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9 juillet 2014 3 09 /07 /juillet /2014 17:50
Mrs FOTYGA elected chair of the Subcommittee on Security and Defence

 

09-07-2014 Subcommittee on Security and Defence

 

Mrs Anna Elżbieta FOTYGA (ECR, PL) is the new chair of the Subcommittee on Security and Defence, elected by 15 votes in favour, 8 against and 2 abstentions on 07.07.14. During its constituent meeting, the Subcommittee has also elected its vice-chairs: Michael GAHLER (EPP, DE), Jaromír ŠTĚTINA (EPP, CZ), Afzal KHAN (S&D, UK) and Sabine LÖSING (GUE/NGL, DE). Together, the chair and vice-chairs make up the bureau of the Committee, elected for a two-and-a-half year term. The first meeting of the Subcommittee on Security and Defence will take place on 11.09.2014.


Further information


Committee bureaux, Rule 204 - EP Rules of Procedure, July 2014
Committees and delegations, Title VIII - EP Rules of Procedure, July 2014
Powers and responsibilities of standing committees, Annex VI - EP Rules of Procedure, July 2014
List of members of the Subcommittee on Security and Defence

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8 juillet 2014 2 08 /07 /juillet /2014 19:50
A. Fotyga préside sa première séance de la sous-commission Défense (crédit : Parlement européen)

A. Fotyga préside sa première séance de la sous-commission Défense (crédit : Parlement européen)

 

juil 8, 2014 Nicolas Gros-Verheyde (BRUXELLES2)

 

Certains diplomates et collègues m’avaient prévenu… Anna Fotyga, la nouvelle présidente de la sous-commission Défense, est une « catastrophe ». Une « incompétente » disaient les plus charitables en termes choisis. Je préférais cependant laisser le bénéfice du doute à l’ancienne ministre des Affaires étrangères polonaise, du PiS, ne la connaissant pas personnellement. Ce « doute » a été rapidement levé. Dès les premières heures de la réunion de la sous-commission Défense, lundi, Anna Fotyga a révélé ce qu’elle était. Une eurodéputé totalement inconséquente, qui n’a pas sa place à ce poste.

 

Suite de l‘article

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7 juillet 2014 1 07 /07 /juillet /2014 11:50
GEOINT in the SatCen

GEOINT in the SatCen

 

Juillet 04, 2014 electronique-eci.com

 

Implanté à Torrejón de Ardoz, près de Madrid en Espagne, le Centre satellitaire de l'Union européenne, couramment appelé SatCen, est une agence du Conseil de l'Union européenne qui collecte des informations à partir d'images satellitaires. Confronté à une croissance annuelle des données géospatiales de plus de 30 %, le SatCen a choisi les systèmes de stockage Quantum StorNext 5 pour gérer ses données stratégiques et les archiver sur le long terme.

 

Spécialiste des missions d'aide humanitaire et de maintien de la paix comme le rétablissement après une catastrophe naturelle ou les opérations d'évacuation, le SatCen est réputé pour son expertise en matière de renseignement géospatial, discipline qui comprend l'exploitation et l'analyse des images et des informations géospatiales pour décrire, évaluer et représenter visuellement les caractéristiques physiques de la Terre et les activités qui y sont géoréférencées. Chaque jour, le SatCen acquiert les images satellitaires haute résolution de divers fournisseurs (Spot Image, Ikonos, Skymed). Celles-ci, dont la taille unitaire varie de 350 Mo à plusieurs gigaoctets, sont ensuite traitées par les experts de l'agence à l'aide des principales applications SIG du marché comme ArcGis, Erdas ou PCI, avant d'être livrées aux clients qui les exploiteront et les analyseront à leur tour.

 

" Nous commandons en moyenne chaque jour quatre nouvelles images satellitaires qui proviennent de sources différentes et sont ensuite analysées et traitées par notre équipe. Avec des images dont la résolution est toujours plus élevée et l'introduction des formats vidéo, il était crucial pour le SatCen de déployer une solution puissante et évolutive pour gérer et archiver les données géospatiales qu’il acquiert et traite quotidiennement. Nous avons donc fait appel à StorNext 5 et à ses fonctionnalités de stockage multiniveau de premier ordre pour protéger le contenu stratégique sur le long terme et pouvoir le réutiliser à l’avenir ", précise Romuald Sureau, administrateur de la sauvegarde et de l’archivage du SatCen.

 

SatCen a travaillé avec Prosol, un revendeur espagnol Gold agréé de Quantum, pour concevoir une architecture robuste et évolutive composée du tout nouveau système StorNext 5, d’une appliance de métadonnées M441 et d’une appliance de stockage série Q StorNext QX1200 dotée d’une capacité utile de 100 To. Grâce à StorNext Storage Manager, les images satellitaires traitées sont stockées automatiquement en deux exemplaires sur une librairie Quantum AEL500 avec des lecteurs LTO-6, dont l’un est conservé dans la librairie sur le long terme en vue d’une réutilisation future, et l’autre sécurisé hors site pour une reprise après incident.

 

À propos du SatCen

Le Centre satellitaire de l’Union européenne soutient la prise de décision de l’Union européenne en fournissant des produits et des services de renseignement géospatial dans le cadre de la politique étrangère et de sécurité commune et, en particulier, de la politique de sécurité et de défense commune, principalement en analysant les données des satellites d’observation de la Terre.

 

Travaillant sous la supervision du Comité politique et de sécurité et la direction opérationnelle de la Haute représentante de l’Union, le SatCen est une agence décentralisée de l’UE qui répond aux demandes de divers utilisateurs comme le Service européen pour l’action extérieure (SEAE), les États Membres, la Commission européenne, les États tiers(1) et des organisations internationales comme les Nations Unies ou l’OTAN.

 

Le Centre alerte rapidement les décideurs sur les crises potentielles afin que des mesures diplomatiques, économiques et humanitaires puissent être prises en temps opportun, y compris la planification générique d’une intervention.

 

(1) Les États tiers sont les États européens membres de l’OTAN ne faisant pas partie de l’UE et les États candidats à l’adhésion à l’UE.

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4 juillet 2014 5 04 /07 /juillet /2014 10:50
Subcommittee on Security and Defence  -- photo European Parliament

Subcommittee on Security and Defence -- photo European Parliament

 

04-07-2014 SEDE

 

The Subcommittee on Security and Defence will meet on 07.07.14 to hold its constituent meeting following the election of its members by the European Parliament on 03.07.14. During this meeting, the Committee will elect its bureau, consisting of a chair and four vice-chairs, for a two-and-a-half year term.


Further information
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3 juillet 2014 4 03 /07 /juillet /2014 16:50
SEDE Draft agenda -  7 July 2014


source Subcommittee on Security and Defence
 

Monday 7 July 2014, in Brussels

 

Opening of the meeting with the provisional Chair

 

1.        Election of the Chair

With the newly elected Chair

2.        Election of the Vice-Chairs

3.        Confirmation of the calendar of meetings for the remainder of 2014

4.        Communications by the Chair

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2 juillet 2014 3 02 /07 /juillet /2014 11:50
Sweden and NATO: getting closer?

 

1st July 2014  – by Oscar Jonsson * - europeangeostrategy.org

 

Sweden has been described as the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation’s (NATO) number one partner, and is known for carrying a heavier defence burden than many Allied nations. In 2002, Sweden officially gave up public claims to neutrality in favour of being ‘alliance free’, and in 2009 Sweden issued a declaration of solidarity to its neighbours who, except for Finland, are all NATO members. Furthermore, back in 2004, Sweden started transforming its Armed Forces to provide shell-defence capabilities with the rationale of being part of an alliance.

 

Despite these moves, the legacy and self-perception of Sweden as a neutral state persists. It is for this reason that Sweden has preferred to focus on the development of the European Union’s (EU) Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP). CSDP is a different animal to NATO, and more amenable to the interests of a neutral state. Think how CSDP is couched within the Comprehensive Approach, and therefore within a policy paradigm that emphasises non-military approaches to security (aid, trade, etc.). While Sweden has taken a lead role in pushing the EU Battlegroup concept, and has put its weight behind the whole CSDP project, disagreements over the Chad mission, French re-integration into the military structures of NATO and the hesitancy over the Libya intervention has effectively killed the Policy.

 

It has taken Sweden a long time to come to terms with the ‘death’ of the CSDP, but it is slowly doing so. This partly explains why Sweden has pushed for regional cooperation through Nordic Defence Cooperation (NORDEFCO); such regional arrangements are becoming the norm in Europe. Nonetheless, NORDEFCO is an unsatisfactory solution even though its members share a similar political culture and it could reduce materiel and training costs. The truth is that two important members of NORDEFCO –Norway and Denmark –are NATO members, and there is still a lack of unity between the members: observe how Norway opted for the United States’(US) F-35 over Sweden’s Gripen fighter.

 

Sweden is stuck in a ‘no mans land’with a major discrepancy between its security policy (which stipulates non-alliance) and its defence policy (which stipulates alliance). Sweden’s security policy is explicitly based on giving and receiving help from others in a time of crisis, but it is utterly unclear who would help Sweden in a given crisis. Given the status of the CSDP and NORDEFCO a major question needs asking: why is Sweden not a NATO member?

 

Sweden’s NATO debate

 

There are a number of strong arguments keeping Sweden out of NATO. Firstly, it is argued that at present Sweden has more influence over the US because it is not a member of the Alliance. Owing to Sweden’s contributions to international missions, its defence industry and its intelligence cooperation with the US vis-à-vis Russia, it is claimed that Sweden gets more attention from the US than it ever would as a NATO member. If Sweden were to join NATO, runs the argument, it would rather be subjected to complaints of under-spending rather than applause for its current contributions.

