Overblog
Suivre ce blog Administration + Créer mon blog
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 12:50
Webdocumentaire - 1914-1918 : Des Amérindiens dans les tranchées

 

04-06-2015 Par Claire Arsenault - RFI

 

La tourmente qui a emporté l’Europe dans la Première Guerre mondiale est allée chercher ses combattants bien au-delà des zones de combats. Ainsi, des milliers d’Amérindiens se sont engagés dans les armées américaine ou canadienne. Pour cela, ils ont revêtu les uniformes des « Visages pâles ». Au combat, ils ont souvent fait plus que leur part et nombreux sont ceux qui ne sont jamais revenus. Nous allons vous raconter l’histoire de quelques-uns d’entre eux…

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 12:50
Typhoon in mutil-role fit with Brimstone missile and Paveway IV

Typhoon in mutil-role fit with Brimstone missile and Paveway IV

 

May 29, 2015 by Think Defence

 

Getting ready for Tornado out of service and continued evolution of the aircraft with Brimstone, Storm Shadow, Paveway IV, Meteor and E-Scan radar, the Typhoon continues to grow, at a glacial pace perhaps but slow and steady is not always a bad thing.

 

The MoD has let a £1.7m contract to BAE to research a common weapon launcher for Typhoon that can be used to carry multiple weapons on a single hardpoint, much like the existing Brimstone launcher but also to include other weapons, principally, Meteor Paveway IV and a future SPEAR Cap 3.

 

In the delicate balancing act between Typhoon and F35B (and beyond) I have started to think for a while we need to get behind Typhoon and reconsider our Tranche 3 commitment.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 12:45
Golfe de Guinée : 205 attaques en 10 ans

 

3 juin 2015 par BBC Afrique

 

Au moins 205 attaques de navires par des pirates ont été enregistrées dans le Golfe de Guinée de 2005 à mai 2015.

 

Au moins 205 attaques de navires par des pirates ont été enregistrées dans le Golfe de Guinée de 2005 à mai 2015. Robert Dussey, le ministre togolais des Affaires étrangères, en a fait l’annonce au cours d’une conférence de presse à Lomé. La zone côtière s'étendant du Sénégal à l'Angola est devenue, selon les experts, la nouvelle plaque tournante de la piraterie maritime en Afrique.

 

Suite de l’article

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 12:45
Boko Haram: le centre des opérations transféré à Maiduguri

 

04-06-2015 Par RFI

 

Le président nigérian est en visite chez ses voisins impliqués dans la lutte contre Boko Haram. Après le Niger, mercredi, Muhammadu Buhari est attendu ce jeudi au Tchad. Avec le Cameroun, ces deux pays sont engagés militairement contre le groupe islamiste.

 

Lire l’article

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 12:45
photo Armée de Terre

photo Armée de Terre

 

04 juin 2015 Romandie.com (AFP)

 

Paris - La force française Sangaris, engagée en Centrafrique depuis décembre 2013, va passer de 1.700 à 900 hommes d'ici la fin du mois de juin, a annoncé jeudi l'armée française.

 

Le volume des forces dans le mois à venir passera de 1.700 à 900 militaires, a déclaré le porte-parole de l'armée, le colonel Gilles Jaron, soulignant que ce retrait s'inscrivait dans un processus de désengagement amorcé il y a plusieurs mois.

 

De plus en plus notre dispositif va se recentrer sur la capitale Bangui. A partir de Bangui nous serons capables de nous déployer extrêmement rapidement en appui des forces de l'Onu mobilisées dans le pays, a ajouté l'officier, précisant qu'un certain nombre de sites où étaient présents les soldats français allaient passer sous l'autorité de l'Onu.

 

L'opération Sangaris a été déclenchée en 2013, sous mandat de l'Onu, pour stabiliser la situation en Centrafrique alors en proie au chaos total, et tenter d'enrayer les tueries entre communautés chrétienne et musulmane.

 

Au plus fort de sa présence elle a compté 2.000 hommmes.

 

Une force onusienne de maintien de la paix de quelque 10.000 hommes est déployée dans le pays, censé organiser des élections avant la fin 2015.

 

La Centrafrique a plongé dans la tourmente après le renversement du président François Bozize par une rébellion à dominante musulmane, la Seleka, en mars 2013.

 

Cette rébellion a été évincée du pouvoir en janvier 2014 après l'intervention de l'armée française, consécutive à un cycle sanglant de violences et de représailles entre combattants de la Séléka et milices anti-balaka à dominante chrétienne.

 

Paris, qui au départ misait sur une intervention de six mois, n'a jamais fait mystère de sa volonté de se désengager, notamment pour renforcer son dispositif anti-terroriste Barkhane déployé dans cinq pays du Sahel.

 

L'opération Sangaris a été entachée par des accusations de viols sur des enfants qu'auraient commis des militaires français.

 

Une enquête est ouverte en France sur cette affaire où 14 soldats ont été mis en cause, dont trois identifiés, par les témoignages de six enfants dénonçant des faits commis entre fin 2013 et début juin 2014.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 12:40
Le processus de paix en Ukraine risque de voler en éclats

 

04 juin 2015 Romandie.com (AFP)

 

Moscou - Le processus de paix dans l'est de l'Ukraine, où un conflit armé oppose les forces régulières aux séparatistes prorusses, risque de voler en éclats à cause des actes de Kiev, a accusé jeudi le chef de la diplomatie russe Sergueï Lavrov.

 

Les accords de paix de Minsk 2, signés le 12 février, sont en permanence menacés de voler en éclats à cause des actes des autorités de Kiev qui tentent d'échapper à leurs obligations d'établir un dialogue direct avec les séparatistes, a déclaré M. Lavrov, cité par l'agence Interfax, lors d'une conférence sur la sécurité à Moscou.

 

Il a déploré une grave crise intérieure en Ukraine où au moins 24 personnes ont péri dans les combats au cours des dernières 24 heures, selon des bilans des autorités ukrainiennes et des séparatistes.

