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21 septembre 2014 7 21 /09 /septembre /2014 11:35
Le Bangladesh achète 2 sous-marins à la Chine

 

21 septembre 2014. Portail des Sous-Marins

 

Le Bangladesh a signé un accord avec la Chine un contrat pour l’achat de 2 sous-marins pour un montant de 150.000 €. La marine chinoise utilise actuellement ces 2 sous-marins mis en service il y a 24 ans. La marine du Bangladesh devrait les recevoir en 2018 après qu’ils aient été reconditionnés.

 

L’objectif du Bangladesh serait d’acheter au total 4 sous-marins. Près de 200 personnes seront nécessaires pour la mise en œuvre des sous-marins et leur environnement et plusieurs ont déjà été formées pour cela.

 

Un membre de la commission d’achat a indiqué : « La Chine va fournir 2 sous-marins du type 035 G. »

 

Les sous-marins du type 035G sont dérivés du sous-marin soviétique Romeo (conçus dans les années 50. Le type 035G a été développé à partir de 1985 et le premier exemplaire lancé en 1990.

 

La base sous-marine sera construite sur le canal de Kutibdia, à Pekua upazila.

 

Référence : Prothom Alo (Bangladesh)

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16 septembre 2014 2 16 /09 /septembre /2014 16:35
Two J-10 fighters at the Zhuhai Airshow on Nov. 5, 2008. (Photo Xinhua)

Two J-10 fighters at the Zhuhai Airshow on Nov. 5, 2008. (Photo Xinhua)

 

September 16, 2014: Strategy Page

 

China continues to have problems with its locally produced military jet engines. The biggest problems are with the WS-10 series, which was designed and produced in China and the government has been pressuring the aircraft manufacturers to use Chinese made engines like this instead of Russian imports. This has not been working out as the government wants. For example, the new Chinese carrier fighter, the J-15, is supposed to have a more powerful Chinese made engine so that it can carry more weight using the ski jump deck on the new Chinese carrier. The ski jump is a cheaper and less complex take off alternative to the steam catapult. One disadvantage of the ski jump deck is that it cannot launch aircraft as heavy as a catapult can. China has developed a more powerful version of their WS-10 engine (the WS-10H) for the J-15 but has only been seen in two J-15s. Most J-15s are still using Russian AL-31Fs. China keeps details of its WS-10 development secret, but they cannot hide which of their aircraft are using the WS-10 and which the Russian made AL-31s that the WS-10 is based on and is supposed to replace. It is obvious that not a lot of WS-10s are being installed and that indicates the quality control and reliability problems of the WS-10 persist despite government denials.

 

The first WS-10s began showing up in J-11s back in 2004. In 2010 China revealed that it was replacing the Russian engines in its J-10 fighter, installing Chinese made WS-10A in place of the Russian made AL-31FN. Shortly after that announcement China ordered another 123 AL-31FNs, to be delivered by 2012. More AL-31s have been ordered but at the same time more Chinese fighters were being seen with WS-10s. Despite that the demand for AL-31s, based on the number of modern jet fighters China wants to build, is exceeding the Russian engine building capacity.

 

The Chinese claim the WS-10A is superior to the AL-31F, even though the WS-10A copied a lot of the Russian technology. The Chinese say they have improved on that. For example, as delivered from Russia, the original AL-31 was good for 900 hours of operation. The Chinese claim their engineers figured out how to tweak the design of the engine so that it would last for 1,500 hours. Russia has since improved their basic AL-31 lifetime to 1,500 hours, and, most recently, 2,000 hours. When pressed, the Chinese claim that they simply cannot produce enough WS-10As for all the new airframes they are building. But the reality is that the WS-10As have some serious, unpredictable and persistent reliability problems that limit the number of reliable (enough for regular use) engines available.

 

Back in 2011 China believed it would be free from dependence on Russia for military jet engines by 2016, which implied that Chinese engine manufacturers still had a way to go. Now the most any Chinese will admit to is that there will be no need for Russian engines by the end of the decade, maybe. Meanwhile China continues to import AL-31s and the RD-93 (a version of the MiG-29's RD-33) for the JF-17 (an F-16 type aircraft developed in cooperation with Pakistan) from Russia. These engines are expensive, with the RD-33 going for about $3 million each and the AL-31 for about a third more.

 

Since the 1990s Chinese engineers have managed to master the manufacturing techniques needed to make a Chinese copy of the Russian AL-31 engine. This is part of a program that has also developed the WS-13, to replace the RD-93 as well. While the Chinese have been able to build engines that are durable, they are still having problems with reliability. Apparently it is still worth buying more Russian engines because the Chinese models are out of action too often, which keeps the jets grounded for repairs or, worst of all, an engine change.

 

China has long copied foreign technology, not always successfully. But since the 1990s China has poured much money into developing a jet engine manufacturing capability. The Chinese encountered many of the same problems the Russians did in the beginning. Developing the necessary engine design and construction skills is difficult. But China has several advantages. First, they knew of the mistakes the Russians had made, and so were able to avoid many of them. Then there was the fact that China had better access to Western manufacturing technology (both legally and illegally). Finally, China was, unlike the Soviets, able to develop their engine manufacturing capabilities in a market economy. This was much more efficient than the command economy that the Soviets were saddled with for seven decades. The Chinese consider all this part of the learning process and they do learn from their mistakes.

 

Meanwhile the Chinese can build more Su-27 clones than they can reliable engines for them, and they keep developing more Su-27 variants. The Chinese J-11 jet fighter is an illegal Chinese copy of the Russian Su-27. It all began legally in 1995, when China paid $2.5 billion for the right to build 200 Su-27s. Russia would supply engines and electronics, with China building the other components according to Russian plans and specifications. But after 95 of the Chinese built aircraft were built Russia cancelled the agreement. Russia claimed that China was using the knowledge acquired with this Su-27 program to build their own copy of the Su-27, the J-11. The Chinese claimed that the J-11 was designed and built using only Chinese technology. China also has a stealthy version (J-17) of the Su-27. There is also an aircraft carrier version of the Su-30 (the Su-33, obtained from Ukraine) that is now in service as the J-15. In 2013 J-16s were spotted. This is a two-seat fighter-bomber similar to the American F-15E and nearly identical to the Russian Su-30MKK. China insists these are all Chinese designs that just happen to bear some resemblance to Russian fighters.

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4 septembre 2014 4 04 /09 /septembre /2014 12:35
Coopération Chine-Pologne: un fort potentiel dans le domaine de la défense (officiels)

 

2014-09-03 xinhua

 

Le président du Sénat polonais Bogdan Borusewicz et le ministre chinois de la Défense, Chang Wanquan, ont indiqué mardi lors d'une rencontre à Varsovie qu'il y a un potentiel pour élargir la coopération de défense bilatérale.

 

Soulignant que les relations sino-polonaises ont maintenu un élan de développement positif ces dernières années, M. Borusewicz a indiqué que le renforcement des liens amicaux avec la Chine demeure l'un des piliers des relations étrangères de la Pologne.