 

The second argument against Swedish NATO membership is that the Alliance can never be a substitute for the proper functioning of the Swedish Armed Forces. Given the vast finance problems within the Swedish Armed Forces, there is a big risk that NATO might hinder their development if Sweden were to join NATO too soon. At least, that is how it has certainly been sold in public debates. This is important because, as the crisis in Ukraine has showed us, when a crisis starts, you have what you have where you have it. And if you are going to receive support, it will take a while, even if you have prepared for such a crisis. In short, Sweden still needs to rely on its own forces especially considering that, as it is now, a Swedish capacity for territorial defence is lacking.

 

Thirdly, public support is often cited as a major means barring Sweden’s NATO accession. While support for Swedish membership has been increasing it still lies at around 30%. Interestingly, in the only poll made after the Ukraine crisis, support for NATO actually decreased.

 

Fourthly, and related to the issue of public opinion, is the position of the political parties. The biggest party of the ruling coalition, the Moderates, have listed three prerequisites regarding Sweden’s potential NATO membership. These prerequisites are: 1) it needs to be done with the support of the Swedish Social Democrats; 2) Finland must also join NATO; and, 3) there must be public support. These are all very reasonable arguments, but they all have problems attached to them.

 

Illogical arguments keeping Sweden out of NATO

 

It is, however, possible to refute logically, to a certain degree, all the arguments against Sweden’s membership of NATO. Firstly, seeking consensus with the Social Democrats is good, but the notion of Swedish neutrality is still embedded in the party’s image. For the Social Democrats to accept membership, they would need to re-write their history and image. So it would be difficult to join with them, but joining without their support would entail a fragile membership. The first prerequisite would therefore be difficult.

 

However, the second condition –Finland’s NATO membership –can be refuted. Indeed, Finland has so far investigated NATO membership three times and the country already has a strong territorial defence. This makes the issue of membership much more pressing in Sweden, whose defence forces are already transformed to be a part of an alliance and cannot perform credible territorial defence. Finland’s NATO membership should not pose an absolute hindrance to Sweden’s own accession.

 

The third condition – public support – cannot be seen as authoritative yet because the question has not been tried publicly. Public support is inconsistent and polls show that the public is not overwhelmingly pro-NATO, but the crux of the matter is that no one has driven the question. Rather, the Moderates, who are pro-NATO, want to silence the question because supporting membership would be politically costly. Yet the public opinion argument would not have been tested until the ministers stand up and tell the people of their conviction that NATO is best for the country.

 

Furthermore, it is illogical to argue that NATO, as an alliance based on the doctrine of nuclear deterrence, would hinder Sweden’s work for disarmament and peace. This has not hindered Norway playing a role in peace and disarmament, even though it is a NATO member. Other arguments that hold that NATO would force Sweden to spend 2% of GDP on defence are also wide of the mark. While there is undoubted pressure to spend more within NATO, most members of the Alliance do not presently meet the 2% threshold.

 

Finally, some believe that NATO would force Sweden to deploy troops to conflicts in which Sweden has no national interest. Decisions about deployment are taken by consensus in NATO, and not all members deploy troops to each and every NATO mission. Indeed, while it is true that there is more pressure as a NATO member to contribute to the Alliance, Sweden is already involved in a number of missions anyway. For example, Sweden joined the intervention in Libya in 2011 when only 15 out of 28 NATO members actually participated. Additionally, last spring Sweden contributed troops to NATO’s Response Force (NRF) and the country has played a role in the Provincial Reconstruction Teams in Afghanistan.

 

Sweden should join NATO

 

Sweden should join NATO but only if it does not lead to a further operational loss for the Swedish Armed Forces. Indeed, NATO would add three important factors to Sweden’s security and defence: 1) Article 5 of the North Atlantic Treaty (1949) would strengthen Sweden’s political deterrence and security; 2) it would allow Sweden to deepen cooperation with NATO and allow it to contribute to the development of the Alliance; and 3) membership would allow Sweden to undertake the military planning and exercises that our defence policy is built upon.

 

These are important considerations for a country like Sweden. The country is no longer ‘neutral’ and it has given a declaration of solidarity to its neighbours and to all EU member states, 90% of which are NATO members. It is an inescapable fact that the security of Sweden, particularly in the present context with Russia’s annexation of Crimea, is dependent on the strength of the country’s partners and institutions. While it will be challenging to convince all of Sweden that NATO membership is in the best interests of the country, being without NATO seems increasingly impotent in providing for Sweden’s security needs.

 

* Oscar Jonsson is a PhD-Candidate at the Department of War Studies King's College London. He has held positions in the Swedish Armed Forces and the EU Institute for Security Studies. He writes here in a personal capacity.

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26 juin 2014 4 26 /06 /juin /2014 07:50
The next SEDE meeting

 

25.06.2014 SEDE

 

The next SEDE meeting will take place on 7 July 2014 (constituent meeting).

 

The first regular meeting will take place on Thursday, 11 September 2014, a.m.

 

Further information

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25 juin 2014 3 25 /06 /juin /2014 13:50
photo Dassault

photo Dassault

 

24/06/2014  Commission Européenne - MEMO/14/438  

 

Actions for a more competitive and efficient defence and security sector

 

In order to strengthen Europe’s defence industrial base and the Single Market for defence, the European Commission has put forward a series of concrete measures in a Roadmap (IP/14/718). This Memo provides a summary of the main actions proposed under this Implementation Roadmap.

 

Single Market

 

To ensure a firm foundation for the competitiveness of Europe's defence industrial base it is essential that there is a strong Single Market for defence. With this objective in mind, the Commission has agreed to undertake the following actions:

  1. Market Monitoring – analyse the impact of the Defence Procurement Directive 2009/81/EC through assessment of procurement opportunities published on the EU's Tenders Electronic Daily (TED) and other public sources.

  2. Clarification of exclusions from the Defence Procurement Directive – issue guidance notes to help Member States use these exclusions correctly in the areas of Government-to-Government sales and International Agreements/Organisations.

  3. Offsets – identify and fight unjustified discriminatory requirements in procurement. In parallel, the Commission will look together with Member States and industry at ways of promoting cross-border market access for SMEs by non-discriminatory means. To that end, the establishment of an ad hoc Advisory Group is envisaged.

  4. Security of Supply

  1. develop a roadmap for establishing an EU-wide Security of Supply Regime to be presented to the European Council in June 2015.

  2. propose measures to strengthen the implementation of the Defence Transfers Directive 2009/43 (introducing a licensing system to help movement of defence-related products within the EU) in a report to be prepared for June 2016.

  3. issue a Green Paper, by the end of 2014, on the control of defence and security industrial and technological assets.

 

Competitiveness

 

In addition to the Single Market there are areas of industrial policy that can support competitiveness of the defence industry. In particular the Commission will undertake actions on:

  1. Standardisation and Certification – work closely with the European Defence Agency (EDA) to develop new defence standards in Europe and, with the European Aviation Safety Agency, to support the EDA in the harmonisation of military airworthiness requirements.

  2. Raw Materials – screen raw materials critical for the defence sector and identify by mid-2015 whether any policy actions are required in support of Europe's defence industry's continued access to essential raw materials.

  3. SMEs, clusters & regions

  1. use the Enterprise Europe Network and other programmes to support SMEs and defence-related regions to network and identify new business opportunities inside and outside the EU.

  2. clarify conditions under which the European Structural and Investment Funds can be used to support dual-use projects.

  3. with the Association of Regional Development Agencies (EURADA) and the EDA, raise awareness of funding opportunities for regions and SMEs with targeted events (next in November 2014); a guidebook; and developing a network of regions interested in fostering defence-related industrial activities.

  1. Skills – prepare a communication campaign on EU-funding of skill-related initiatives and launch a study, in 2015, on current and future competencies and skill supply and demand for the defence sector.

 

Research and Innovation

 

Falling national investment in defence R&D is a long-term threat to the competitiveness of Europe's defence industry. Therefore the Commission will take action on the following:

  1. Dual-use research – maximise synergies between European civil (within the limits allowed by the civil focus of the Horizon 2020 research programme) and military research co-ordinated by the EDA.

  2. Preparatory Action – will be developed to illustrate the added-value of an EU contribution to CSDP-related research. A 'Group of Personalities' could be established to advise the Commission on issues relating to the scope and operation of such an Action.

Capabilities

While the issue of military capabilities is primarily for Member States the Commission can provide support through:

  1. A joint assessment with the European External Action Service (EEAS) and the EDA of dual-use capability needs - for both EU security and defence policies to identify potential synergies.

  2. Other projects – A Communication planned for 8 July 2014 will set out a roadmap for implementing the 'Common Information Sharing Environment (CISE) for the EU maritime domain. The Commission is also working with the EDA to identify areas for further civil / military co-operation.

 

Space

 

The Commission believes that there are potential benefits in terms of reduced costs and greater efficiency to be gained from increased synergies between national and European space capabilities. In this regard the Commission will:

  1. Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) – the Commission will, through the Horizon 2020 research programme, look at ways of encouraging the development and renewal of SST assets.

  2. Satellite Communication (SATCOM) – use a user-group established with the European Space agency, EDA and the EEAS to tackle the fragmentation of demand for security SATCOM to support Member States to prepare the next generation of Governmental SATCOM.