 

Des tentatives de déstabiliser la situation et de provoquer les tensions sont évidentes, a déclaré pour sa part le porte-parole du Kremlin, Dmitri Peskov, en affirmant que ces actes provocateurs sont organisés par les forces ukrainiennes.

 

La partie ukrainienne a déjà pris à plusieurs reprises des mesures visant à faire monter la tension, a-t-il déclaré, cité par l'agence publique Ria-Novosti.

 

Nous sommes très préoccupés par une nouvelle répétition de ces activités, a souligné M. Peskov.

 

Le gouvernement ukrainien a accusé mercredi les rebelles d'avoir lancé, malgré la trêve en vigueur, une offensive majeure près de Mariinka, à une vingtaine de kilomètres de Donetsk.

 

Les rebelles ont eux nié ces accusations mais ont confirmé la tenue de combats près de cette localité.

 

Il s'agit des plus importants affrontements depuis la reprise par les rebelles du noeud ferroviaire stratégique de Debaltseve, à mi-chemin entre les bastions séparatistes de Donetsk et de Lougansk, peu après l'entrée en vigueur du cessez-le-feu le 15 février, à la suite des accords de paix de Minsk.

 

Le conflit armé entre Kiev et les séparatistes prorusses a fait plus de 6.400 morts depuis avril 2014, selon l'ONU.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 12:30
Frappes aériennes israéliennes à Gaza après des tirs de roquettes

 

04 juin 2015 Romandie.com (AFP)

 

Jérusalem - L'armée israélienne a lancé plusieurs frappes aériennes sur la bande de Gaza tôt jeudi matin sans faire de victimes, en représailles à des tirs de roquettes palestiniennes, selon des sources palestiniennes et israéliennes.

 

Les frappes israéliennes ont visé trois camps d'entraînement des brigades Ezzedine al-Qassam, la branche militaire du mouvement islamiste Hamas, dans la ville de Gaza, et une quatrième a atteint Khan Younès, dans le sud de la bande de Gaza, selon ces sources sécuritaires palestiniennes.

 

Dans un communiqué, l'armée israélienne n'a évoqué que trois frappes, sans préciser leur emplacement ni identifier les cibles visées.

 

Hier, le 3 juin 2015, deux roquettes ont été lancées sur le sud d'Israël depuis la bande de Gaza, dit l'armée dans un communiqué qui précise que les roquettes sont tombées en terrain découvert, près des villes d'Ashkelon et de Netivot. Personne n'a été blessé, dit-elle.

 

En réponse à cette attaque, les Forces de défense israéliennes ont frappé trois infrastructures terroristes dans la bande de Gaza, ajoute le communiqué.

 

Le ministre de la Défense israélien Moshé Yaalon a tenu le Hamas, qui contrôle la bande de Gaza depuis 2007, pour responsable des tirs.

 

Même si les tirs d'hier soir sont le fait de bandes de voyous issus d'organisations du jihad mondial qui cherchent à défier le Hamas en tirant sur nous, nous tenons le Hamas pour responsable de tout ce qui se passe dans la bande de Gaza, a déclaré M. Yaalon dans un communiqué.

 

Nous ne ferons pas de compromis sur la sécurité des citoyens israéliens et nous n'accepterons pas de retourner à une situation de tirs réguliers depuis la bande de Gaza, a-t-il mis en garde.

 

Les tirs de roquettes de mercredi ont été revendiqués jeudi par les Partisans de l'Etat islamique à Jérusalem, un groupe récemment apparu de Gaza, dans un communiqué dont l'AFP a obtenu une copie.

 

Les Partisans de l'Etat islamique est considéré comme un groupuscule qui appartiendrait au mouvement salafiste jihadiste gazaoui et qui chercherait peut-être l'adoubement de l'Etat islamique et se servirait de son label. Mais il n'existerait pas pour l'instant de lien organique.

 

Le groupe dit avoir agi pour venger Youssef al-Hanar qui a été tué pour satisfaire les juifs, en référence à ce chef salafiste tué mardi par les forces de sécurité du Hamas dans un échange de tirs dans la ville de Gaza.

 

Les Partisans de l'Etat islamique à Jérusalem promettent que son sang n'aura pas été versé pour rien.

 

Le groupe dit encore avoir agi en soutien à nos frères emprisonnés dans les prisons du Hamas.

 

Le Hamas a procédé au cours des dernières semaines à des dizaines d'arrestations dans les milieux salafistes.

 

La bande de Gaza est en butte depuis la fin de la guerre avec Israël en juillet-août 2014 à la confrontation de plus en plus tendue entre le Hamas et les radicaux de plus en plus actifs et visibles, comme Les Partisans de l'Etat islamique à Jérusalem.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 11:55
Chronique culturelle du 4 Juin 2015 - SHD

La garde impériale à Magenta, le 4 juin 1859  - musée de l'Armée (Dist. RMN-Grand Palais) photo Pascal Segrette

 

04.06.2015 source SHD

 

4 juin : sainte Clothilde : patronne de l'ALAT (aviation légère de l’armée de Terre). Bonne fête aux Clothilde (avec ou sans « h »).

 

4 juin 1525 : fin de la guerre des paysans (Allemagne). Prélude à la guerre de Trente ans, la Bauernkrieg qui secoue le Saint Empire pendant deux années trouve ses racines dans la misère. De plus, la Réforme qu'introduit Luther à ce moment, brise beaucoup de tabous et incite les paysans à se révolter, sous l'impulsion de prêcheurs millénaristes. Des bandes se créent arborant la bannière rouge frappée du mot "liberté" et ravagent l'Empire. La répression est méthodique et très meurtrière. Même si ces mêmes paysans révoltés sont ceux qui fourniront les rangs des courageux et robustes Landsknecht, leur armement et tactique sont surclassés par les troupes impériales. Cette guerre aurait fait 100 000 morts. Considérée par Engels comme une des premières manifestations de la lutte des classes, elle a traumatisé l'Allemagne.