 

Les deux parties sont complémentaires dans le domaine de la coopération militaire, a-t-il indiqué, soulignant le potentiel pour la coopération sur les technologies de défense.

 

M. Chang, qui est également un conseiller d'Etat chinois, a indiqué que ces dernières années ont reflété l'approfondissement continu de la confiance politique mutuelle, des échanges fructueux et une coopération fructueuse dans divers domaines et davantage d'échanges entre les armées des deux pays.

 

Il y a encore un grand potentiel pour élargir la coopération entre la Chine et la Pologne dans le domaine militaire et la défense, a ajouté M. Chang.

 

Lors de la rencontre, les deux parties ont exprimé la volonté de travailler avec l'autre pour continuer de promouvoir le partenariat stratégique sino-polonais.

 

M. Chang a également rencontré mardi son homologue polonais Tomasz Siemoniak. Les deux parties ont appelé à promouvoir les échanges entre les autorités de défense et les armées des deux pays.

 

Le président chinois Xi Jinping et les leaders de l'Union européenne ont convenu de construire des partenariats pour la paix, la croissance, la réforme et la civilisation lors de la visite de M. Xi en mars dernier, ce qui indique qu'il y a de nouvelles opportunités de développement pour les relations entre la Chine et l'Europe et entre la Chine et la Pologne, a indiqué M. Chang.

 

Il a proposé que les autorités de défense et les armées des deux pays maintiennent le rythme de leurs visites de haut niveau, initient des consultations stratégiques de défense et étendent la portée des échanges bilatéraux dans les domaines militaire et de la défense .

 

Selon M. Siemoniak, la Pologne et la Chine sont très complémentaires et le ministère de la Défense et l'armée de la Pologne accordent une grande importance à leurs relations avec la Chine.

 

Le ministre polonais a appelé à un approfondissement des échanges entre les ministères de la défense et les armées des deux pays ainsi qu'à davantage de coopération dans divers domaines, dont la formation de personnel, la logistique et les services de santé.

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2 septembre 2014 2 02 /09 /septembre /2014 16:35
Japan's defence budget jumps 2.4% to bolster ISR capabilities

 

08/29/2014 Defence IQ Press

 

Signalling further tensions in the Asia-Pacific region, Japan’s Ministry of Defence has requested a 2.4% increase in its annual budget. The 2015 budget will total ¥4.9 trillion ($47.25 billion).

 

In a budget request document, Japan’s MoD stated that the regional security environment has become more tense recently, citing China’s increasing activities in Japan’s vicinity as well as North Korea’s missile launches.

 

Its main priority is to increase its intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) capabilities following threats against its sovereign territory from China and North Korea. “China’s lack of transparency in its broad and rapid military modernisation as well as rapid expansion and intensification of maritime activities,” as it’s put in the budget request document.

 

Japan is seeking to acquire4 P-1 fixed-wing patrol aircraft at a cost of ¥ 77.3 billion ($12.6 billion) to improve detection/discrimination capabilities, information processing capability, and attack capability compared to its existing P-3C fixed-wing patrol aircraft.

 

The MoD said it was considering introducing HALE-UAVs that would contribute to strengthening its wide-area persistent ISR capability.

 

Japan is also upping its F-35A count from four to six at a cost of ¥131.5 billion ($21.4 billion).

 

Other capability areas Japan is looking to bolster include responding to attacks on remote islets; responding to ballistic missile and guerrilla/special force attacks; responding to cyber attacks; large-scale natural disaster response; strengthening joint operations; and strengthening intelligence capabilities.

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2 septembre 2014 2 02 /09 /septembre /2014 11:35
Budget de défense japonais : Chine et Corée du Nord en ligne de mire

 

1er septembre par Edouard Pflimlin, chercheur associé à l’IRIS

 

Le ministère de la Défense japonais a demandé une hausse de 2,5 % de son budget pour l’année fiscale 2015 pour un montant total de 4900 milliards de yens (47,25 milliards de dollars ou 35,8 milliards d’euros), soit un retour du budget à son niveau des années 1990, quand il était à son apogée, et la consolidation de l’inversion d’une décennie de déclin dans les années 2000, souligne vendredi 29 août le site Defense News (1).Si l’on prend en compte, en plus des chiffres du ministère de la Défense, les coûts associés au redéploiement d’une partie des forces américaines de l’île d’Okinawa vers des îles américaines comme Guam, le montant global des dépenses militaires atteint même 5050 milliards de yens (53 milliards de dollars, soit une hausse de 3,5 % du budget militaire sur un an).

 

Suite de l’article

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14 août 2014 4 14 /08 /août /2014 07:35
US Reassures China as 2,500 Marines Head to Australia

 

Aug. 12, 2014 – Defense News (AFP)

 

SYDNEY — The United States stressed Tuesday it welcomes the rise of China and wants to work constructively with Beijing as it signed a deal to deploy 2,500 Marines to Australia as part of its “rebalance” to Asia.

 

China bristled when the agreement to deploy Marines to the northern city of Darwin was first announced by President Barack Obama in 2011.

 

But after signing the deal at the Australia-United States Ministerial Consultations (AUSMIN) in Sydney, US Secretary of State John Kerry said Washington was not interested in conflict with the Asian powerhouse.

 

“We welcome the rise of China as a global partner, hopefully as a powerful economy, as a full participating constructive member of the international community,” he said.

 

“We are not seeking conflict and confrontation. And our hope is that China will likewise take advantage of the opportunities that are in front of it and be that cooperative partner.”

 

Australia’s Foreign Minister Julie Bishop earlier defended the deal to bring US Marines and Air Force personnel to the Northern Territory, denying it was aimed at China which is embroiled in maritime disputes with neighbors.

 

“That’s not what it is directed to do at all. It’s about working closely with the United States to ensure that we can work on regional peace and security,” she told a radio program.

 

“The United States is rebalancing to the Asia-Pacific so it’s ways we can work together to support economic development as well as security and peace.”

 

After the talks Bishop, who also hosted US Defense Secretary Chuck Hagel, said the discussions were broad — ranging from tensions on the Korean peninsula to the crisis in Ukraine and to conflicts in Syria, Iraq, Gaza and Afghanistan.

 

Threat of Foreign Jihadists

 

The threat of foreign jihadist militants fighting in these conflicts and then returning home radicalized was also explored. The US and Australia agreed to raise the issue at the United Nations.

 

Kerry said this problem, highlighted by images in local media of the seven-year-old son of an Australian jihadist in Syria holding a severed head, underscored the degree to which Islamic State fighters were “so far beyond the pale.”

 

“This image, perhaps even an iconic photograph, is really one of the most disturbing, stomach-turning, grotesque photos ever displayed,” Kerry said.

 

“It’s no accident that every country in the region is opposed to ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant).”

 

Bishop made no comment about the prospect of an increased US military presence beyond the Marines, some 1,200 of whom are already in the country.

 

But a communique issued after the talks said that enhanced aircraft and naval cooperation was discussed, while the allies would also examine options for Australia’s contributions to ballistic missile defense in the region.