Energy

The Commission aims to support the EU's armed forces in reducing their energy use for their own benefit and to make an important contribution to the EU's energy targets. In particular the Commission will launch the:

  1. Consultation Forum for Energy in the Defence and Security Sector– it will provide a platform for energy experts to discuss and advise energy policies in defence. Its main deliverables will be to develop specific guidance for the military on existing EU legislation and programmes governing energy efficiency and renewables; and to develop concepts for improving the protection of critical energy infrastructures.

 

International issues

 

With shrinking domestic demand, exports to third country markets have become increasingly important for Europe's defence industry. Within the limits of its competence, the Commission will undertake the following actions:

  1. Competitiveness on third country markets – establish a forum in the 4th quarter of 2014 to discuss with Member States and stakeholders how to support Europe's defence industry on third country markets.

  2. Dual-use export control – following the adoption of its Communication, on 24 April 2014, setting out the outcome of its review of export control policy, it will now conduct an impact assessment of the various review options identified in the Communication.

 

Background

 

The strategic and geopolitical environment is constantly evolving. The world’s balance of power is shifting as new centres of gravity are emerging and the US is rebalancing its strategic focus towards Asia. In this situation, Europe has to assume greater responsibilities for its security at home and abroad. The Union therefore needs a credible Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP), underpinned by a competitive defence industry and efficient defence market structures.

 

Defence industry is not only of strategic importance for Europe’s security, it also plays a crucial role in the wider European economy. Its cutting-edge research has created important indirect effects in other sectors, such as electronics, space and civil aviation and provides growth and thousands of highly skilled jobs.

 

Armed forces all over the world are increasingly relying on assets that have their origins in civil technologies and applications. A stronger interaction between the civil and military sectors can act as a driver for more innovation and give a boost to the overall economic development of Member States. This underlines the need to further stimulate civ-mil synergies, which is in fact the thread running through the Commission’s proposals.

 

These proposals were set out in a Commission Communication adopted in July 2013 (IP/13/734 and MEMO/13/722). It set out a series of proposals to strengthen the Internal Market for defence, reinforce the competitiveness of the European defence industry and support defence research. This Communication was discussed at the European Council in December 2013 as part of its debate on ways to strengthen the CSDP. It welcomed the Communication in this context and decided to review progress in June 2015. The roadmap adopted by the Commission details modalities and timelines for the actions set out in the Communication, taking account of European Council conclusions.

 

More information

Defence industry - Working together to Support Europe's Defence

Defence procurement

EU internal defence market is opening slowly

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25 juin 2014 3 25 /06 /juin /2014 12:50
Une nouvelle donne pour la défense européenne: la Commission propose un plan d’action industriel

 

Bruxelles, le 24 juin 2014 Commission Européenne - IP/14/718   24/06/2014 -europa.eu

 

La Commission européenne a présenté aujourd’hui un rapport définissant des mesures destinées à renforcer le marché unique de la défense, promouvoir une industrie de la défense plus compétitive et favoriser les synergies entre recherche civile et recherche militaire. Les actions à entreprendre sont clairement décrites et assorties d’un calendrier: élaboration d’une feuille de route d’un régime de sécurité de l’approvisionnement global à l’échelle de l’Union européenne, orientations pratiques à l’intention des autorités régionales et des PME afin de clarifier la possibilité de financer sur le budget européen des projets concernant des biens à double usage, et nouvelle action préparatoire permettant d’éprouver la valeur ajoutée d’une contribution de l’Union européenne à la recherche liée à la politique de sécurité et de défense commune (PSDC). Ensemble, ces démarches contribueront à améliorer l’efficacité du secteur européen de la défense et de la sécurité et à renforcer la PSDC. Le rapport d’aujourd’hui fait suite à la communication sur la défense présentée par la Commission en juillet 2013 (IP/13/734).

 

M. Antonio Tajani, vice-président de la Commission européenne et commissaire à l’industrie et à l’entrepreneuriat, s’est exprimé en ces termes: «Le Conseil européen a reconnu que la collaboration entre les États membres en matière de défense devait être plus approfondie et plus soutenue pour permettre à l’Union de relever de manière adéquate les défis auxquels sa sécurité est confrontée. Par conséquent, il est essentiel que l’industrie de la défense européenne reste un pôle mondial de premier plan pour ce qui est de la production et de l’innovation, un pôle créateur d’emplois hautement qualifiés et de croissance.»

 

M. Michel Barnier, commissaire au marché intérieur et aux services, a déclaré pour sa part: «Il est manifeste que le développement et la préservation de la technologie et des capacités cruciales pour l’avenir dépassent les moyens de chaque État membre pris isolément. Certes la défense et la sécurité demeurent essentiellement une compétence nationale, mais il est possible d’intensifier les efforts pour promouvoir la coopération européenne. La Commission y contribuera, notamment en renforçant le marché unique de la défense et en favorisant la compétitivité de l’industrie de la défense.»

 

Pourquoi l’UE doit-elle agir?

 

Une Europe plus influente a besoin d’une politique de sécurité et de défense commune (PSDC) forte et active, laquelle exige à son tour un secteur de la défense et de la sécurité plus compétitif et plus efficace. L’aptitude de l’Europe à maintenir des capacités de défense efficaces et une industrie de défense compétitive ainsi qu’à réagir de manière adaptée et autonome aux nouveaux défis en matière de sécurité est menacée par les coupes successives dans les budgets militaires et par la fragmentation persistante des marchés.

Il est important d’agir, d’autant que la crise économique a durement touché un secteur industriel majeur d’une importance stratégique pour l’Europe, qui affiche un chiffre d’affaires de 96 milliards d’euros pour la seule année 2012 et qui emploie environ 400 000 personnes, à quoi il faut ajouter pas moins de 960 000 emplois indirects. La recherche de pointe menée dans ce secteur a des retombées importantes dans d’autres secteurs, tels que l’électronique, l’industrie spatiale et l’aviation civile, et crée de la croissance ainsi que des milliers d’emplois hautement qualifiés.

 

Pour promouvoir la coopération et renforcer l’efficacité du secteur, la Commission a décidé de prendre les initiatives ci-dessous.

1. Achever le marché unique de la défense et de la sécurité. En se basant sur les deux directives en vigueur concernant les marchés publics et les transferts intra-UE dans le domaine de la défense (IP/07/1860), la Commission s’attaquera également aux distorsions du marché et contribuera à améliorer la sécurité d’approvisionnement des États membres.

2. Renforcer la compétitivité de l’industrie européenne. À cette fin, la Commission mettra au point une politique industrielle de défense fondée sur deux grands axes:

  • le soutien à la compétitivité: activités visant la mise en place d’un nouveau mécanisme d’élaboration des normes dans le secteur européen de la défense et d’une conception commune des normes applicables aux aéronefs militaires;

  • le soutien aux PME: par exemple, l’établissement de réseaux entre des régions européennes liées à la défense, une aide aux PME du secteur de la défense confrontées à la concurrence mondiale et des orientations pratiques pour les PME et les autorités régionales européennes en vue de clarifier la possibilité de financer sur le budget européen des projets concernant des biens à double usage.

3. Soutenir la recherche en matière de défense européenne. À cette fin, la Commission s’efforcera d’obtenir le plus grand nombre de synergies possible entre la recherche civile et la recherche militaire, notamment:

  • en élaborant un nouveau programme (action préparatoire) destiné à étudier les avantages éventuels d’un financement de l’UE pour la recherche liée à la PSDC;

  • en aidant les forces armées à réduire leur consommation énergétique.

 

Contexte

En juillet 2013, la Commission a présenté une communication («Vers un secteur de la défense et de la sécurité plus compétitif et plus efficace») à titre de contribution au Conseil européen de décembre 2013. Le Conseil européen a accueilli favorablement cette communication et fera une révision des progrès en juin 2015. Le rapport présenté aujourd’hui servira de base au programme de travail de la Commission, sous réserve des priorités définies par la nouvelle Commission.

 

Pour en savoir plus:

Communication

Document de travail des services de la Commission (en anglais)

Industrie de la défense - Œuvrer ensemble pour soutenir la défense européenne (en anglais)

Marchés publics de la défense

Ouverture progressive du marché intérieur de la défense dans l'UE (en anglais)

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24 juin 2014 2 24 /06 /juin /2014 16:50
Stratégie de Sûreté Maritime de l’Union Européenne adoptée par le Conseil des affaires générales le 24 juin 2014

 

24.06.2014 consilium.europa.eu

 

La mer a de l'importance.

 

La mer est une précieuse source de croissance et de prospérité pour l'Union européenne et ses citoyens. L'UE dépend de l'ouverture, de la protection et de la sûreté des mers et des océans pour son développement économique, ses transports, sa sécurité énergétique, ainsi que pour garantir le libre-échange, le tourisme et le bon état écologique de l'environnement marin.

La majeure partie du commerce tant extérieur qu'intérieur de l'UE se fait par voie maritime. L'UE est le troisième plus gros importateur et le cinquième plus grand producteur de denrées issues de la pêche et de l'aquaculture. Plus de 70 % des frontières extérieures de l'Union sont des frontières maritimes et des centaines de millions de passagers transitent chaque année par les ports européens. La sécurité énergétique de l'Europe est largement tributaire du transport et des infrastructures maritimes. Le développement important des flottes des États membres de l'UE et les infrastructures portuaires adaptées dont elle dispose (par exemple les installations pour le GNL) contribuent au bon fonctionnement du marché énergétique et à la sécurité de l'approvisionnement et donc au bien-être des citoyens européens et à la bonne santé de l'économie européenne dans son ensemble.