 

4 juin 1629 : naufrage du Batavia (Côte ouest de l'Australie). Cas édifiant de mutinerie montrant les dangers d'un commandement défaillant en milieu hostile et fermé.  Le Batavia navire de la compagnie des Indes Néerlandaises fait naufrage sur un récif. Les rescapés se répartissent sur les îles de l'archipel tandis que le capitaine et 48 passagers embarquent à bord d'une chaloupe pour trouver de l'aide. Ils atteignent, le 7 juillet, Batavia (aujourd'hui Jakarta). Pendant ce temps sur l'archipel, se développe une société de type totalitaire contrôlée par l’un des rescapés les plus habiles qui instaure un climat de terreur avec l’aide d’une partie des soldats du bord. Les secours arrivent le 17 septembre, trouvant l’archipel en pleine guerre. Sur les 320 passagers, seuls un tiers put rentrer (115 furent assassinées sur l'île).

 

4 juin 1859 : bataille de Magenta (Italie). La bataille de Magenta se termine par une victoire franco-sarde contre les Autrichiens. Dans la nuit du 2  au 3 juin, le génie français, protégé par l'artillerie, jette un pont de barques de 180 mètres à Turbigo : le IIe corps d'armée peut commencer à traverser afin de soutenir les premiers combats à Turbigo et Robecchetto. Le matin du 4 juin, Napoléon III entend tonner le canon, de son observatoire dans la tour de San Martino al Basto et  convaincu que l'attaque de Mac Mahon est engagée, il ordonne aux troupes en attente près du Tessin de se déplacer vers les ponts existant. Les Autrichiens réussissent à en faire sauter 2 sur 3 si bien que les Français ont du mal à se coordonner. L’espace d’une heure, les renforts autrichiens submergent les Français à tel point qu'un télégramme est envoyé à Vienne qui annonce la victoire. Cependant après de féroces combats, les Français réussissent à passer sur le ponte Nuovo après que les Autrichiens, menacés sur leur flanc droit par Mac Mahon qui a repoussé l'attaque à Boffalora, se retirent à Magenta. Les Autrichiens se réfugient dans les habitations espérant défendre le territoire mètre par mètre. Par une manœuvre en tenaille, les Français attaquent l'ennemi retranché dans la ville. Au soir du 4 juin, l'empereur Napoléon III nomme Mac Mahon maréchal de France et duc de Magenta.

 

4 juin 1940 : les Allemands entrent dans Dunkerque. 40 000 soldats (la plupart français) sont faits prisonniers lorsqu’au petit matin les troupes allemandes atteignent les plages. 340 000 soldats (dont 112 000 français) ont réussi à évacuer la poche de Dunkerque au cours de l'opération Dynamo. L'armement, les munitions et le matériel abandonné sont cependant gigantesques. Lire les RHA n° 12 et 173.

 

4 juin 1944 : les Américains à Rome. La 5ème armée du général Clark entre dans Rome. La bataille de Monte Cassino s’est achevée le 18 mai.

 

4 juin 1958 : "Je vous ai compris ! " (Alger). C’est l'un des discours les plus célèbres de Charles de Gaulle. Prononcé sur le Forum à Alger, quelques jours après l'investiture de de Gaulle et devant des milliers de spectateurs qui l'acclament comme le sauveur de l'Algérie française, ce discours sera très souvent cité pour dénoncer l'évolution du nouveau Président de la République sur le devenir de l'Algérie.

 

4 juin 1982 : début de l’opération Paix en Galilée (Liban). Tsahal entre au Liban malgré le dispositif d’interposition de la FINUL sur la frontière. Les forces palestiniennes sont encerclées dans Beyrouth le 1er aout.

 

4 juin 1989 : l'armée chinoise tire sur la foule (place Tiananmen). L’armée chinoise intervient pour faire cesser les manifestations étudiantes qui se déroulent place Tiananmen depuis près de 2 mois (15 avril). Le bilan humain varie selon les sources entre 240 et 10 000 morts.

 

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 11:55
Le général André Lanata nommé au poste de chef d’état-major de l’armée de l’air

 

04/06/2015 Armée de l'air

 

Sur décision du Conseil des ministres du 03 juin 2015, le général de corps aérien André Lanata a été nommé chef d’état-major de l’armée de l’air (CEMAA). Le général Lanata prendra ses fonctions le 21 septembre 2015 et sera élevé aux rang et appellation de général d’armée aérienne à la même date.

 

Actuel sous-chef d’état-major « plans » à l’état-major des armées, le général André Lanata succèdera au général Denis Mercier qui occupe la fonction de CEMAA depuis le 17 septembre 2012 et est amené à rejoindre prochainement l’Otan en tant que Supreme Allied Commander Transformation.

 

Diplômé de l’École de l’Air (promotion 1981 "Colonel Rossi dit Levallois"), le général Lanata a, au cours de sa carrière, occupé de nombreuses responsabilités au sein de l’armée de l’air et du ministère de la Défense.

 

Officier rédacteur au bureau «programmes d’armement» de l’état-major de l’armée de l’air dès 1993, il est ensuite affecté sur la base aérienne 133 de Nancy-Ochey où il prend le commandement d’un escadron de chasse évoluant sur Mirage 2000D.

 

Suite à un passage à l’état-major des armées de 2000 à 2004, il prend le commandement de la base aérienne 188 de Djibouti, où il est également nommé commandant des forces aériennes françaises stationnées à Djibouti et de la base de soutien à vocation interarmées (BSVIA).

 

De retour sur le territoire national, il intègre, de 2006 à 2008, l’état-major de l’armée de l’air en tant que chef du bureau «plans». Il rejoint ensuite l’état-major des armées, au poste de général sous-chef «opérations», fonction qu’il occupe de 2011 à 2013.

 

Pilote de chasse ayant débuté sa carrière sur Mirage F1-CR, le général Lanata totalise 146 missions de guerre réalisées de nombreux détachements en opérations extérieures (Afrique, Guerre du Golfe, ex-Yougoslavie).