 

Bishop said there existed between Australia and the United States “a clear instinct for collaboration across a wide area of endeavor.”

 

“There is a desire to share the burden of implementing regional and global peace and prosperity, security and stability,” she said.

 

Bishop added that there was no more important security partner for Australia than the US and their longstanding alliance “had never been stronger.”

 

But she said Canberra did not envisage Australian troops would return to Iraq, where the US is carrying out air strikes and humanitarian airdrops to try to combat jihadist fighters.

 

However, Australia has offered support for humanitarian relief.

 

Kerry also ruled out sending troops to Iraq.

 

Speaking at the start of the talks at Sydney’s harborside Admiralty House, he said the Australia-US relationship was “essential to the stability of the Asia-Pacific region.”

 

“We do face new challenges,” he said, citing North Korea and maritime disputes in the South China Sea.

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14 août 2014 4 14 /08 /août /2014 07:35
The Z-18F, China's new anti-submarine weapon


13.08.2014 Pacific Sentinel
 

To strengthen the anti-submarine capability of the People's Liberation Army Navy, Z-18F helicopters will likely serve on the Liaoning, the nation's first aircraft carrier and the Type 071 Yuzhao-class amphibious transport docks according to a report by Hangzhou-based Qianjiang Evening News published Aug. 12.
 
The paper cited a Chinese military website which stated that the Z-18F is likely a modified version of the Z-8F helicopter designed based on the French-built SA 321 Super Frelon. By looking at photos posted online, Li Xiaojian, a Chinese military expert told the paper that the Z-18F is probably equipped with four eight-tube sonobuoy launchers, allowing the helicopter to carry 32 sonobuoys. A US SH-60 Seahawk, in comparison, is only able to carry 25 sonobuoys, according to Li.
 
Read the full story at Want China Times

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13 août 2014 3 13 /08 /août /2014 16:35
Japan’s New Remote Island Defense Plan

The Japanese government is stepping up efforts to increase both its presence and the population’s awareness of claims to remote islands off the western coast of its main islands. The plans include the stationing of troops, increased investment in development, and the strengthening of “maritime education.” While these plans target islands from as far north as Hokkaido all the way south to Okinawa, they are still primarily concerned with exerting Japan’s claims to islands that are disputed with China.

 

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12 août 2014 2 12 /08 /août /2014 16:35
Les militaires russes participeront à des exercices en Chine

 

11.08.2014 Par La Voix de la Russie

 

Environ 900 militaires russes de la région militaire Est sont partis pour la Chine où ils participeront aux exercices de l'Organisation de coopération de Shanghai (OCS) Mission de paix 2014.

 

Les manoeuvres auront lieu du 24 au 29 août avec la participation des contingents des cinq pays de l'OCS, à savoir la Russie, le Kazakhstan, le Kighizistan, la Chine et le Tadjikistan.

 

Les exercices engageront plus de 7 000 militaires des Etats membres de l'OCS.

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12 août 2014 2 12 /08 /août /2014 12:35
L’espace, nouvelle arène de rivalité entre le Japon et la Chine

 

12/08/2014 Par Natalia Aantakolskaïa, La Voix de la Russie – RIA Novosti

 

Le projet japonais de création de troupes spatiales risque de provoquer une dégradation des relations sino-japonaises et d’exacerber la rivalité entre les deux pays dans le domaine de l’aérospatiale, selon le pronostic de l’expert du Centre des recherches japonaises Viktor Pavliatenko. L’approbation par le ministère de la Défense du projet de formation d’une unité spatiale des forces d’autodéfense est un nouveau pas vers le renforcement du potentiel militaire du Japon, estime l’expert.

 

Le principal objectif déclaré de la nouvelle unité consiste à suivre la trajectoire des débris spatiaux. En d’autres termes, il s’agit de prévenir la collision entre de vieux satellites hors de service et des fragments de missiles avec des appareils du groupe spatial japonais. Mais, les Japonais ne créent pas ces forces militaires uniquement pour lutter contre les débris spatiaux. La tension politique dans les relations de Tokyo avec Pékin crée toutes les conditions pour utiliser les capacités du nouveau groupe afin de mieux surveiller l’activité militaire de la Chine.

 

«Ce processus est réalisé par tous les moyens disponibles, et notamment à l’aide des groupes spatiaux à la disposition du Japon»,explique l’expert du centre des recherches japonaises Viktor Pavliatenko. « Le Japon affirme avoir déjà surveillé des tirs nucléaires de la Corée du Nord et résoudre ainsi les questions liées à la sécurité nationale. Mais les satellites du pays récoltent la même information sur la Chine, et le font depuis longtemps, ce qui est naturel. Les nouvelles unités spatiales vont élargir la gamme de contrôle, car elles se doteront d’un soutien supplémentaire sous forme de stations de surveillance terrestre, de radars et de télescopes».

 

Le Japon réfléchit à la nécessité de renforcer le contrôle de l’espace après le test réussi d'un missile antisatellite chinois en 2007. Un an plus tard, Tokyo a même modifié sa loi limitant les recherches spatiales au domaine scientifique. En juillet, la Chine aurait à nouveau lancé une fusée dans l'espace pour détruire les vaisseaux spatiaux. Et l’approbation par le ministère de la Défense du Japon du projet de formation des forces spatiales a coïncidé avec ce lancement.

 

«Il est absolument évident que ce n’est pas le degré de concurrence entre la Chine et le Japon qui augmente, mais le niveau de rivalité. Les deux pays sont passés d’une phase à une autre », poursuit Viktor Pavliatenko. « La Chine dépasse déjà le Japon dans de nombreux domaines de l’armement. C’est pourquoi la dimension concurrentielle du facteur spatial se renforce. La Chine a progressé assez loin dans cette rivalité : elle lance déjà ses stations spatiales habitées. Et son potentiel est suffisamment élevé. La Chine est devenue l'une des plus grandes puissances spatiales, et en termes de rivalité avec la RPC, le Japon est en train de perdre la bataille.»

 

Pékin réagit très mal à toutes ces tentatives du gouvernement de Shindzo Abe de réviser la nature pacifiste de la Constitution japonaise. Et en particulier doter ses Forces d'autodéfense des fonctions d’armée d’offensive. La légalisation de l’aérospatiale militaire est un facteur qui agace Pékin, est convaincu Victor Pavliatenko.

 

«Cela pourrait amener la Chine à entreprendre de nouvelles actions, d’intensifier l’activité de sa politique extérieure, qui est déjà suffisamment active. Et c’est un nouveau pas idéologique en avant pour les Japonais. Etape par étape, le Japon essaie de s’approcher de l’objectif que de nombreux dirigeants auraient appelé «devenir un Etat normal ». Le Japon ne veut plus être une troisième puissance économique, et ne jouer aucun rôle dans la solution des problèmes militaires et politiques non seulement dans la région Asie-Pacifique, mais aussi sur l’arène internationale. Devenir un Etat normal, cela veut dire avoir les instruments nécessaires qu’on peut utiliser notamment comme une démonstration de la force et de la détermination du Japon. Cela insuffle de la force et de la confiance aux Japonais. Quant à la création des forces militaires dans l'espace - c'est vraiment « du baume au cœur » pour tous les Japonais. »

 

Les experts estiment que la création de forces militaires spatiales au Japon pourrait augmenter sensiblement les risques de militarisation de l'espace. Cependant les Etats-Unis, au même titre que la Chine, sont également en train de renforcer leurs groupes spatiaux militaires et travaillent activement à la conception d’armes antisatellites.