L'UE et ses États membres ont donc un intérêt stratégique à ce que les problèmes de sécurité liés à la mer et à la gestion des frontières maritimes soient recensés et traités, et ce dans l'ensemble du domaine maritime mondial. Les citoyens européens attendent des réponses efficaces, notamment au regard des coûts, pour la protection du domaine maritime, y compris les frontières, les ports et les installations offshore, afin de sécuriser le commerce maritime, de faire face aux éventuelles menaces découlant d'activités illégales ou illicites en mer, et d'utiliser au mieux les possibilités qu'offre la mer en termes de croissance et d'emploi, tout en protégeant le milieu marin.

La stratégie de sûreté maritime de l'Union européenne (SSMUE) couvre à la fois les aspects intérieurs et extérieurs de la sûreté maritime de l'Union. Elle constitue un cadre global, contribuant à un domaine maritime mondial stable et sûr, conformément à la stratégie européenne de sécurité (SES), tout en veillant à la cohérence avec d'autres domaines d'action de l'UE, notamment la politique maritime intégrée (PMI) et la stratégie de sécurité intérieure (SSI).

La stratégie a été adoptée au moyen d'un processus global coordonné, dont les principaux jalons sont les conclusions du Conseil du 26 avril 2010, les conclusions du Conseil sur la surveillance maritime intégrée du 23 mai 2011, la déclaration de Limassol du 7 octobre 2012, les conclusions du Conseil européen de décembre 2013 et la communication conjointe de la Commission européenne et de la Haute Représentante du 6 mars 2014.

 

Télécharger Stratégie de Sûreté Maritime de l’Union Européenne adoptée par le Conseil des affaires générales le 24 juin 2014

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20 juin 2014 5 20 /06 /juin /2014 07:50
EDA Newsletter: June 2014

 

19.06.2014 Latest news - by European Defence Agency

 

EATT14: European Air Transport Training 2014 BeginsEATT14: European Air Transport Training 2014 Begins
 

The third annual European Air Transport Training (EATT 14) got under way today in Plovdiv. This is the first time the event is being held in Bulgaria. In the framework of the European Air Transport Fleet (EATF) partnership another airlift training event is organised by the European Defence Agency (EDA) in close cooperation with the host nation,...

 

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One Month to go Until Hot Blade 2014One Month to go Until Hot Blade 2014
 

Hot Blade 2014, the seventh EDA helicopter exercise, will take place in Ovar Portugal from 16 to 30 July 2014. The exercise will bring together around 670 helicopter personnel from six countries, as well as over 2,000 ground forces from Germany, the Netherlands, and Portugal. 22 helicopters will be used in the exercises, alongside four fast jets...

 

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EDA Sign Procurement Arrangement with EUFOR AltheaEDA Sign Procurement Arrangement with EUFOR Althea
 

On 20 May, Claude-France Arnould Chief Executive of the European Defence Agency (EDA) met with General Sir Adrian Bradshaw the Operation Commander of EUFOR Althea and Deputy SACEUR. They signed a Procurement Arrangement concerning the acquisition of Air to Ground Surveillance services to operation ALTHEA. This is the first time EDA has signed a ...

 

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Update on the State of Cyber Security and Cyber Defence in the EUUpdate on the State of Cyber Security and Cyber Defence in the EU
 

A new article written jointly by Cyber Defence experts from EDA and from the EU Military Staff (EUMS) outlines the state of Cyber Defence in the EU. The paper is part of the first edition of Cyber Security Review, a publication designed to draw on the combined knowledge, skills and expertise of the cyber security community in order to identify e...

 

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Coming Soon: Military Airworthiness Conference 2014Coming Soon: Military Airworthiness Conference 2014
 

The annual MAWA Military Airworthiness Conference will be held this year in Rome on 24 and 25 September. The MAWA Forum oversees the development of European Military Airworthiness Requirements and promotes ways of achieving the harmonisation of military airworthiness regulation and certification processes across Europe.  The annual conferen...

 

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17 juin 2014 2 17 /06 /juin /2014 17:50
“Pooling and Sharing” on 56 pages

 

16 June EATC

 

Only few years after inauguration the EATC is already recognized as a European reference and enabler in air transport (AT). No wonder, because EATC is gathering experienced subject matter experts from all its participating nations within its premises at Eindhoven Air Base, guiding from here over 60 world-wide missions per day while relying on the commitment of our comrades working at all EATC assigned national airbases.

EATC’s first online issue is a wide-spread overview of what the organizations stands for.  The 2014’s issue contains

-    welcome words of Belgian Air Chief and the Commander EATC

-    the operational work EATC stands for

-    different functional achievements and involvements

-    EATC guided training/exercises 

-    EATC’s role in A400M employment

-    Presenting EATC competence in different military aviation matters

-    The upcoming accession of Spain

-    EATC involvement in world wide- and mission scenarios

-    Many facts and figures…

 

Find the first EATC online issue here.

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11 juin 2014 3 11 /06 /juin /2014 18:50
EDA Twitter Account Makes Top 100
 

Brussels - 10 June, 2014 European Defence Agency

 
 

The EDA Twitter account has been listed as one of the top 100 defence and security Twitter accounts to follow in a report put together by Defence iQ.

 

EDA is listed as one of the top military, government, and NGO accounts to follow. The account provides news and photos from the agency’s projects across Europe, including live updates on EDA exercises and the EDA annual conference - European Defence Matters. EDA uses its website, printed publications, and social media accounts to connect and inform relevant stakeholders about its work.

The full report lists important defence and security accounts based in different categories: journalists and editors; corporate accounts; analysts and researchers; news and publications; military, government and NGOs; marketing, PR and communications; industry figures and miscellaneous; and just for fun.

 
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Consequences of the crisis - key publications by the Policy Departments - Subcommittee on Security and Defence


04.06.2014 Subcommittee on Security and Defence
 

The European Parliament’s Policy Departments have prepared a number of publications in relation to the crisis and its consequences. A wide range of issues are discussed, from the social effects of the crisis, to the impacts of the recession on public spending. The publications not only focus on the direct repercussions of the crisis (on employment, living conditions, mental health, SMEs, etc.), they also deal with its indirect outcomes, namely the reforms introduced at EU and national levels and the new instruments set up as a response to the crisis. The analysis goes even beyond: it is shown that, above all, the economic downturn has modified the way of considering policies and has raised fundamental issues such as EU governance.

 

A selection of these publications is available here.

 

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27 mai 2014 2 27 /05 /mai /2014 16:50
Peter Round: European Council prioritises EDA capability development initiatives

 

Brussels - 15 May, 2014 European Defence Agency

 

The European Council meeting in December 2013 provided a clear set of tasks for the EDA, with four areas of capability development identified as being particularly urgent. Peter Round, the EDA’s Capability Director, explains what this means for the Agency.

Air-to-air refuelling (AAR), remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS), governmental satellite communications and cyber defence are the key issues which the European Council has identified as areas in which the EDA should work to fill in immediate capability gaps.

“Although these four tasks certainly occupy pole position in the Directorate’s thinking, they are not our only concerns. We need to examine these priorities in the context of our work as a whole. However, each of these four areas is on the priority list for a reason and they are worth examining in some detail,” said Round.

 

There can be no doubt there is a fundamental shortfall in European AAR capability. In operations over Libya, over 80% of all AAR missions were flown by US aircraft. One of the first challenges to be overcome, according to Round, is that the requirement for AAR is very different in peacetime to that in time of crisis – and that leads to all sorts of priority setting issues. “The obvious issue is that more capacity is required, but the background is complex and varies from nation to nation, so some strategic thinking has been necessary,” he said.

The first issue, therefore, has been to determine the best method of exploiting the existing fleet and satisfying short term demand. One solution has been to improve the efficiency of allocating various national assets and – in a move that mirrors some of the initiatives undertaken for the European Air Transport Command (EATC) – to improve and accelerate the process for gaining diplomatic clearance for AAR missions over foreign territories.

A parallel and potentially difficult issue to resolve is the two types of AAR technologies available – “booms” and “reels/hoses and drogues”.  Not all aircraft can accept fuel from both systems. The Royal Air Force, for example, currently has no indigenous refuelling capacity for the Rivet Joint signals intelligence platforms it is currently bringing into service and must depend on other nations assets if AAR is required.

Increased efficiency also comes from assuring adequate (and regular) training and the EDA is organising a number of what Round describes as “practical flying events,” the most recent of which took place at Decimomannu in Sardinia in late 2013. The next such event will focus on the use of Italian Boeing B767 tankers later this year.

Apart from improving the efficiency of current assets, the EDA is also working on initiatives including one looking at exploiting excess national capacity (with the UK’s Voyager fleet being a prime example.  A key piece of work is support to a Dutch and Norwegian led initiative to acquire a fleet of Multi Role Tanker Transport (MRTT) aircraft which will make a significant contribution to European Capability through Pooling and Sharing, this aircraft will not only be a tanker but a very significant air transport asset as well.

 

The issues in the further evolution of RPAS are no less complex, but are significantly different. With the overwhelming majority of current requirements coming from the military – most of which, as Round said, have a provenance in the world of Urgent Operational Requirements – there is a tendency to forget that RPAS are most effective in an environment in which air supremacy is assured. Extending the RPAS capability from the military to the civil environment – in which the size of the market will be infinitely larger in the not-too-distant future – requires that attention be paid to a host of issues surrounding safety and public perception. “We absolutely have got to make RPAS acceptable ,” said Round.