 

Son père, le général Vincent Lanata, avait été également CEMAA de 1991 à 1994.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 11:50
Brigadier-général Jean-Robert Bernier, médecin général et commandant du Groupe des Services de santé des Forces canadiennes (MDN)

Brigadier-général Jean-Robert Bernier, médecin général et commandant du Groupe des Services de santé des Forces canadiennes (MDN)

 

2 juin 2015 45eNord.ca

 

Le général Tom Lawson, chef-d’état major de la Défense, a annoncé que le brigadier général Jean-Robert Bernier a été élu unanimement comme président du Comité des chefs des services de santé militaires au sein de l’OTAN (CoMeds).

 

Cette nomination, qui entrera en vigueur en novembre 2015, constituera la première fois où un pays de l’extérieur de l’Europe continentale préside ce comité. Cela reflète la confiance de l’OTAN à l’égard de la direction du Canada et constitue une importante occasion pour le Canada de soutenir l’Alliance et d’avoir une influence positive sur l’état de préparation médicale à l’échelle internationale.

 

Le Comité des chefs des services de santé militaire au sein de l’OTAN (CoMeds) est formé de médecins généraux des pays de l’OTAN, de nombreux pays partenaire à l’intérieur et à l’extérieur de l’Europe et des autorités médicales principales des commandements stratégiques de l’OTAN et de l’effectif militaire international. Il relève du Comité militaire de l’OTAN et est soutenu par de nombreux groupes d’experts et groupes de travail internationaux spécialisés qui s’occupent de tous les secteurs de la santé et des opérations pertinents pour l’Alliance.

 

Le CoMeds est l’autorité de coordination et de consultation la plus élevée pour toutes les questions de santé militaires affectant l’OTAN. Il vise à optimiser la coordination, la normalisation, l’interopérabilité et l’état de préparation des services de santé de ses membres, à améliorer la communication de renseignements pertinents et à formuler des conseils au Comité militaire et à d’autres organes de l’OTAN sur les questions de santé militaire pertinentes pour l’Alliance.

 

Les responsabilités du président consistent à coordonner le travail du Comité, à traiter les capacités médicales stratégiques de l’Alliance et les questions de santé et à représenter le consensus du Comité.

 

Tout pays de l’OTAN peut proposer un candidat, lequel doit être médecin général en poste ou récemment retraité. Les médecins généraux de l’OTAN éliront alors collectivement le président.

 

Le brigadier-général Jean-Robert Bernier a été nommé médecin général, chef du Service de santé royal canadien, commandant du Groupe des Services de santé des Forces canadiennes et médecin honoraire de Sa Majesté la reine en 2012. Il sera transféré à la Première réserve en juin 2015 et promu au grade de major-général afin d’exercer ses fonctions de président pendant un terme de trois ans.

 

L’honorable Jason Kenney, Ministre de la Défense nationale a déclaré : «La nomination de notre médecin général actuel à titre de président du Comité des chefs des services de santé militaires de l’OTAN constitue un honneur et une reconnaissance du Canada à titre de chef de file des services de santé. Cette reconnaissance est directement attribuable à l’excellent travail et au dévouement de notre personnel médical militaire.»

 

Le Général Tom Lawson, Chef d’état-major de la Défense a déclaré :  «Je tiens à exprimer mes sincères félicitations au brigadier-général Bernier pour sa nomination bien méritée à la direction du Comité des chefs des services de santé militaires au sein de l’OTAN. Son expertise et son leadership médical stratégique lui seront utiles pendant qu’il représentera le Canada et les Forces armées canadiennes à titre de dirigeant mondial des services de santé.»

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 11:20
Les faucons noirs au 1er RA

 

04/06/2015 Joseph Dauce - armée Terre 2015

 

Région de Belfort : du 18 au 21 mai 2015, le 1er régiment d’artillerie (RA) a organisé la 3ème édition de l’exercice ROYAL BLACKHAWK, la seule manœuvre interarmes, interarmées et interalliés à se dérouler sur le territoire français.

 

A grand renfort d’éléments de la 3e dimension, les équipes d’observation et de coordination (EOC) du 1er RA ont pu s’entraîner, en vue de leur projection, au plus près des conditions réelles de combat.

 

Détails en images.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:55
photo  J.Lempin ECPAD

photo J.Lempin ECPAD

 

04.06.2015 par Jean Esparbès, étudiant à Sciences Po Lille - en stage à La Voix du Nord et au blog Défense globale.
 

Liban, Afghanistan, Mali, Centrafrique, voire Irak, l’armée de terre est en première ligne (80 % des plus de 7 000 soldats français en opérations extérieures). Les miliciens, djihadistes et autres « groupes armés terroristes » (GAT), selon la terminologie officielle, sont les adversaires des fantassins français. Le colonel Jean-Luc Theus, du Centre d’exploitation du renseignement terrestre, a présenté cette nouvelle génération lors d’une conférence à Sciences Po Lille en avril 2015. Le sujet n’est pas aussi nouveau que cela (Liban, Balkans, Afghanistan). Mais nous sommes actuellement très loin de l’affrontement envisagé avec l’armée Rouge...

 

Ces nouveaux adversaires se caractérisent avant tout par leur agilité et leur désinhibition face à la mort et la violence. « Tous les coups sont permis », illustre le colonel Theus. Cet étalage de violence est autant un mode de combat qu’un outil psychologique de propagande. Autant pour semer la peur que pour recruter.

Avant la prise de Ramadi, certains membres des forces de sécurité irakienne reçurent les photos de corps décapités de soldats ou policiers sur leur téléphone portable. Le message est clair : voici ce qui vous attend si vous ne vous soumettez pas. Les vidéos de propagande sur Internet sont autant d’illustrations d’une esthétique de la violence et d’une glorification des martyrs. En Centrafrique, cette désinhibition se reflète dans les innombrables violences et lynchages, dont les soldats français de l’opération Sangaris sont parfois les témoins impuissants.

« L’agilité tactique et individuelle » est un autre de ses traits saillants. Dans le Sahel, les « GAT » (Al Qaïda au Maghreb Islamique, Al Mourabitoune) ne sont pas en mesure d’attaquer frontalement les troupes françaises. Pour durer, ils évitent la confrontation, se dissimulent parmi la population intimidée. Leurs moyens d’actions privilégiés incluent l’emploi de roquettes, de mines, d’engins explosifs improvisés.