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12 août 2014 2 12 /08 /août /2014 12:35
PLA Navy set to build 10 aircraft carriers

 

2014-08-12 wantchinatimes.com

 

To create its first blue-water navy, China plans to construct a total of 10 domestic aircraft carriers according to the Kanwa Defense Review, a Chinese-language military magazine operated by Andrei Chang also known as Pinkov, a military analyst from Canada.

 

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12 août 2014 2 12 /08 /août /2014 07:40
Following Sanctions, Russia Turns to China for Defense and Aerospace Equipment

 

August 12, 2014 By Ankit Panda – The Diplomat

 

Given increasing Western sanctions, Moscow turns to Beijing for its defense and aerospace needs.

 

Facing sanctions from the West for its actions in Ukraine earlier this year, including the annexation of Crimea and supporting Ukrainian separatists, Russia will increasingly turn to China for its military and aerospace components. According to RIA Novosti report citing a Russian-language report by Izvestia, “Russian aerospace and military-industrial enterprises will purchase electronic components worth several billion dollars from China.” The information is based on a source “close to Roscosmos, Russia’s Federal Space Agency.”

According to the Roscomos source: “[Russia does] work with the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation (CASIC) … Its institutions have already offered us a few dozen items, representing a direct alternative to, or slight modifications of the elements [Russia] will no longer be able to acquire because of the sanctions introduced by the United States.” Currently, Russia’s extensive military and aerospace industries do not source their components in China. “Over the next two, two-and-a-half years, until Russian manufacturers put the necessary space and military electronic components into production, plans call for the purchase of such items from China amounting to several billion dollars,” the source adds.

Additionally, according to Andrei Ionin, chief analyst at GLONASS Union, “establishing large-scale cooperation with Chinese manufacturers could become the first step toward forming a technology alliance involving BRICS member states.”

If Russia is indeed looking to China for military and aerospace components, it further signals that the Beijing-Moscow relationship continues to tilt in the former’s favor. The recent $400 billion natural gas deal between the two sides also showed another aspect of the changing dynamics in bilateral relations. Reports suggest that Moscow acquiesced to Beijing’s price demands in order to seal a 30-year deal.

Moreover, while Western sanctions will drive Russia and China closer together, they are not the only reason for the strategic convergence between these two countries. Both Russia and China have increased their cooperation in recent years and work together at international forums, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization.

Under the latest round of E.U. and U.S. sanctions over the ongoing Ukraine conflict, Russian financial institutions, defense firms, and energy companies are increasingly isolated on a global scale.

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12 août 2014 2 12 /08 /août /2014 07:35
Southeast Asia builds home-grown defense industry

 

12.08.2014 cnbc.com (Reuters)

 

Spurred by tensions with China, Southeast Asian nations are building up their own defense industries, channeling fast-growing military budgets to develop local expertise and lower their dependence on big U.S. and European arms suppliers.

 

While countries such as Indonesia, Thailand and Malaysia won't do away with big-ticket imports from giants like Airbus or Lockheed Martin, they are increasingly encouraging domestic defense firms to manufacture hardware locally. With regional defense spending seen rising to $40 billion in 2016, 10 percent higher than last year, some countries are already developing their own exports.

 

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11 août 2014 1 11 /08 /août /2014 19:40
Biathlon en chars d'assaut - ChM: la Russie remporte le sprint

 

MOSCOU, 11 août - RIA Novosti

 

La Russie a remporté dimanche le sprint au premier championnat du monde de biathlon en chars d'assaut qui se déroule sur le polygone d'Alabino, dans la région de Moscou, a annoncé lundi le service de presse du ministère russe de la Défense.

 

"Le bilan du sprint a été dressé à Alabino, dans la région de Moscou. Les trois équipages russes sont entrés au Top 10", a indiqué le service de presse. Les Russes se sont classés premiers, troisièmes et sixièmes parmi les 36 équipages. Le Kazakhstan a pris la 2e place.

 

L'épreuve de poursuite a commencé lundi à Alabino dans le cadre de la deuxième étape des compétitions. Les chars devront parcourir une distance de 4 kilomètres, détruire une cible de type "char" par des obus d'artillerie et neutraliser un canon anti-char au moyen d'une mitrailleuse.

 

Le premier championnat du monde de biathlon en char d'assaut se déroule du 4 au 16 août, engageant des équipages de 12 Etats: Angola, Arménie, Biélorussie, Chine, Inde, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Koweït, Mongolie, Russie, Serbie et Venezuela.  Les pays membres de l'Otan ont refusé de participer aux compétitions et ont envoyé leurs observateurs.

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11 août 2014 1 11 /08 /août /2014 11:35
Five Scenarios for the South China Sea


11 Aug. 2014 Pacific Sentinel
 

A Vietnamese-American space scientist has published an article entitled Five Scenarios for East Sea on Hanoi-based online newspaper VietNamNet Bridge on August 1, analyzing the historical background of the Paracel Islands and Spratly Islands disputes, and arguing that Vietnam has never given up sovereignty over the former, as well as predicting five possible scenarios for the South China Sea–known as the East Sea in Vietnam–that may occur within the next ten years.

 

In the article Thai Van Cau said that in the first scenario, China will utilize military force to invade part of or the whole of the Spratly Islands in an attempt to "resolve disputes and establish sovereignty over the islands and its territorial waters by 2020," as Chinese scholars have suggested.

 

The precedent for this is China's use of military force against Vietnam in marine disputes during the 1970s and 1980s, he said.

 

China's military ventures in the Spratly Islands are motivated by its ambition to control all of the islands. This move is likely to destabilize the South China Sea region and affect marine traffic for countries such as the US, Japan, and India.

 

China has been monitoring the response of the US and the EU to the Ukraine crisis, to try and get an idea of the backlash that will be unleashed against it should the nation make any dramatic moves in the South China Sea, the report stated. The annexation of Crimea by Russia may not be the best guide for China to go by, however, due to geopolitical and economic differences, Thai said. 

 

Read the full story at Want China Times

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11 août 2014 1 11 /08 /août /2014 07:35
Chinese Radar May Pierce F-35 Stealth Armor: Report

 

July 31, 2014 by Brendan McGarry -  defensetech.org

 

Increasingly sophisticated radar in China and Russia may soon be able to pierce the stealth armor on F-22 and F-35 fighter jets, according to a news report.

 

The stealth coating on the U.S.-made fifth-generation fighters shields the aircraft from high-frequency radars operating in the Ku, X and C bands and some of the S band, but not from low-frequency systems utilizing L, UHF and VHF wavelengths, according to an article by Dave Majumdar at USNI News.