The issue is one of the Agency’s Pioneer Projects, and aims at harnessing synergies in both military and civil domains, maximising dual-use technologies and overcoming the limitations of greater RPAS-use imposed by the lack of a harmonised framework allowing them to operate in civil airspace. Some of the problems associated with overcoming these limitations centre on the regulatory and certification domains.

In an important milestone, the MIDCAS (Midair Collision Avoidance System) project showed the capability of RPAS to operate safely beyond line of sight in a flight test in April 2013. “MIDCAS showed we are progressing towards ‘sense and avoid ;’ we have flown the airplane – it’s not pie in the sky,” said Round. He said “it has taken a long time – and great expense – to get to this stage but we have now reached the stepping-off point for the next generation: we’ve done it once, now we need to stop talking, and deliver a usable capability.” he said.

The DeSIRE programme (Demonstration of Satellites enabling the insertion of RPAS in Europe) has been a joint EDA/European Space Agency (ESA) initiative since 2010 and in spring 2013 achieved a significant progress during flight tests in Spain. Building on the capabilities the programme demonstrated, a joint investment programme, which was launched in 2012, will focus attention on solving the individual components of the issue – including sense and avoid, air traffic management interfaces and decision architecture - from this year. “There is cooperation in a host of disciplines – technological, training and maintenance among them” , said Round.

Most importantly we now have a Medium Altitude Long Endurance (MALE) community of users established through which we will continue work to move from our current Common Staff Requirement towards a Common Staff Target to define the next generation of RPAS for Europe.  “This is a very exciting development and clearly demonstrates the support within Europe for this type of Capability” said Round. 

 

A similar approach is being applied to the EDA’s work in the cyber domain, where the Agency provides “the defence element of a cross-Brussels cyber effort,” said Round. It is a domain that is sensitive, relatively new and not yet fully understood, though there have been no end of discussions trying to scope and size the credibility of the threat and therefore the appropriate nature of the response. “There is a lot of knowledge already in place, so the questions becomes where can we add value,” said Round.

The issue in cyber seems to revolve more around people than technology. Some observers estimate there is a requirement for fully trained cyber specialists is a hundred times the number in existence. This may seem like a scaremongering statistic  – but it is difficult to refute given current knowledge available in the public domain. As a result of the recognition of this and the picture revealed by the Agency stocktaking study, an unclassified version of which was presented in May last year, it is readily apparent that while there are strengths across Europe in leadership, personnel and interoperability work has to be done on doctrine, organisation and training.

So the EDA has conducted  a detailed Training Needs Analysis and currently works on building a comprehensive cyber defence curriculum. It is working closely with the US-led Multinational Capability Development Campaign to develop cyber defence operational planning and deploy situational awareness toolkits at headquarters level, thereby integrating consideration of cyber tasks into daily routines in missions and operations. It is working to promote its recently established Cyber Defence Research Agenda, the end result of which will be an R&T roadmap stretching out for the next ten years. It has already launched a project addressing the requirements for timely detection of advanced persistent threats – an area in which industrial espionage is as great a threat as military security. It has begun consultations under the umbrella of European Framework Cooperation to determine how to exploit the wealth of academic expertise in cryptology and information protection, turning it into practical solutions for timely implementation.

“We have done a lot of work in quite a short period and are confident we are heading towards early implementation of some effective solutions for Member States’ requirements in this critical domain,” said Round.

 

In terms of satellite communications (satcom) Round said this is “the ultimate Pooling & Sharing example.” The requirements for governmental satcom are very different in peacetime than in a period of crisis which, coupled with the high levels of capital expenditure involved in launching and maintaining satellites, means the incidence of capability is limited to a few nations – and even in those cases, despite the fact that satellites are ‘living longer,’ these capabilities will require replacement in the medium term future.

“Space is not a military domain – the requirements for exploitation of this type of capability stretch right across government. There is a real opportunity here to share capability,” said Round. The establishment of the European Satellite Communication Procurement Cell has enabled Member States with or without such capability to supplement or procure capability on an ad hoc basis. The French military, for example, bought capability through the European Satellite Communication Procurement Cell (ESCPC) to support their operations in Mali at extremely short notice.

 

Conclusions

While these four work strands dominate EDA capability development activity at the moment, they are not the be all and end all of this genre of effort. “One of the effects of recession is the need to work together – not the aspiration, the need. The longer Member States are involved in working together, the greater the level of trust that develops and therefore the clearer and swifter the path to success. Which leads to the likelihood of continued cooperation,” said Round. “We have significant experience of collaborative projects – and we have real, concrete, demonstrable success stories.”

 

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27 mai 2014 2 27 /05 /mai /2014 16:50
Building Effective Command and Control for Multi-National Missions

 

 

Brussels - 19 May, 2014 European Defence Agency

 

The EDA is working with partners to develop new, more effective information sharing and decision-making architectures for military and civil emergency operations, writes Philip Butterworth-Hayes

 

 

Sometime soon there will be another humanitarian crisis emerging in a remote part of the world.  The European Union (EU) will send military forces to help stabilise the area while security, aid and medical services are mobilised.  Many nations and many different government and non-governmental agencies will be involved – but how should they communicate and share information so the correct decisions are taken on the ground to protect all personnel, including the host nation, while ensuring the effectiveness of the mission?

 

Network Enabled Capabilities

While the concept of network enabled capabilities (NEC) has become integrated into European national military structures over the last few years only recently has work begun to take this to the next stage – to develop a single secure command and control (C2) network to support multinational operations involving military and civil organisations in support of the EU’s common security and defence policy (CSDP).

 

“There are three elements to this:  technology issues, the way you deal with the information being exchanged and an understanding of the people who use it,” said Chris Stace, Project Office Command and Control -Information. “We now have a series of work-streams to address these specific challenges in these areas and to connect to communications technologies.”

 

Developing a common information sharing and decision-making architecture for military forces of allied nations is difficult enough, as different national headquarters (HQs) have different standard operating procedures, different ways of managing information and different technical ways of communicating between different levels. “For operation Atalanta, for example, the UK provided the operational headquarters but the force headquarters is based on a ship and rotated every six months, so the C2 challenges are substantial.”

 

But when there is a need to involve civilian organisations in the C2 network the challenge becomes even more complex.  As EU expeditionary missions are becoming increasingly multi-national, involving growing numbers of small size deployments and linked to civilian missions, the flow of information at the strategic, operational and tactical levels needs to be carefully managed. 

 

Need for Operational Security

“A general can use a Smart Phone to speak to, and exchange data with, anyone in the world along with a map of anywhere in the world,” said Chris Stace. “But we face constraints in providing the ‘military iPhone’: operating in areas where there are no Wifi connections can be addressed but  principally it is facing security threats that most developers simply don’t worry about; and balancing the need to share information while securing information, and therefore maintaining operational security.”

 

The EDA’s NEC work culminated in November 2013 with a demonstration in Poland of how information could be exchanged between participating member states during a multi-national expeditionary operation (see “Shared situational awareness in Warsaw”).  This demonstration has led to the formation of the latest EDA project team which focuses on the information sharing needs within the EU’s command and control arrangements.    This involves linking C2 information technology (IT) and communications networks between participating Member States and developing new ideas for exchanging information between military and civil agencies during operations and missions.

 

Integration with national networks

The first part of the work is to study how the separate the functional area services (FAS) can be better integrated with C2 national networks – as used in EU HQ-providing  Member States.  The benefit is to improve the access from C2 platforms to key information areas such as administration, personnel recovery, operational planning, countering surface to air fires (C-SAFIRE), and logistics.

 

“We shall be researching what are the hurdles and what needs to be agreed between Member States – the technical standards, procedures, training regimes for example - by the end of 2014,” said Chris Stace. “Next year we will develop a business case for follow-on capability demonstrations, providing evidence to decision-makers on a more integrated approach to be followed in the future.

 

“By the end of 2015 we will also have the outcomes of the information-exchange gateways demonstration project,” said Chris Stace. “This will look at linking two C2 systems - one national and one EU system. That won’t solve the whole problem; but it is an important technical building block.”

 

“We are trying to add value by seeing whether best-practice military solutions can be taken on board by the civil side.” This also involves linking to the EU’s Horizon 2020 research programme,  where there are proposals to research work into civil mission “situation assessment, information exchange and operational control” systems.

 

Command and Control in the Information Age

The success of military operations has for centuries depended on sound command and control.  This has not changed.  But the realities of the information age, the current security environment and the shape and size of the EU’s comprehensive approach to security and defence challenges have all made it more important than ever to develop a more systematic approach to deploying effective command and control networks. Decision-makers at all levels need improved situational awareness and they need to interact with growing numbers of actors, to speed-up processes and to keep ahead of their adversaries.  The EDA is working with Member States to put in place such enabling C2 measures. 

 

 

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27 mai 2014 2 27 /05 /mai /2014 12:51
EDA Sign Procurement Arrangement with EUFOR Althea

 

Brussels - 21 May, 2014 European Defence Agency

 

On 20 May, Claude-France Arnould Chief Executive of the European Defence Agency (EDA) met with General Sir Adrian Bradshaw the Operation Commander of EUFOR Althea and Deputy SACEUR. They signed a Procurement Arrangement concerning the acquisition of Air to Ground Surveillance services to operation ALTHEA. This is the first time EDA has signed a procurement arrangement directly with an EU mission.