 

L'alliance du terrorisme et de la guerre conventionnelle

L’archétype de cette souplesse serait l’Etat Islamique, héritier d’Al-Qaïda en Irak, fondé en 2003. Il combine des modes d’actions dits « terroristes » (attentats à la voiture piégée, camions suicides, tirs de mortier), à des méthodes de guerre conventionnelle (missiles anti-aériens portables et antichars). C’est aussi l’adaptation. Il dissémine forces et matériels dans les zones sous son contrôle. Daech propose même des nouveautés stratégiques, comme la prise simultanée en mai de Palmyre en Syrie et de Ramadi en Irak, après des mois de siège.

Toujours selon le colonel Theus du CERT, cela traduit une redéfinition de principes et des pratiques de la guerre. Les soldats français, eux, sont soumis aux lois de la guerre édictées dans des conventions internationales. « Le droit des conflits armés est instrumentalisé par l’adversaire. » Comment distinguer un civil d’un irrégulier ? La différence avec un soldat professionnel se situe dans l’absence de carcan doctrinal et par la légèreté des structures de commandement. « Le soldat français est, lui, soumis à des freins réglementaires (doctrine, commandement) et psychologiques. Certaines actions lui sont interdites. »

Face à ces adversaires, l’armée de terre doit s’adapter, au risque d’être surprise comme le furent les Israéliens face au Hezbollah en 2006.

 

L'alourdissement, un défi occidental

Les sociétés occidentales ne tolèrent plus les pertes massives. L'impérative protection des hommes passe par le blindage généralisé. Les pertes au combat sont historiquement basses (15 soldats français morts en OPEX en Afrique depuis janvier 2013). Seulement, le gilet pare-éclats du fantassin (photo ci-dessus) réduit sa mobilité. Pour le matériel, l’alourdissement est générationnel (le dernier VBCI, véhicule blindé de combat d’infanterie, passe de 29 à 32 tonnes pour mieux se protéger).

Pour faire face à cette agilité, le Livre blanc de 2013 et la Loi de programmation militaire 2014-2019 favorisent le renseignement, l’aéromobilité et les forces spéciales.

Cette adaptation ne doit pas oublier le niveau politique. La réponse n’est pas uniquement matérielle et doctrinale. Ni militaire.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:55
photo Armée de l'Air

photo Armée de l'Air

 

03/06/2015 Armée de l'air

 

Le 26 mai 2015, les chefs d’établissement de la Meuse et des représentants de la Défense se sont entretenus sur le thème des liens entre l’armée et la nation.

 

Organisée par Patrick Steil, principal du collège Emile Chatelet de Vaubécourt, la réunion s’est tenue à Bar Le Duc. Objectif : découvrir les différentes dimensions du partenariat entre les ministères de l’Education nationale, de la Défense et de l’Intérieur.

 

Une visite de la base aérienne 113 a suivi, en présence du général de gendarmerie Georges Strub, du délégué militaire départemental, le colonel Jacques Mienville, du secrétaire général de la DSDEN 55, Patrick Chevrier, du conseiller défense du Recteur, de représentants de l’état-major de la zone de défense ainsi que de l’ensemble des chefs d’établissement.

 Le colonel Jérôme Bellanger, commandant la base aérienne 113, a ensuite présenté ses principales missions à Saint-Dizier. Les participants à cet échange ont aussi pu assister à des décollages, et visiter l’escadron de transformation Rafale 2/92 « Aquitaine ».

 

De nombreux projets ont pu être partagés entre les élèves et les représentants de la Défense, en particulier sur le devoir de mémoire, les stages/écoles, ou encore sur la commémoration du centenaire de la Première Guerre mondiale.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:55
Viols en Centrafrique : l’enquête déclassifiée

 

03/06/2015 par valeursactuelles.com

 

Centrafrique. Le ministre de la Défense Jean-Yves Le Drian a donné cet après-midi son feu vert pour déclassifier l’enquête interne sur les accusations de viols en Centrafrique sur des enfants, par des militaires français.

 

L’enquête déclassifiée

Le ministre de la Défense Jean-Yves Le Drian a donné son feu vert à la déclassification de l’enquête interne de l’armée sur les accusations de viols d’enfants par des militaires français en Centrafrique. « Le ministre a répondu favorablement à la demande de la justice » après « un avis favorable » de la Commission consultative du secret de la défense nationale, a précisé l’entourage du ministre à l’AFP.

Une information judiciaire avait été ouverte par le parquet de Paris le 7 mai dernier, après des révélations publiées dans le quotidien britannique The Guardian. La gendarmerie prévôtale et la section de recherches de la gendarmerie de Paris se sont déplacés à Bangui en août 2014 pour mener une enquête. « Ils ont procédé à un certain nombre de vérifications » a indiqué le parquet.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:50
photo British Army

photo British Army


28 mai 2015 by Forces TV

 

Probably the best known, and to their adversaries the most feared, body of fighting men in the British Army, Gurkhas were first recruited to serve the British Crown 200 years ago in 1815 and for all those years their signature weapon has remained the Kukri.

In that time, these young men, from the Nepalese hills, have fought in all the major wars where the British Army has been deployed. Winning an extraordinary number of medals for bravery, the Regiment has also won an extraordinary romantic place in the hearts of British people.

This book, written by Major General J C Lawrence CBE, with a foreword by HRH The Prince of Wales and an introduction by Joanna Lumley OBE, is the complete visual history of Britain s Gurkhas and the mystique that surrounds them.

Note RP Defense :

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:50
Information Warfare: NATO Is Lost In Cyberspace

 

May 30, 2015: Strategy Page

 

Tiny Estonia (population 1.3 million) has formed a Cyber War militia because Russia keeps threatening another major Cyber War offensive. Despite its small size Estonia is the most technically advanced (on a per-capita basis) nation in East Europe and was able to recruit several hundred skilled volunteers who are hard at work pooling their knowledge and skills to better handle more Cyber War aggression from Russia.