 

China and Russia are now working to develop low-frequency radars with more computing power designed to track stealth aircraft with more precision — enough to target them with a missile, according to the report, citing an unnamed former senior U.S. Navy official.

 

“Acquisition and fire control radars are starting to creep down the frequency spectrum,” the official told USNI News. “I don’t see how you long survive in the world of 2020 or 2030 when dealing with these systems if you don’t have the lower frequency coverage.”

 

To be sure, the Defense Department is aware of the increasing sophistication of enemy air defenses, known in military parlance as anti-access, area-denial, or A2-AD, environments.

 

The Pentagon’s latest annual report to Congress on military and security developments in China notes the country is continuing its military build-up and views defense against stealth aircraft and drones as “a growing priority.”

 

The People’s Liberation Army, or PLA, has long sought to control the flow of information in the event of war to thwart data-hungry adversaries such as the U.S. It considers the strategy of “information dominance” a critical form of defense against countries that it views as “information dependent,” according to previous assessments.

 

Perhaps not surprisingly, the People’s Liberation Army Navy, or PLAN, sent an uninvited spy ship, probably the type 815 Dongdiao-class intelligence collection vessel Beijixing (pennant number 851), to this year’s Rim of the Pacific exercise, according to an article by Sam LaGrone of USNI News.

 

China is participating in the event — the world’s largest naval exercise, held off the coast of Hawaii — for the first time this year, with four vessels.

 

The head of U.S. Pacific Command, Adm. Samuel Locklear, this week described the presence of the surveillance ship as “a little odd,” though it “hasn’t created any difficulties in the exercise,” which ends Friday.

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10 août 2014 7 10 /08 /août /2014 11:35
Is China Preparing MIRVed Ballistic Missiles?

 

August 08, 2014 By Zachary Keck -- thediplomat.com

 

China’s new DF-5A and DF-31A ICBM tests once again highlight its rising interest in MIRVed ICBMs.

 

China tested two of its intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) last week, the Washington Times reported on Thursday.

According to the Washington Times report by Bill Gertz, who cited unnamed U.S. officials, China tested its Dong Feng 31A (DF-31A/CSS-10) and Dong Feng 5A (DF-5A/CSS-4) ICBMs last week.

The DF-5A is an upgraded version of the DF-5 ICBMs that China first tested in 1971. It is a three stage, liquid propellant silo-based missile with a range of 13,000 km and a throw weight of roughly 3,000 kg.

The DF-31A is China’s new road-mobile ICBM, based off the older DF-31 ICBM that China first tested in 1999. It is a three stage solid-propellant rocket with a range of roughly 11,200–12,000 km. This is the fourth known testing of the DF-31A ICBM. Its sea-based variant, the JL-2, will provide China with its first credible sea-based nuclear deterrent when it is deployed on China’s Type 094 Jin-class ballistic missile submarines (SSBN) sometime this year.

Both the DF-5A and the DF-31A are capable of hitting the United States.

The Washington Times article did not specify exactly where the tests had occurred, but it did not that previous DF-31A tests have taken place at China’s Taiyuan Space Launch Center in Shanxi Province in northern China. However, it seems quite possible that the ICBM tests were part of the ongoing military drills that China announced late last month in the eastern parts of the country. As previously noted, these drills have caused significant delays to civilian air travel in eastern China. Earlier in the drills, China conducted what it claimed was an anti-ballistic missile test, but which the U.S. believes was really an anti-satellite test.

The earlier anti-missile/anti-satellite test, along with the new ICBM tests, underscore the growing attention China’s military is placing on its strategic and missile capabilities. Last week China inadvertently confirmed the existence of a new generation ICBM, the Dongfeng-41 (DF-41), which the U.S. Department of Defense has said may be capable of carrying multiple independently targetable re-entry vehicles (MIRVs).

MIRV missiles can deliver multiple (usually nuclear) warheads to different targets, and were seen as widely destabilizing to the nuclear balance during the Cold War when the United States and Soviet Union began deploying them in the 1970s. The U.S. just phased out the last of its land-based MIRV ICBMs, although it continues to deploy MIRV submarine launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs). Russia continues to field MIRV ICBMs.

Interestingly, the new reports about the DF-5A and DF-31A ICBM tests also highlight China’s potentially growing interest in acquiring a MIRV capability. According to the Federation of Atomic Scientists, “in November 1983 China inaugurated a DF-5 modification program to arm these ICBMs with MIRVed warheads.” Although technical difficulties prevented that program from reaching fruition, it is also believed that China later designated the DF-5A as its MIRV missile.

It has also been widely speculated, including by the U.S. Department of Defense, that the DF-31A may be MIRV capable. Most analyses suggest that the road-mobile ICBM may be capable of carrying up to 3 warheads. At this point, most believe that China is only deploying single warheads on its DF-5A and the DF-31A ICBMs, although some foreign analysts have claimed that it has already MIRVed some of its missile forces.

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10 août 2014 7 10 /08 /août /2014 11:35
Air Transportation: The Helicopter China Cannot Get Enough Of

 

August 9, 2014: Strategy Page

 

The Russian Helicopter Corporation delivered to China the last of 52 Mi-171E helicopters ordered since 2012. This model can carry up to 37 passengers or four tons of cargo and has engines that are particularly effective under "hot and high" conditions. This is useful for the Chinese, who need equipment that can operate in Tibet (where many areas are at altitudes of over 4,000 meters). China is quite fond of the Mi-17 and the older Mi-8 it is derived from. Currently China operates 160 Mi-171 helicopters.

 

In 2008 China signed deals that allows it to legally manufacture the Mi-171, but it is still buying them from Russia because it takes time to set up manufacturing facilities and China needs more military transport helicopters right now and can afford to pay. Currently China has about 300 Mi-17/Mi-8 type helicopters and over 500 locally made helicopters. Most (Z9/Z-19) of these local builds are based on the Eurocopter AS 365 Dauphin while another hundred locally built Z-10 gunships were based on a Russian design. China has shown a preference for the Mi-8/17 design and would like to build a thousand or more Mi-171s locally under license.

 

In 2010 Chinese and Russian helicopter manufacturers established a joint venture to perform maintenance and refurbishment on helicopters, especially those of Russian design. This is part of a larger plan, which also includes the factory in China building Mi-171s.

 

The M-171 is basically an inexpensive transport helicopter. But it can easily be modified to carry weapons, or any other specialized gear. Some of the Mi-171s are even being equipped with radars and other sensors, to be used for reconnaissance and surveillance. The basic Mi-171 is based on the 1970s era Mi-17, which is the export version of the similar Mi-8. Weighing about 12 tons, and carrying a four ton load, the Mi-171 has a range of 590 kilometers at a cruising speed of 250 kilometers per hour. There is a crew of three and as many passengers as can be squeezed in (up to 40 people, but usually 20-30.) A sling underneath can also carry up to four tons.

 

Several hundred Mi-171s have been exported by Russia. The helicopter is rugged, inexpensive ($4-5 million each) and better suited for less affluent nations. Development of this model was completed in 1998 and Russia has been pushing sales hard.

