 /juin /2013 17:35
Cybersécurité: des rencontres régulières Chine-USA instituées dès juillet

02 juin 2013 Romandie.com (AFP)

 

NEW YORK - Les Etats-Unis et la Chine se sont mis d'accord pour instituer dès juillet des rencontres régulières de haut niveau sur la cybersécurité et l'espionnage commercial, et pour mettre en place des règles de conduites communes, a confirmé la Maison Blanche dimanche.

 

Les discussions porteront non seulement sur les questions de piratage mais aussi plus largement sur les règles à établir pour encadrer certains espaces d'internet, a souligné un responsable de la Maison Blanche, après que le New York Times eut fait état de ces rencontres prochaines.

 

Le secrétaire d'Etat américain John Kerry, en visite à Pékin en avril, avait alors annoncé que la Chine et les Etats-Unis allait créer un groupe de travail sur la sécurité informatique, en réponse à la recrudescence des cyberattaques par des hackers chinois.

 

Ces futures rencontres représentent le premier effort diplomatique pour désamorcer les tensions (entre les deux pays) alors que les Etats-Unis déplorent des attaques quotidiennes sous forme d'intrusions informatiques et de vols de secrets industriels et gouvernementaux, écrit le New York Times.

 

Nous avons besoin de normes et de règles, avait déclaré anonymement vendredi au quotidien un haut responsable américain impliqué dans les négociations pour la tenue de ces rencontres.

 

Les premiers entretiens ont été programmés pour juillet.

 

Ces informations interviennent avant le sommet informel vendredi prochain en Californie, entre le président américain Barack Obama et le président chinois Xi Jinping.

 

Les responsables américains disent qu'ils ne s'attendent pas à ce que ce processus apporte immédiatement une réduction significative des intrusions quotidiennes venant de Chine, selon le Times.

 

Mais c'est une question importante qui ne peut pas être juste expédiée lors de simples conversations, a déclaré un responsable américain anonyme, précisant que les rencontres se concentreraient tout d'abord sur les violations de la propriété intellectuelle des firmes américaines.

 

Samedi, le chef du Pentagone Chuck Hagel a profité d'un forum sur la sécurité en Asie en présence d'une délégation militaire chinoise pour accuser Pékin de se livrer à l'espionnage informatique.

 

Cette nouvelle mise en cause, exprimée devant les principaux responsables militaires asiatiques, met la pression sur Pékin une semaine avant un sommet entre le président Barack Obama et son homologue chinois Xi Jinping.

 

Début mai, un rapport du Pentagone au Congrès a dénoncé une vaste campagne d'espionnage informatique menée par Pékin pour tenter de collecter des renseignements sur les programmes de défense américains.

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