 

Estonia borders Russia and is a member of NATO. That last bit makes Russia reluctant to come in with tanks to take over like they did twice in the 1940s. Russia made a major effort to crush Estonia via major Internet based attacks in 2007. Estonia survived that “invasion” but admitted that this sort of Russian aggression caused great financial harm to Estonia. In the wake of these Russian Cyber War attacks Estonia demanded that the UN and NATO declare this sort of thing terrorism and dealt with accordingly. NATO tried to be helpful, but that wasn’t enough. The UN was even less helpful as the UN has a hard time getting anything done when Russia is involved because Russia is one of the handful of founding members that has a veto.

 

NATO did make an effort and in 2008 established a Cyber Defense Center in Estonia. This was the most tangible NATO response to Estonian calls for NATO to declare Cyber War on Russia. NATO agreed to discuss the issue but never took any action against Russia. The Cyber Defense Center was a consolation prize and studies Cyber War techniques and incidents and attempts to coordinate efforts by other NATO members to create Cyber War defenses and offensive weapons. NATO say that this appears to have deterred Russia from making another Cyber War attack. The Estonians are not so sure as Russia went ahead and invaded Georgia (a nation of four million in the Caucasus) in 2008 and Ukraine in 2014 and still makes very public threats against Estonia.

 

  Cyber Wars have actually been going on since the late 1990s and they are getting worse. It started in the 1990s as individuals attacked the web sites in other nations because of diplomatic disputes. This was usually stirred up by some international incident. India and Pakistan went at it several times, and Arabs and Israelis have been trashing each other’s web sites for years. The Arabs backed off at first, mainly because the Israeli hackers are much more effective. But in the last few years the Arabs have acquired more skills and are back at it. Chinese and Taiwanese hackers go at each other periodically, and in 2001, Chinese and American hackers clashed because of a collision off the Chinese coast between an American reconnaissance aircraft and a Chinese fighter. That was just the beginning for China, which now regularly makes major hacking attacks on the U.S. and other NATO members.

 

Since 2005 these Cyber Wars have escalated from web site defacing and shutting down sites with massive amounts of junk traffic (DDOS attacks), to elaborate espionage efforts against American military networks. The attackers are believed to be Chinese, and some American military commanders are calling for a more active defense (namely, a counterattack) to deal with the matter.

 

The Russian attacks against Estonia were the result of Estonia moving a statue, honoring Russian World War II soldiers, from the center of the capital, to a military cemetery in the countryside. The Estonians always saw the statue as a reminder of half a century of Russian occupation and oppression. Russia saw the statue move as an insult to the efforts of Russian soldiers to liberate Estonia and enable the Russians to occupy the place for half a century. The basic problem here is that most Russians don't see their Soviet era ancestors as evil people, despite the millions of Russians and non-Russians killed by the Soviet secret police. The Russians are very proud of their defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, ignoring the fact that the Soviet government was just biding its time before it launched its own invasion of Germany and Europe in general.

 

While many Russians would have backed a military attack on Estonia to retaliate for the insult by an ungrateful neighbor, this approach was seen as imprudent. Estonia is part of NATO and an attack on one NATO member is considered an attack on all. It's because of this Russian threat that Estonia was so eager to get into NATO. The Russians, however, believe that massive Cyber War attacks will not trigger a NATO response. They were so sure of this, that some of the early DDOS attacks were easily traced back to computers owned by the Russian government. When that got out, the attacks stopped for a few days, and then resumed from what appear to be illegal botnets. Maybe some legal botnets as well. Russian language message boards were full of useful information on how to join the holy war against evil Estonia. There's no indication that any Russians are afraid of a visit from the Russian cyber-police for any damage they might do to Estonia. And the damage has been significant, amounting to millions of dollars. While no one has been injured, Estonia is insisting that this attack, by Russia, should trigger the mutual defense provisions of the NATO treaty. It didn't, but it was a reminder to all that Cyber War is very real except when it comes time to fight back.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:50
photo Airbus DS

photo Airbus DS

 

3 juin 2015 45eNord.ca (AFP)

 

Trois des quatre moteurs de l’avion de transport militaire A400M qui s’est écrasé à Séville (sud de l’Espagne) début mai, faisant 4 morts et 2 blessés graves, ont connu des problèmes de puissance au décollage, a annoncé Airbus Defence and Space, en citant les premières analyses de la commission d’enquête espagnole.

 

« Les moteurs 1, 2 et 3 ont subi un gel de la puissance après le décollage et n’ont pas répondu aux tentatives entreprises par l’équipage pour contrôler normalement la puissance tandis que le quatrième moteur a répondu normalement aux demandes de l’équipage », a indiqué le groupe dans un communiqué.

 

Airbus DS ajoute que les autres systèmes de l’avion ont fonctionné normalement et qu’il n’y a pas eu d’autre anomalie identifiée durant le vol.

 

Ces éléments coïncident avec les problèmes identifiés par l’avionneur le 19 mai dans une note d’alerte diffusée aux opérateurs de l’appareil.

 

« Quand les pilotes ont placé la manette des gaz sur +flight idle+ (ralenti, NDLR) pour réduire la puissance, celle-ci a effectivement été réduite mais elle est ensuite restée en ralenti sur les trois moteurs affectés durant le reste du vol, en dépit des tentatives de l’équipage pour récupérer de la puissance », poursuit l’avionneur.

 

Ces éléments sont basés sur l’exploitation des boîtes noires de l’appareil.

 

Le 19 mai, Airbus avait déjà ordonné à ses clients une inspection de leurs appareils A400M, leur adressant une note d’alerte pour leur demander de contrôler le système de gestion électronique des moteurs.

 

Dans son communiqué, Airbus DS souligne que ces éléments n’ajoutent pas d’autres recommandations à celles figurant dans l’alerte opérationnelle du 19 mai.

 

L’avion effectuait un vol d’essai avant sa livraison à la Turquie prévue pour juillet.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:45
A Pathfinder UGV

A Pathfinder UGV

 

01 June 2015 by Guy Martin - defenceWeb

 

B-Cat Military has finished development testing of its one hundred per cent South African designed and built Pathfinder unmanned ground vehicle (UGV), which is being offered to the South African National Defence Force (SANDF).