 

Under this arrangement, EDA will assume the lead role in administering the procurement procedure of Air to Ground Surveillance services (including day/night actual Infra-red / electro-optical surveillance with near-real time downlink and the ability to re-task in flight) on behalf of the ALTHEA Operation Commander. As the procurement regards common costs, the Operation Commander has been authorised by the Athena administrator to sign the arrangement on behalf of Athena. The cooperation between EDA and Operation ALTHEA will conclude with a recommendation to the Operation Commander to award the contract to one company selected in competition.

Talking about the arrangement, Claude-France Arnould said, “The ultimate goal of any EDA project is to ensure that troops in the field have the capabilities they need, as was demonstrated clearly by our Counter-IED laboratory in Afghanistan. I am delighted that today’s arrangement allows us to do this by providing a procurement service directly to an EU mission for the first time. This cooperation will help highlight the expertise and added value EDA can bring in the field of procurement.”

 

Supporting CSDP Missions and Operations

As part of the restructuring conducted in January 2014, the Agency aims to play a greater role in supporting CSDP operations and missions. Speaking about the cooperation General Bradshaw added, “The decision to use the expertise from EDA in this procurement for Air to Ground Surveillance services for Op ALTHEA is, of course, based on EDA’s technical knowledge in this field. Another advantage will be to benefit from the lessons learned in conducting such an arrangement between the operation and the EDA directly, in order to establish the necessary procedures which will potentially enable closer cooperation between our organisations in the future.”

This meeting was also an opportunity for Claude-France Arnould to introduce General Bradshaw, who took his functions in March 2014, to the mission and tasks of EDA.

 

EUFOR ALTHEA

The EU military operation ALTHEA in Bosnia and Herzegovina was launched on 2 December 2004 and has contributed to the maintenance of the safe and secure environment in BiH ever since. Operation ALTHEA is carried out with recourse to NATO assets and capabilities, under the "Berlin Plus" arrangements. After a review in 2012 the main objective is to provide capacity building and training for their armed forces whilst retaining the capability to support the BiH efforts to maintain a safe and secure environment. 

 

The Athena Mechanism

ATHENA is the mechanism established to administer the financing of the common costs of European Union operations having military or defence implications governed by Council Decision 2011/871/CFSP. The Council Decision allows for arrangements to be signed with Union bodies to facilitate procurement in operations in the most cost-effective manner.

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13 mai 2014 2 13 /05 /mai /2014 15:50
L'Europe de la Défense, c'est pour quand ?

 

 

06/05/2014 Par Alain Oudot de Dainville* - FIGARO VOX Vox Monde

 

FIGAROVOX TRIBUNE - Alors que l'Union européenne est toujours dans l'impasse en Ukraine, l'ancien chef d'Etat major de la Marine, Alain Oudot de Dainville, invite à repenser l'Europe de la défense.

 

Les États européens sont désarmés pour élaborer une stratégie pour défendre leurs intérêts quand ils sont menacés. Dans l'Union ils n'arrivent pas à s'entendre, seuls ils sont dépassés. Leur déficit ne leur autorise plus une stratégie financière efficace. Leur diplomatie n'a plus le même effet d'entraînement. Pour satisfaire leur volonté d'assainir leurs finances, les États européens compriment leur effort de Défense, alors que leur stratégie commerciale prend des allures de lutte pour la survie. En régressant dans l'échelle des puissances, leur voix porte moins. L'Europe désarme, enfin une partie de l'Europe, car les tensions à l'Est incitent les marches orientales à la prudence, le budget de défense de la Pologne augmente de 7 % de 2012 à 2013.

 

Nos pauvres pays européens continuent à consommer à crédit pour maintenir artificiellement un niveau de vie synonyme de paix sociale, retardant le plus tard possible le moment où le serrage de ceinture deviendra inévitable, continuant à croire en une paix qui ne remet pas en cause les certitudes établies. Ils ont compris que le monde de la souveraineté sédentaire avait été mis à mal par la forte poussée de la mondialisation facteur de nomadisme.

 

L'Union européenne s'oppose à la Russie, mais la Russie fait partie de l'Europe : il vaut mieux composer avec elle, sinon comme le montre l'histoire, elle se tournera vers la Chine dont la puissance se rapprochera dangereusement de nos frontières.

 

Mais la paix établie commence à donner des signes de fragilité jusqu'en Europe, où la crise ukrainienne montre une opposition entre l'Europe de l'Orient, et celle d'un Occident qui peine à faire admettre un point de vue trop pluriel pour être défendu d'une seule voix. L'Union européenne s'oppose à la Russie, mais la Russie fait partie de l'Europe: il vaut mieux composer avec elle, sinon comme le montre l'histoire, elle se tournera vers la Chine dont la puissance se rapprochera dangereusement de nos frontières.

 

Les cartes devraient être plus profondément rebattues autour des années 2030, car l'échelle des puissances sera remise en cause sous l'effet de plusieurs facteurs: c'est en 2030 que l'économie et les dépenses militaires chinoises doivent rattraper celles des États-Unis, mais aussi que la population de l'Inde doit dépasser celle de la Chine. Nul ne doute que le droit généralement jugé en fonction de la puissance changera ses verdicts pour légitimer une version plus asiatique du cours du monde, la raison du plus fort étant toujours la meilleure.

 

A cette échéance l'équilibre précaire entre producteurs et consommateurs aura forcément évolué, les riches de demain n'étant plus ceux d'aujourd'hui. La force financière aura continué sa migration vers l'Est portée par les vents dominants de nos latitudes et le dollar aura probablement perdu sa fonction de valeur refuge. On peut continuer à jouer les autruches affirmant haut et fort qu'un élément imprévu viendra perturber cette évolution trop linéaire du monde, en nous laissant encore l'espoir de s'en sortir seuls. Or plus on se rapproche de l'échéance plus la ligne droite se rigidifie.

 

Comment ne pas rabâcher encore et toujours que les États européens pris isolément n'ont aucun autre espoir de s'en sortir que par une vassalisation au puissant du moment. La seule alternative est l'union, mais une Union forte de pays qui partagent plus que des normes commerciales, des intérêts pour les rendre communs.

 

L'Europe peine à se faire par le haut car ses structures actuelles ne s'y prêtent pas et car ses dirigeants s'épuisent à faire valider le message dans leur pays respectifs, mais heureusement elle se construit par le bas. Des pans de l'industrie, du système bancaire sont devenus européens ; elle se construit dans l'énergie, dans les transports.

 

La réponse la plus optimiste vient des nouvelles générations issues du processus de Bologne et du programme Erasmus qui a suivi. Cette génération des nomades de l'Europe s'oppose à nos anciens, des êtres sédentaires attachés à leurs arpents de terre, rouges du sang des conflits du passé. Cette nouvelle génération est celle de ce jeune homme de 22 ans qui se présente aux élections européennes, cette jeunesse sans calcul qui comprendra que l'on partage avec les «potes» rencontrés à Londres Berlin, Rome, Madrid ou Dublin le fardeau de la Défense.

 

Pour défendre ce continent où ils se sentent chez eux, même si la saucisse de Francfort n'a pas le même goût que celle de Morteau, il faut définir, les intérêts que partagent les Européens. C'est simple d'admettre que les Européens veulent sur le continent, pouvoir financer des grands projets communs, et bien évidemment disposer de matières premières et de l'énergie nécessaires pour leur confort.

 

En mondialisation la stratégie ne peut être que globale, la Défense n'en n'est qu'un aspect néanmoins indispensable car on ne peut avoir des pourparlers diplomatiques efficaces sans gros bâton derrière son dos.

 

Les intérêts définis, les Européens pourront élaborer une stratégie et se doter de moyens financiers, diplomatiques, militaires pour défendre des intérêts communs. En mondialisation la stratégie ne peut être que globale, la Défense n'en n'est qu'un aspect néanmoins indispensable car on ne peut avoir des pourparlers diplomatiques efficaces sans gros bâton derrière son dos. Il faut accepter d'ouvrir la discussion en un comité qui ne peut être que restreint pour rester efficace, et le faire à l'abri des influences qui défendent d'autres intérêts.

 

L'Europe de la Défense est donc une nécessité mais sans stratégie commune elle est condamnée à végéter car elle est antinomique avec la vision que donne l'Europe d'aujourd'hui, marchande et normative. Or dans la Défense, la puissance normative est dominée à l'Ouest par l'OTAN et ses accords de normalisation, les Stanag qui ne peuvent être dupliqués. Ses armements ne peuvent s'exporter sous une bannière européenne car les contrats sont essentiellement politiques, donc traités par les États.

 

Le temps et révolu où pour se donner bonne conscience européenne, on échangeait un hélicoptère par-ci, un chasseur par-là, un bateau en prime et où on s'empressait de le retirer dès que le porteur était engagé par son pays dans une opération.

 

L'Union européenne a placé sa priorité dans la Sécurité, mais la sécurité seule coûte très cher et il n'y a pas de sécurité efficace sans Défense coordonnée. Sa stratégie doit ouvrir la porte aux moyens de Défense. Certaines composantes se prêtent mieux que d'autres au caractère transfrontalier de cette approche, la dissuasion nucléaire car très liée au sol pour peu qu'elle soit bien comprise et débarrassée de ses oripeaux d'un pacifisme englué dans ses contradictions, la défense maritime dès lors que les règles d'engagement se rapprochent, celle du ciel avec les mêmes restrictions, la cyber défense car l'informatique n'a pas de frontières et car la guerre financière de 2008 a montré que les intérêts européens divergeaient de ceux des Américains.