 

In 2008 Russia and China signed an agreement, in which China promised to stop stealing Russian military technology. It appears that the main function of the new "military technical cooperation" agreement was to stop China from exporting their copies of Russian equipment, and competing with the Russian originals. This agreement immediately led to some interesting proposals regarding helicopters. Russia agreed to sell China six Helix anti-submarine helicopters, with the possibility of joint manufacture. Meanwhile, the Mi-171 deal quickly turned into the Chinese Mi-171 factory.

 

There was also a proposal for China and Russia to jointly develop a large transport helicopter, based on the existing Mi-26T (a 20 ton aircraft that can carry 80 passengers). There may be other joint development deals to produce updated versions of existing Russian helicopter designs. This sort of thing could be mutually beneficial, and China now has a domestic source for inexpensive transport helicopters, which its civilian and military markets are demanding many of.

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10 août 2014 7 10 /08 /août /2014 07:35
China Asked SoKor to Cancel Pohang-Class Corvette Donation to Philippines

Pohang class corvette (photo : Chosun)

 

09 Aug. 2014 Defense Studies

“China has strongly protested against the [South Korean] government’s decision to donate a 1,200-ton patrol boat and a landing vessel to the Philippines, it emerged Monday,” reported August 5 by The Chosun Ilbo, one of major news providers in South Korea.

“According to the Foreign Ministry, an official at the Chinese Embassy in Seoul visited the ministry on June 10 after the decision was reported by media and asked for it to be canceled,” it added.

On Philippine side, there is no report of cancellation.

South Korean Defense Minister Kim Kwang-jin told Defense Secretary Voltaire T. Gazmin at a meeting in Seoul last May 30 that Republic of Korea Navy (ROKN) will decommission a Pohang-class corvette (PCC) by year-end and will be donated to the Philippine Navy.

Minister Kim said South Korea’s gesture is a small token compared with the great contribution of Filipino troops during the Korean War.

Pohang-class corvettes, a class of general purpose vessels operated by the Republic of Korea Navy, are equipped with 4 Harpoon missiles, 2 OTO Melara(76mm)/62 compact cannon, 2 Breda 40mm/70 cannon, 6 Mark 46 torpedoes, 12 Mark 9 depth charges. Sensors and processing systems depend on whether it is an ASW or ASUW version.

The said ship is expected to be donated with intact armament and sensors.

(AngMalaya)

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9 août 2014 6 09 /08 /août /2014 12:40
Biathlon en chars d'assaut – ChM : la Russie en tête

 

MOSCOU, 5 août - RIA Novosti

 

L'équipe russe a remporté la première manche de la course individuelle au championnat du monde de biathlon en chars d'assaut qui se déroule sur le polygone militaire russe d'Alabino, dans la région de Moscou, a annoncé l'arbitre des compétitions, Iouri Petrov.

 

Selon ce dernier, la Russie a réalisé un chrono de 26 minutes et 39 secondes. L'Arménie se classe deuxième (28'58) devançant le Kazakhstan (29'53).

M.Petrov a précisé que seuls trois pays - Russie, Arménie et Chine - s'étaient pliés à toutes les exigences de la compétition et avaient parcouru la distance sans pénalités.

 

Le premier championnat du monde de biathlon en char d'assaut se tiendra du 4 au 16 août,  engageant des équipages de 12 Etats: Angola, Arménie, Biélorussie, Chine, Inde, Kazakhstan, Kirghizstan, Koweït, Mongolie, Russie, Serbie et Venezuela.  Les pays membres de l'Otan ont refusé de participer aux compétitions et ont envoyé leurs observateurs.

 

Le ministère russe de la Défense a organisé des séances d'entraînement pour les équipages de tous les pays participants et a mis à leur disposition des chars russes T-72. Les Chinois sont les seuls à utiliser des chars de fabrication nationale Type 96A.

 

La compétition de biathlon en chars d'assaut se déroule comme une course de relais à ski. Les chars doivent parcourir une piste de plus de 20 kilomètres parsemée d'obstacles et participer à trois séances de tir - en utilisant un missile, une mitrailleuse antiaérienne et trois obus d'artillerie. A la différence du biathlon classique, les équipages des chars doivent détruire des cibles imitant des chars et des hélicoptères volant à basse altitude à une distance de 0,9 km à 2,2 km.

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6 août 2014 3 06 /08 /août /2014 16:40
Espace/défense: la Russie achètera des composants en Chine

 

MOSCOU, 6 août - RIA Novosti

 

Les entreprises russes de l'industrie spatiale et de la défense veulent acheter des composants électroniques en Chine, les contrats pouvant atteindre plusieurs milliards de dollars, annonce mercredi le journal Izvestia se référant à une source proche de l'Agence fédérale spatiale russe (Roskosmos).

 

"Lors des 24-30 mois prochains, tant que notre industrie n'aura pas appris à fabriquer les composants électroniques pour l'industrie spatiale et la Défense, nous en achèterons en Chine pour plusieurs milliards de dollars", a indiqué l'interlocuteur du journal.

 

"Nous sommes en coopération avec la China Aerospace Science & Industry Corporation (CASIC). Les instituts de recherche qui en font partie nous ont déjà proposé plusieurs dizaines de composants qui sont soit une alternative directe, soit une version légèrement modifiée des composants que nous ne pourrons plus acheter suite aux sanctions imposées par les Etats-Unis", a indiqué l'interlocuteur du journal.

 

Le journal précise qu'actuellement, l'industrie spatiale et le complexe militaro-industriel russes n'utilisent pas de composants électroniques chinois.

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6 août 2014 3 06 /08 /août /2014 11:35
La Chine critique le livre blanc sur la défense publié par le Japon

 

2014-08-06 xinhua

 

La Chine a critiqué mardi le dernier livre blanc sur la défense publié par le Japon, accusant le pays d'utiliser la soi-disant menace chinoise comme excuse pour accroître son développement militaire.

 

Le gouvernement japonais a approuvé mardi un livre blanc sur la défense pour 2014. Le document explique que le Japon doit renforcer sa capacité de défense afin de faire face à un environnement de sécurité de plus en plus rigoureux dans son voisinage, précisant que les menaces venaient de la République populaire démocratique de Corée, de la Chine et de la Russie.

 

Le document exprime une vive préoccupation concernant le développement militaire de la Chine, l'établissement de la zone d'identification de défense aérienne en mer de Chine orientale, les "rencontres anormalement rapprochées" entre les avions militaires japonais et chinois ainsi que les activités de la partie chinoise en mer de Chine orientale et en mer de Chine méridionale.

 

Fermant les yeux sur les faits, le Japon procède à des accusations sans fondement et insiste délibérément sur la menace chinoise, selon un communiqué de presse du ministère chinois de la Défense nationale.

 

"Tout cela constitue une excuse permettant au Japon d'ajuster ses politiques militaires et de sécurité et de renforcer son développement militaire", déclare le ministère tout exprimant sa "forte opposition".

 

"Nous évaluons actuellement les détails du livre blanc et ferons part de nos réactions complémentaires en temps voulu", a-t-il ajouté.