 

The civil version of the B-Cat has been around for a number of years and started out as an unmanned mining vehicle for exploring blasting areas. Roughly two years ago B-Cat Military began development of a version for defence and security applications, which is available for a variety of missions such as anti-poaching, reconnaissance, perimeter surveillance, riot control intelligence gathering, forward deployment etc.

 

The company’s Pieter le Roux told defenceWeb that development has concluded and the vehicle is ready for production. The Pathfinder recently test-fired its 12.7 mm Rogue remote control weapons cluster supplied by Reutech, and was demonstrated to the SANDF, which has expressed a lot of interest in the type. The SANDF has bought into the remote controlled and unmanned idea, according to le Roux.

 

Le Roux said the vehicle would initially be marketed locally, targeting entities like the police (which could use it as a non-lethal crowd control tool), security services and the military before moving into the rest of Africa, as the Pathfinder is “an African machine for the African theatre of war.”

 

B-Cat Military said the Pathfinder is designed to operate in complex urban environments. “The Pathfinder UGV operates in close support to dismounted soldiers to also provide a forward fire suppression platform with an added additional payload carrying capacity. Some of the possible payloads include ammunition, chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) detection, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR), weapons, supplies, medical equipment etc.”

 

For base protection duties, the Pathfinder could be used to investigate intruder alarms, function as a mobile remotely operated radar and night vision or thermal imaging platform and could engage intruders with weapons.

 

In the support role, B-Cat Military said that the Pathfinder can be used by dismounted infantry sections to detect and destroy improvised explosive devices (IEDs), function as an ambush early warning system, gather intelligence, provide missile/small arms fire protection and provide communications support.

 

The Pathfinder can be fitted with limited mine protection and mine detection technology.

 

One of the envisioned roles for the Pathfinder is medical evacuation of injured soldiers out of combat zones, the replenishment of medical supplies to forward lines and protection for injured and medical personnel.

 

The six wheeled Pathfinder can be remotely operated at distances of between 400 metres and seven kilometres, terrain and communications systems dependant. The vehicle weights 800 kg without equipment and can carry a 300 kg payload. It is 1.7 metres long, 1.1 metres wide and .8 metres high. Its battery allows for ten hours of operation, but the battery pack can be switched out for continuous operation.

 

Le Roux explained to defenceWeb that the Pathfinder can be made bigger or smaller depending on customer requirements and is very flexible in terms of payload, use, size and weight. For instance, it could be used for firefighting or carry stretchers and have customer equipment integrated onto it.

 

The vehicle was displayed at the Africa Aerospace and Defence (AAD) exhibition in September last year with a mast-mounted Reutech radar and day sights, but can be fitted with other sights and equipment. Reutech said it is quite unique on the continent and had generated a lot of interest during AAD 2014. Le Roux said the niche market the Pathfinder is serving could be “quite substantial.”

 

B-Cat Military offers the Pathfinder with a control station and battery packs or can supply it with a transport vehicle, such as a Toyota Land Cruiser or Mercedes Sprinter. This would be fitted with a control station, recharging point and quick offload tray. The Pathfinder can also be aircraft deployed.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:45
U.S. ready to send military trainers to Nigeria in Boko Haram fight

 

01 June 2015 defenceWeb (Reuters)

 

The United States is prepared to send military trainers to Nigeria to help new President Muhammadu Buhari's armed forces improve their intelligence gathering and logistics, a senior State Department official said on Friday.

 

Strains between U.S. military advisers and the Nigerian army over human rights abuses and corruption under Buhari's predecessor Goodluck Jonathan undermined cooperation in efforts to counter the six-year-old Boko Haram insurgency.

 

The State Department official said Buhari and U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry would discuss future security assistance and expanded economic ties in a meeting on the sidelines of the new president's inauguration on Friday.

 

The official, speaking on condition of anonymity ahead of Kerry's visit to Abuja, said initial talks with Buhari indicated he wanted a "close relationship" with the United States.

 

"We have every indication that we'll be able to start a new chapter. We continue to have advisers there ... what I'm talking about would be new advisers in areas where we would expand."

 

Nigerian security forces have scored some successes against Boko Haram this year. The jihadists held an area of northeast Nigeria roughly the size of Belgium at the start of 2015 but have since been beaten back by counter-attacking government forces backed by those of neighbouring Chad, Niger and Cameroon.

 

The State Department official said Washington was willing to help train Nigeria's security forces in intelligence and logistics as well as military justice.

 

"We want to make sure and prioritize based on what President-elect Buhari and his top military team needs," the official said, acknowledging that training of a newly created army battalion last year "ran into some difficulties.

 

"(But) we think we can pretty quickly get back on track."

 

Boko Haram launched its insurgency in 2009, attacking towns and villages and killing thousands of people in pursuit of a state adhering to strict sharia law. The militants' abduction of 200 schoolgirls in April 2014 provoked outrage across the world.

 

The State Department official said that during his discussions with Buhari, Kerry would also express U.S. interest in more economic cooperation with Nigeria, Africa's biggest energy producer and most populous country.

 

American firms were especially interested in investing in Nigeria's oil and gas sector and in manufacturing

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:45
source info-aviation

source info-aviation

 

June 3, 2015 by Adam Szczepanik – Strategy Page

 

Libya’s air force has effectively ceased to exist soon after NATO aircraft began supporting local rebels in 1991. What aircraft didn’t get destroyed by NATO airstrikes were hidden and abandoned without maintenance. However as the rebellion evolved into a civil war some of the larger factions realized that a small number of combat aircraft would be a major battlefield asset.

 

However building an air force was not easy mainly because an international arms embargo was still in effect. The most obvious source for aircraft, munitions and other necessary equipment was what remained of old Libyan air force. The deposed dictator (Moamar Kaddafy) has spent decades building a large, if poorly run and largely ineffective air force. It turned out that there were many intact warplanes, some in reinforced bunkers or hidden in the desert that survived. However, the aircraft in question were in poor shape even before the war, and few years of absolute neglect didn’t make their situation any better.