 

Ce n'est qu'en entamant ce chantier de construction que nos pays se prépareront à vivre dans les meilleures conditions possibles les grands changements qui s'annoncent à un horizon extrêmement proche à l'échelle de la stratégie. Enfants d'Erasmus, engagez-vous pour sauver votre continent où il fait bon vivre.

L'Europe de la Défense, c'est pour quand ?

* L'auteur a effectué une carrière dans la Marine, tant dans l'aéro-navale qu'au commandement des bateaux, qui l'a conduit au poste de chef d'état-major en 2005. Il fut ensuite Pdg de la société chargée du commerce d'Etat, Sofresa, devenue Odas. Vient de publier Faut-il avoir peur de 2030? aux éditions Harmattan

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12 mai 2014 1 12 /05 /mai /2014 11:50
A comprehensive approach without a security strategy is a hallucination

 

 

8th May 2014  – by Jo Coelmont - europeangeostrategy.org



The European Union’s (EU) mantra, ‘the comprehensive approach’ is known worldwide. However, a mantra that is being repeated at all times and in all circumstances probably refers to an aspiration rather than a reality. The EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy (CSDP) is the perfect example to illustrate just that.

 

Successful CSDP operations, regardless…

All military CSDP operations conducted so far have reached their military objectives. Compared with other international organisations involved in crisis management this is unique, and a reason to be proud. However, with the exception of the operations in Bosnia and in Mali, no military CSDP operation has really been conducted comprehensively. As a net consequence lasting results have seldom or never been achieved. Political pressure had a tendency to fade away soon after the launch of any operation. The civilian capabilities deployed were at best under-dimensioned if not completely absent. The most crucial element to obtain durable results, economic investment, never materialised. Often emergency and/or development aid was provided, but that is not a substitute. As to the Security Sector Reform operations launched by the EU under the ‘civil’ or ‘civil-military’ label, the results are disappointing too. Generally a homeopathic dose was administered when the real stuff was needed.

The operations in Libya are the example of a non-comprehensive way of acting. While European nations where taking the lead in the military operations, the European External Action Service (EEAS) was planning for humanitarian aid in complete isolation from the military intervention. It was, in fact, acting as an non-governmental organisation. Eventually the EU lost the beauty contest to set up such an operation in Libya to the United Nations, which was also acting on its own. Meanwhile the durable results of the military operations in Libya are well known: they are called Mali and the Central African Republic.

 

Events, dear boy, events

Fortunately not each and every crisis requires military assets to be part of the solution, on the contrary. The real question is how to explain the absence of any comprehensive approach whenever CSDP actions or operations are on the agenda. In the absence of an effective Security Strategy, in every contingency the starting position of the EU and the Member States is a blank sheet. The first step is for Member States to investigate whether the issue at hand is affecting their values or (individual) interests, and if so, whether it concerns a priority issue, and whether the region is considered as such. If the answer looks like a yes, discussions may start on how, when and with what means to react. If military action is judged appropriate by some Member States – the few that most of the time have the honour to act in the name of so many – than enter the process of ‘force generation conferences’. In the meantime, emergency aid may be provided. As to economic action: are the economy and trade ever really taken into account in crisis situations? More generally, is the overall desired strategic outcome and a comprehensive roadmap to reach it ever being thought about? Please, not now, we are in the midst of confronting events, dear boy.

 

Ukraine, a surprise

Taking improvised initiatives on the international scene, without a strategy, may turn out to be audacious, as recent events once more made clear.

Last year Ukraine was approached, mainly by the Commission, with a proposals to establish a trade agreement, as if Ukraine was simply about another extension of the internal market. For the EU this is well-known business. And yet, that same Union was completely surprised with the ultimate outcome. It was revealed to be a matter of geopolitics and strategy. And all of a sudden, the Union had, and still has, difficulties to respond.

 

A strategy or no strategy

Some actors have a strategy. You may not appreciate Russia’s moves, but Moscow acted in a rather comprehensive way, politically, economically and military. This is not to say that Putin has masterminded all events, but he was well prepared, having a strategy and even a doctrine (which one might call ‘Putin infiltration’), as well as the means to act accordingly. This makes that Russia, for the time being, can punch above its weight. Compared to each of the individual EU member states, Russia is rather big. Compared to the Union as such, Russia is an economically and even military middle-sized country, with some potential but facing enormous weaknesses. But at the political level, it is a chess player. And that makes all the difference.

In the Ukrainian crisis, the US is acting in a remarkably steadfast manner, in line with its strategy. In the past, whenever a security crisis emerged, the President of the US traditionally called on ‘the US and Allies’ to take action, suggesting the US take the lead and the Allies follow. In the meantime that has changed. At the start of the Obama administration it was always was referring to the ‘US and European countries’, suggesting some kind of burden-sharing. Later that changed to ‘the US and Europe’, carefully avoiding the pitfall of mentioning ‘the EU and its Member States’. Today, with the crisis in Ukraine, it is all about ‘the US and the EU’. The message is clear. The US will remain involved. However, in Washington Russia is measured by its potential to cause disruption, in particular in Afghanistan, Syria, and Iran. No doubt Washington will react to Moscow’s expansionist ambitions, but it will not allow itself to get distracted from its main geostrategic concerns in Asia. Globally speaking, the US is looking towards Europe as its principal partner. But you only have a real partner if, when faced with a crisis, the outcome matters equally to the partner if not even more so. For NATO, article 5 matters profoundly, for each and every partner. But for the crisis in Ukraine, NATO will not do the trick.

 

Central Europe, the Mediterranean and Africa, no doubt matters a great deal for Europe, so… After 3 wakeup calls, time to get up

The crisis in Yugoslavia triggered the ESDP and some concrete actions. Iraq triggered the CSDP and even a European Security Strategy (ESS), a prelude to a real Strategy, calling for preventive action and a comprehensive approach. So far neither the CSDP nor the ESS have generated significant results. In the end, Herman Van Rompuy took the political risk to put the issue of defence on the agenda of the European Council. This resulted in some pretty good conclusions. What about the centre-piece of acting comprehensively and what about a security strategy? Last December our Heads of State and Government where so shy they used very opaque language:

The European Council invites the High Representative, in close cooperation with the Commission, to assess the impact of changes in the global environment, and to report to the Council in the course of 2015 on the challenges and opportunities arising for the Union, following consultations with the Member States.

I hope that now with the Ukrainian crisis everyone reads this sentence as an urgent call for the long awaited genuine European Security Strategy, the prerequisite to act comprehensively.

 

Jo Coelmont

* Brig. Gen. (ret.) Jo Coelmont is an Associate Editor of European Geostrategy. He is also a Senior Associate Fellow for the ‘Europe in the World Programme’ at Egmont – Royal Institute for International Relations in Brussels. Formerly, he was the Belgian Military Representative to the Military Committee of the European Union. He writes here in a personal capacity.

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8 mai 2014 4 08 /05 /mai /2014 11:50
La défense européenne, éloge d'une agonisante

 

07/05/2014 Jean Guisnel - Défense ouverte / Le Point.fr

 

L'Europe a mis des mois à envoyer quelques dizaines de soldats en RCA, et on voudrait qu'elle applique une politique de défense et de sécurité à la crise ukrainienne ? Soyons sérieux...

 

L'Europe de la défense est-elle autre chose qu'une incantation ? Pas sûr... Mise en avant depuis des décennies, l'idée ne peut fonctionner dans les faits que lorsqu'il s'agit de produire en commun des matériels qu'un État seul ne pourrait se payer. En réalité, les exemples sont légion de la fausseté de cet argument, dont les frégates Horizon, le chasseur Eurofighter Typhoon ou l'A400M Atlas sont des preuves vivantes.

On écarquille les yeux quand on lit les satisfecit des eurocrates constatant qu'après plusieurs mois de négociations tendues, l'Union européenne a réussi tant bien que mal à envoyer une force européenne en RCA, dont l'ossature est fournie par des Français s'y trouvant déjà et des Géorgiens n'appartenant pas à l'Union européenne. C'est pourquoi on se dit qu'on serait bien inspiré de répondre franchement "oui" quand Nicole Gnesotto, présidente de Notre Europe-Institut Jacques Delors, pose crûment la question "Faut-il enterrer la défense européenne ?".

 

Tant d'années de déception

Dans un petit ouvrage ainsi titré, l'auteur dresse un bilan de tant d'années de déception et ne manque pas de souligner les atouts que notre Vieux Continent pourrait mettre en avant, si seulement il le souhaitait. Et notamment sa "légitimité collective" plus forte que celle de toute nation isolée ou ses capacités militaires bien réelles. Par exemple, ses armées comptaient en 2011 près de deux millions d'hommes. Mais ces effectifs ne sont d'aucune utilité quand il faut des mois pour en envoyer quelques dizaines en RCA ou au Mali !

De plus, les effectifs ne sont rien sans les moyens d'équiper et de faire fonctionner ces armées. En 2011, chaque Européen a dépensé 387 euros pour sa défense. Contre 1 610 euros pour chaque Américain. La même année, chaque soldat européen a coûté 23 829 euros. Contre 102 264 pour un soldat américain... En fait, l'Europe a depuis longtemps baissé les bras et nul ne cherche réellement, ni en France ni ailleurs, à faire émerger une véritable défense européenne. Une année ou presque a été nécessaire pour que les Français montent l'opération Sangaris en Centrafrique. Ont-ils associé les Européens à sa préparation ? Non.