 

Le livre blanc propose que le Japon joue un rôle dominant dans la coopération internationale et régionale en matière de défense, ce qui, d'après des analystes, illustre l'ambition de l'administration Abe de faire du Japon une puissance militaire dans la région.

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6 août 2014 3 06 /08 /août /2014 07:45
Late to the party, Obama seeks bigger U.S. Africa role

 

04 August 2014 defenceWeb (Reuters)

 

Ask Major-General Wayne W. Grigsby Jr., the top U.S. military officer in Africa, how he thinks U.S. and European-backed African troops are faring in their war on Islamist militants in Somalia, and his answer comes back smartly: "Pretty darn good!".

 

But when "son of Africa" U.S. President Barack Obama hosts 50 African leaders in Washington this week, the admiration may be less than mutual. Many Africans feel America is lagging behind China and others in its engagement with their continent.

 

The Aug. 4-6 U.S.-Africa Leaders Summit, billed by U.S. officials as a first-of-its-kind event, looks like a belated imitation of Africa gatherings hosted in recent years by China, India, Japan and the continent's former colonial master Europe.

 

The world's richest nation has been slow coming to the party of an economically rising Africa, long dismissed as a hopeless morass of poverty and war, but now offering investors a huge market for everything from banking and retail to mobile phones.

 

"The United States has fallen perhaps a little bit behind in the race to win African hearts and minds. So I think this is an attempt to compete with the likes of China and the European Union," said Christopher Wood, an analyst in economic diplomacy at the South African Institute of International Affairs.

 

The top U.S. diplomat for Africa, Linda Thomas-Greenfield bridles at suggestions that the Obama administration is playing catch-up. "Absolutely not," she said.

 

"Our relationship with Africa is a very strong historic relationship ... We see this as an opportunity to reaffirm that to African leaders," she said in a pre-summit conference call.

 

CHINA RACES AHEAD

 

China overtook the United States as Africa's biggest trade partner in 2009. Its leaders have criss-crossed the continent, proffering multi-billion dollar loans, aid and investment deals.

 

From Malabo to Maputo, Africa is studded with signs of Beijing's diplomatic and commercial outreach: Chinese-built roads, bridges, airports, stadiums, ministries and presidencies.

 

Since 2009, Obama, despite his African blood through a Kenyan father, has been a far less frequent visitor. His first substantial trip to the continent was only made last year.

 

Washington's many embassies in Africa - imposing concrete fortresses built to protect against angry mobs or terrorist attacks - project a cautious engagement from an Obama administration highly sensitive to a home public which has no appetite for overseas interventions after Iraq and Afghanistan.

 

Even U.S. Army Major-General Grigsby, surrounded by F-18s, C130 transports, helicopters and Humvees at his Camp Lemonnier toehold in the turbulent Horn of Africa, acknowledges the U.S. military's "small footprint" on a continent where flaring Islamist insurgencies are stirring international concern.

 

Security, governance and democracy will be on the agenda when Obama engages the leaders in an "interactive" discussion on Wednesday, following business talks with U.S. CEOs on Tuesday and discussions about health and wildlife trafficking on Monday.

 

Presidents Robert Mugabe of Zimbabwe and Omar Hassan al-Bashir of Sudan are among a few left off the invitation list because they are not "in good standing" with Washington for failing to respect human rights and democracy.

 

Presidents Ellen Johnson Sirleaf of Liberia and Ernest Bai Koroma of Sierra Leone have dropped out because of the deadly Ebola epidemic ravaging their nations. Thomas-Greenfield said ways of fighting the outbreak would be discussed at the summit.

 

TRADE IN FOCUS

 

Some concrete initiatives are expected from the meeting.

 

The United States will announce nearly $1 billion in business deals for the region, increase funding for peacekeeping in six African countries and boost food and power programmes.

 

Uppermost too will be Obama's strong recommendation for Congress to renew the African Growth Opportunity Act, or AGOA, a 14-year-old trade programme giving most African countries duty-free access to U.S. markets that expires on Sept. 30 next year.

 

Total U.S. two-way trade in Africa has actually fallen off in recent years, to about $60 billion in 2013, far eclipsed by the European Union with over $200 billion and China, whose $170 billion is a huge increase from $10 billion in 2000, according to a recent Africa in Focus post by the Brookings Institution.

 

While African leaders are keen on the AGOA renewal, Robert Besseling, Principal Africa Analyst, Economics and Country Risk, at IHS consultancy, said some are seeking better terms of trade.

 

"Some countries are skeptical about AGOA because it is oriented towards the U.S. companies and can be politically manipulated," Besseling said. For example Swaziland was cut from AGOA last month due to U.S. concerns over democracy there.

 

Obama officials are hoping to leverage U.S. corporations like General Electric Co, Caterpillar Inc and Procter & Gamble Co into more business opportunities in Africa amid intense competition from across the globe.

 

"In the boards of directors of big global U.S. companies, more and more people are raising their hands at meetings and saying 'why aren't we in Africa?'," said Toby Moffett, a former Congressman from Connecticut and a senior adviser at law firm Mayer Brown LLP, who has represented African governments.

 

Orji Uzor Kalu, a Nigerian businessman with oil, tourism and other interests in West Africa, echoed such complaints. "I'm not seeing the effort the U.S. made in Asia, they're not making the same effort in Africa," Kalu said from his Washington D.C. home.

 

BUILDING SECURITY, DEMOCRACY

 

Pointing to an Africa map showing hotspots like Somalia, Major-General Grigsby toes the line of a cautious security policy that involves keeping U.S. "boots on the ground" to a minimum while financing African peacekeeping and local training.

 

"My responsibility from a regional approach is to assist my East African teammates to be able to neutralize violent extremists and conduct their crisis response," Grigsby told Reuters at the Africa Command's Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa, where some 3,500 U.S. service personnel are based.

 

Obama said last year during his Africa trip his country put "muscle behind African efforts" to fight Islamist militants or brutal warlords in the Sahel, Central Africa and Somalia.

 

Although French forces did the heavy lifting on the ground in driving back an offensive by al Qaeda-allied Islamists in Mali in 2012, Washington has stepped up training African armies and deploying surveillance drones - to Niamey and N'Djamena besides those already operating over the Horn of Africa.

 

Some of the latest U.S. initiatives have clearly played to American domestic opinion and social media campaigns, such as sending a specialist team to help Nigeria search for the more than 200 schoolgirls kidnapped by Islamist group Boko Haram.

 

While U.S. officials say Washington remains influential, it may no longer wield the diplomatic clout it once had in Africa when it was squaring up to the Soviet Union during the Cold War.

 

Many noted how Ugandan President Yoweri Museveni, an ally in turbulent central Africa, went ahead in February with signing into law tougher penalties against homosexuality, ignoring an appeal from Obama who warned it would "complicate" relations.

 

This kind of diplomatic slap in the face "shows they have to reboot the relationship" with Africa, IHS's Besseling said.

 

On Friday, Uganda's constitutional court struck down the law, citing procedural irregularities.