 

Constat d'échec

Même les symboles voulus dès leur conception pour être des emblèmes d'une volonté de défense et de sécurité communes, comme l'Eurocorps ou la brigade franco-allemande, ne sont que des objets de vitrine. Il existe bien sûr quelques initiatives réussies, comme celle de la mise en commun de moyens de transport aérien tactique et stratégique. Certes. Mais nous n'aurons pas la cruauté de rappeler combien de temps a été nécessaire pour obtenir des avions pour la seule mission européenne en RCA... Nicole Gnesotto est cruellement lucide quand elle écrit, à propos de la politique de sécurité et de défense commune (PSDC), qu'elle "n'est pas faite pour l'entrée en premier sur un théâtre de crise, mais plutôt pour le soutien en second". Il n'est nul besoin d'ajouter quoi que ce soit à ce constat d'échec.

Après avoir lu ce livre, on attendait une conclusion d'ouverture, mais en vain... La dernière phrase du livre est un constat d'échec : "Face à la crise économique mondiale, face à la révolution stratégique américaine, les Européens n'ont en effet pas d'autre choix que de reprendre en main leur destin." Dit comme ça... Le seul problème, c'est que la crise ukrainienne leur en donne une occasion parfaitement adaptée. À nos frontières, amputé par un voisin puissant, tout prêt à basculer dans la guerre civile, un État chancelle et l'Europe assiste impuissante à son naufrage. On sait que ce qui se passe en Centrafrique, au Mali ou en Afghanistan est lié à notre sécurité collective. C'est pour cela que nous y sommes intervenus. L'Ukraine, qui a sombré dans le chaos après avoir voulu se rapprocher de l'Europe, serait-elle plus loin encore ?

 

Nicole Gnesotto, Faut-il enterrer la défense européenne ? La Documentation française, 150 pages, 9 euros

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5 mai 2014 1 05 /05 /mai /2014 07:50
European Defence Matters: Issue 5 Released
 

Brussels - 25 April, 2014 European Defence Agency

 

The fifth issue of European Defence Matters, the magazine of the European Defence Agency (EDA), is now available.  

 

Coming four months after the European Council in December - where Heads of States and Government discussed defence and security topics  - the magazine gives readers an insight into EDA’s work in implementing the summit’s conclusions. Peter Round, the EDA Director Capability, Armament & Technology, gives a detailed interview on the four key capability initiatives that the European Council tasked the EDA with. Another feature article focuses on EDA’s work in helping Member States to access European Structural Funds (ESF) for dual-use research.

The issue also includes key interviews with General Mikhail Kostarakos Hellenic Chief of Defence, General Patrick de Rousiers Chairman of the European Union Military Committee (EUMC), General Pascal Valentin EATC Commander, and Major Jakub Block Eurocorps Public Affairs Officer.

There are updates on EDA’s work on effective command and control for multi-national missions. The magazine also includes a detailed account of the EDA’s annual conference, which was held on March 27 in Brussels. The conference has become the key rendez-vous for European Defence, bringing together 500 high-level figures from militaries, government and industry.

Lastly, the magazine also includes articles from Ioanna Zyga and Pauline Delleur, the winners of an essay writing competition on European Defence run by EDA and the Young Professionals in Foreign Policy (YPFP).

 

More information

  • European Defence Matters, issue 5, is available here
  • For montly updates, please register to our e-news here
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16 avril 2014 3 16 /04 /avril /2014 16:50
EART 14 : Air-to-Air Refuelling photo Luftwaffe

EART 14 : Air-to-Air Refuelling photo Luftwaffe


16.04.2014 European Defence Agency


European Air-to-Air Refuelling Training Delivers First Results European Air-to-Air Refuelling Training Delivers First Results
 

A Distinguished Visitors (DV) Day is held as part of the first European Air-to-Air Refuelling training (EART14) at Eindhoven Air Base on 10 April 2014. The day brings together high-level military figures to witness and learn about the ongoing training. EART14 runs from 31 March to 11 April, with German and Dutch aircraft and crews present for th...

 

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EDA Steering Board: Progress on the Implementation of Council ConclusionsEDA Steering Board: Progress on the Implementation of Council Conclusions
 

At the EDA Steering Board of 15 April, the Agency updated Defence Ministers on the progress made in implementing the tasks set at December’s European Council. The main elements of the Agency’s report were on the four capability programmes, standardisation and certification, dual-use research, and the initial elements for a policy fra...

 

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Team Focused on Military Implementation of Single European Sky Launched in EDATeam Focused on Military Implementation of Single European Sky Launched in EDA
 

A new cell focusing on the military implementation of SESAR - the European air traffic control modernisation programme – has been established within the EDA. The Single European Sky (SES) aims at realising the optimisation of the airspace organisation and management in Europe through a combination of technological, economic, and regulator...

 

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Digital Forensics Pilot Course at EDADigital Forensics Pilot Course at EDA
 

From 31 March to 5 April 2014 EDA organised together with the SANS Institute a six days pilot course for digital forensics as part of the EDA Cyber Defence Programme to strengthen EU’s Cyber Defence capabilities for CSDP operations. Students from 14 EDA Member States and EDA took part in the course. On the details of the course and the cou...

 

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Debating European Cooperation on Defence Capabilities Debating European Cooperation on Defence Capabilities
 

The European Defence Agency (EDA) hosted its annual conference ‘European Defence Matters’ on 27 March 2014. The conference brings together more than 500 high level participants from government, military, and industry, making it the only comprehensive rendez-vous on European defence.  The event is opened by Claude-France Arnould...

 

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15 avril 2014 2 15 /04 /avril /2014 07:50
Calendrier des think tanks à Bruxelles Mise à jour : Lundi 14 Avril 2014

 

Mise à jour par la Représentation permanente de la France auprès de l’UE

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11 avril 2014 5 11 /04 /avril /2014 11:50
Defence matters - EU key documents 2013

 

09 April 2014 by EU ISS

 

When European Council President Herman van Rompuy proposed, in December 2012, to ‘launch work on the further development of the EU’s Common Security and Defence Policy’ with the commitment to ‘return to this issue in December 2013’, virtually all EU institutions and relevant bodies, departments, agencies and working groups engaged in an exercise that has involved simultaneously taking stock of achievements, assessing shortfalls, and identifying avenues for the future.

The collective mobilisation of the year 2013 has produced a number of dedicated analytical and policy papers – including by independent think tanks and research institutes – that amount to the most systematic survey of European defence in ten years. This pocket-sized compendium collects the official documents generated by all EU institutional actors in preparation of the ‘defence summit’ of 19/20 December 2013 and the Conclusions adopted by the EU Heads of State and Government at the end of the whole process.

 

Download document

 
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8 avril 2014 2 08 /04 /avril /2014 16:50
Digital Forensics Pilot Course at EDA
 

Brussels - 08 April, 2014 European Defence Agency

 

From 31 March to 5 April 2014 EDA organised together with the SANS Institute a six days pilot course for digital forensics as part of the EDA Cyber Defence Programme to strengthen EU’s Cyber Defence capabilities for CSDP operations. Students from 14 EDA member states and EDA took part in the course.

 

On the details of the course and the course delivery one student says: “This was a mind blowing exercise. All the challenges and technical details were covered to a very deep extent.”

The course provided the students with the foundational competencies and skills to enable them to pass the exam for the widely recognised certification as GIAC (Global Information Assurance Certification) Certified Forensic Examiner (GCFE) in the weeks to come.

The course instructor, Mr. Chad Tilbury from SANS Institute says:  “As a former military and long-time cyber-defence practitioner, teaching a digital forensics class for the European Defence Agency was an honour.  Students from EU member countries conducted in-depth analysis and media exploitation of multiple systems.  Attendees conducted data triage and learned to extract forensic meaning from computer memory, files system and operating system artifacts, the Windows registry, email, removable devices, chat clients, web browsers, and event logs.  During the final day, students divided into teams and competed in a realistic forensic challenge requiring thousands of artifacts to be recovered, authenticated, and analysed.  From the results presented at the end of the forensic challenge, I am confident that this team can take their new skills home and immediately put them to use in real world operations.”

This course is the starting point for a new EDA initiative to pool the demand of EDA Member States for such specialist training that should lead to certifications. Pooling the demand will allow Member States to benefit from economies of scale”. 

The EDA Progamme Manager Cyber Defence, Mr. Wolfgang Roehrig  says: “In a lot of areas of cyber defence specialist training the military will continue to rely on private sector training capacities and expertise.  Therefore EDA is looking for ways for streamlining military training requirements in these fields. The starting point for further exploration was this on-site pilot course at EDA premises for data collection in an area of Cyber Defence expertise, in which the military most probably will continue to rely on industry-expertise, such as Digital Forensics. Digital Forensics training is a highly specialised field, in which, even putting the requirements of all EDA Member States together, relative small numbers of military students per year can be expected. Trainers in that field require special hands-on expertise that has to follow latest trends in attack techniques and technology - mere theoretical knowledge would not bring much benefit. Building-up and maintaining such trainer expertise within the military even at a European level is expected to be difficult and would be very expensive.”

The initiative will be launched within the EDA framework after the final course evaluation.

 

Background

Heads of State and Government endorsed the EDA Cyber Defence Programme as one of four critical capabilities programmes during the European Council in December 2013. For more information on this programme, read the factsheet.

 

More information

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