 

African leaders have made clear they do not take kindly to moral lectures from Western leaders. By contrast, Beijing's pledges of aid and investment come with "no-strings attached".

 

But Moffett believes the U.S. insistence on democracy and good governance, which U.S. officials say will be re-affirmed at the summit, reflects a real transformation underway in Africa.

 

"President (Obama) can actually say, with a straight face, that the trajectory across Africa ... (is) towards more democracy, more adherence to rule of law, more transparency, more judicial independence, less corruption.

 

"The Chinese guys don't give that speech," Moffett said.

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6 août 2014 3 06 /08 /août /2014 07:35
Le Japon met en garde contre des actions dangereuses de Pékin en mer de Chine orientale

 

05 août 2014 Romandie.com (AFP)

 

Tokyo - Le Japon a averti mardi que les actions dangereuses de la Chine au-dessus et en mer de Chine orientale, où Pékin revendique des îlots contrôlés par Tokyo, pourraient avoir des conséquences non voulues.

 

Dans son libre blanc annuel de la défense, le Japon se dit profondément préoccupé par l'établissement (en novembre 2013) d'une zone de surveillance aérienne chinoise au-dessus de la mer de Chine orientale, une initiative qui ne fait que provoquer une escalade et pourrait avoir des conséquences non voulues.

 

En novembre dernier, Pékin avait annoncé la création de cette zone aérienne d'identification (ADIZ) couvrant une grande partie de cette mer et surtout l'archipel des Senkaku, réclamé par la Chine sous le nom de Diaoyu.

 

Les relations entre Pékin et Tokyo, les deux plus importantes puissances économiques asiatiques, sont exécrables depuis l'automne 2012 en raison de ce différend territorial, mais aussi de querelles liées à l'Histoire.

 

Les Senkaku/Diaoyu sont situées à 200 km au nord-est de Taïwan, qui les revendique également, et à 400 km à l'ouest d'Okinawa (sud du Japon).

 

Lorsque Tokyo a nationalisé trois de ces îles en septembre 2012, des manifestations antijaponaises parfois violentes se sont déroulées dans de nombreuses villes chinoises, et, depuis lors, Pékin envoie régulièrement des navires dans les parages. Le chassé-croisé des navires garde-côtes des deux pays dans la zone fait craindre un éventuel incident armé.

 

Concernant les conflits maritimes, la Chine a pris des mesures affirmées, y compris en brisant le statu quo par la coercition, des mesures basées sur les seules assertions de la Chine, ce qui est contraire au droit international, indique encore le document approuvé par le cabinet du Premier ministre nationaliste de droite Shinzo Abe.

 

Le livre blanc met également l'accent sur l'augmentation constante et significative du budget militaire chinois ces 10 dernières années.

 

Dans une première réaction, Pékin a accusé le Japon de lancer des accusations sans fondement.

 

Le Japon (...) invoque délibéremment +une menace chinoise+ comme un prétexte pour réviser sa politique de défense et développer sa production d'armement. La Chine y est fermement opposée, a déclaré le ministère de la Défense sur son site.

 

Début 2013, Tokyo avait accru son budget militaire d'environ 2,2%, pour la première fois depuis 11 ans.

 

Et en décembre suivant, tout en professant ses ardeurs pacifistes, le gouvernement Abe avait décidé d'augmenter cette fois de 5% les dépenses militaires du Japon sur les cinq ans à venir.

 

Shinzo Abe avait donné son feu vert à des dépenses de 24.700 milliards de yens (175 milliards d'euros) pour la période 2014-2019, qui, outre les frais de personnel, comprendront l'achat de trois drones, 17 avions à décollage vertical Osprey, 52 véhicules amphibies et 5 sous-marins.

 

A ce matériel il faut ajouter l'acquisition de deux destroyers équipés du système anti-missile Aegis ainsi que 28 nouveaux chasseurs américains F-35, un appareil furtif dernier cri.

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5 août 2014 2 05 /08 /août /2014 12:35
La Chine va lever le défi du système de défense antimissile des Etats-Unis

 

05.08.2014 Par Antakolskaia N. - La Voix de la Russie

 

La Chine prépare une riposte sérieuse aux plans des Etats-Unis de créer un système stratégique de défense antimissile pour l’Asie. C’est ainsi que le chef du Centre russe des études politiques et sociales Vladimir Evséev a commenté l’élaboration par la Chine du missile balistique intercontinental de troisième génération DF-41.

 

L’expert pronostique de même l’étude par la Chine des technologies des missiles balistiques embarqués par les sous-marins comme réaction à une activité sans précédent de la République de Corée dans ce domaine.

 

« La Chine est en train de créer des missiles à têtes multiples, mais aussi des moyens capables de franchir le système de défense antimissile, analogues aux russes. Cela aura un effet sérieux. Si la Chine parvient à réaliser ce dont dispose la Russie, en ce cas il sera extrêmement difficile d’intercepter sa fusée-porteuse sur sa trajectoire hors de l’atmosphère comme dans celle-ci jusqu’à l’altitude de 60 km. Après il reste très peu de temps de vol. De ce point de vue, la Chine est en mesure d’augmenter l’efficacité de franchissement du système de défense antimissile des Etats-Unis. Cela constitue une riposte aux plans nord-américains de mettre en place un système stratégique de défense antimissile, dont les composantes sont déployées dans l’Alaska et en Californie, et qui engage aussi le Japon et la Corée du Sud. »

 

Aujourd’hui l’Asie est entraînée dans une nouvelle spire de la course aux missiles. Or l’initiative n’y appartient pas à la Chine, mais à la Corée du Sud, estime Vladimir Evséev. L’expert a rappelé que la république de Corée se dote de son propre système de défense antimissile, est capable de fabriquer des missiles d’une portée de 800 km pouvant porter des ogives nucléaires. De plus, la Corée du Sud n’est nullement limitée en matière de création des missiles de croisière à bord des avions et des drones lourds :

 

« A présent la percée la plus significative dans la sphère des technologies des missiles est réalisée précisément par la République de Corée. La Chine va y réagir de quelque façon. Si l’on parle de la rivalité entre les Etats-Unis et la Chine, elle a un caractère quand même plus équilibré et n’est pas marquée par de percées aussi manifestes. Pour la Chine maîtriser les technologies de missiles embarqués par les sous-marins revêt une importance de principe. La Chine a des problèmes pour les missiles, mais aussi pour le fonctionnement des sous-marins nucléaires, notamment, concernant la navigation. Un progrès dans ce domaine augmentera les possibilités de la Chine et lui permettra de riposter réellement. »

 

Chaque nouvelle démarche dans le domaine des missiles concernant les Etats-Unis et la Chine suscite une réaction de part et d’autre. De surcroît, toujours plus de pays d’Asie se trouvent entraînés dans cette course aux missiles. A part les deux Etats coréens, il y a l’Inde et le Pakistan qui ne cessent de perfectionner les caractéristiques de leurs missiles balistiques. L’Asie est devenue le leader mondial incontestable dans ce domaine, ce qui accroît les risques d’emploi des missiles.

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