 

There is one internationally recognized government, elected in 2014 and based in the eastern port city of Tobruk. This faction managed to gain the allegiance of many personnel from the old Libyan Air Force. Neighboring Egypt supported the Tobruk government and unofficially supplied a few of its obsolete jets and helicopters. The bulk of Libya’s rebuilt air force is made of Kaddafi era Mig-21bis fighters and Mig-21MF provided by Egypt after the war.

 

Then there were the twelve Su-22’s ground attack aircraft. These were decommissioned years before the war and NATO deemed them not worth attacking. The Tobruk government’s Free Libyan Air Force soon had two operational MiG-21st. While old and obsolete, they are still a very useful mainly because they aren’t fighters, but fighter-bombers by design, with specialized bombing sights, and good payload capacity, which makes them far more useful than the fighters.

 

The Free Libyan Air Force also has a handful of Mirage F.1 fighters. Most of these are not flyable but two operational ones were returned from Malta. During the war these aircraft were flown there by pilots who defected from Kaddafi’s forces. At least one more was made operational by cannibalizing other grounded aircraft. One fighter bomber variant, Mirage F.1AD was also made operational by the Free Libyan Air Force even though the model was decommissioned for 2 decades. France has promised assistance in overhauling and modernizing ten Mirage F.1s for the Free Libyan Air Force in the future.

 

Another of very few operational fighter-bombers is a Mig-23UB, which avoided NATO bombings thanks to getting captured by the rebels early in the conflict. The Tobruk government also has two operational Mig-23MLs (fighter variant of the same aircraft). While not as well equipped for ground attack as the UB variant, they still can use unguided bombs, though with even lesser precision.

 

The largest rival to the Tobruk government is based in Tripoli. The largest militia belonging to the Tripoli faction, Libya Dawn managed to scrounge up three operational Mig-23’s, one Mig-23UB and two Mig-23MLs. However one of these MiG-23s was shot down bombing a Free Libyan Air Force airbase and one crashed during combat operations for unknown reasons.

 

Libya Dawn’s only operational Mig-25 has met a similar fate. It was not such a big loss though, as this was a two seat trainer, without radar or proper bombsights, capable of only carrying two unguided bombs and dropping them with very poor accuracy, allowing it to only bomb large area targets like oil refineries, airfields and cities, and even that would achieve more of a morale effect than meaningful damage, as it would be hard to intercept due to the high service ceiling and speed Mig-25 s are famous for.

 

Libya Dawn, as well as the Tobruk government each also have a few J-21 Jastreb light attack planes, L-39 Albatross and G-2 Galeb light attack\trainer planes. While useful both for ground attack and pilot training, they don’t have the supersonic speed, electronic defenses and advanced bombsights of aircraft like the Su-22 or Mig-23UB, making them less effective in performing their missions, while at the same time they are at higher risk from the most anti- aircraft weapons many factions have (shoulder fired heat-seeking surface-to-air missiles and truck mounted or towed 23mm autocannons.)

 

The Free Libyan Air Force also operates a handful of helicopters, including few Mi-8 utility helicopters, including some armed variants delivered by Egypt, few Mi-24 Hind attack helicopters and it’s updated Mi-35 variant, and a single CH-47 Chinook transport helicopter. The Tobruk government has also captured few transport aircraft in the course of war, most of them are not airworthy though.  The operational ones are notably a BAe 146 regional airliner and C-130 Hercules medium transport, both of which are used to move medical and military supplies to remote locations. A purchase of additional C-130s and spare parts is being discussed with the U.S.  government.

 

Without assistance from foreign aviation industry, no faction will be able to get more than a handful of operational aircraft operational. That small that number will dwindle as the few flyable aircraft are destroyed because of enemy fire or poor maintenance and piloting. Some will be grounded when there are no more spare parts, or require advanced maintenance services like engine overhauls

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:35
LG5 40mm Precision Grenade Launcher

LG5 40mm Precision Grenade Launcher

 

June 3, 2015: Strategy Page

 

A Chinese manufacturer recently announced a 40mm grenade launcher with a computerized sight and computer controlled 40mm rounds that the weapon could program to explode over a specific target being aimed at. At one weapons sales expo this LG5 system was touted as an anti-sniper system for police. Closer examination of the system indicated that the LG5 was actually designed for long range (over 500 meters) targets, especially structures or vehicles that had to be hit on the first shot. There have been no reports of the reports of the LG5, which looks like a large (40mm) rifle with a round magazine allowing for multiple shots and an impressive looking computerized sight, complete with laser range finder. The LG5 may have been just some misdirected hype, but it shows you how far Chinese weapons development has come since the 1990s.

 

Chinese weapons manufacturers have been developing more and more 20mm-40mm grenade launchers for infantry and mechanized units since 2000. Many of these systems are offered for export, to military and police units as well as, unofficially, anyone with the money to pay for the weapons and extra for “special delivery.” There are multiple manufacturers of these weapons and for most weapons in China and the competition is pretty intense.

 

This began by producing cheaper versions of existing grenade launchers. One example of this was the QLB06. Introduced in 2006, by 2012 the Chinese QLB06 35mm semi-automatic grenade launcher had apparently become a standard weapon for many Chinese infantry units. It weighs 9.1 kg (20 pounds) empty and is 1046mm (41 inches) long. A drum magazine can hold 4-6 rounds, giving the weapon a maximum weight of 9.6 kg (27 pounds). It's semi-automatic and effective up to 1,000 meters.

 

The QLB06 is but the latest of a growing number of similar weapons. All these portable grenade launchers have an interesting past. While the U.S. developed (in the 1960s) a 40mm grenade, launched from a single shot (resembling a shotgun) hand held weapon and later a heavier vehicle mounted machine-gun type weapon, China developed something unique in its line of 35mm grenade launcher weapons. The earlier QLB87 has a magazine system that can hold 6, 9, or 12 35mm rounds. It weighs 12 kg (26.5 pounds). It looks, and is used like a light machine-gun. This weapon has not been used in combat yet and Western armies have stayed away from this design because it's easier to mount automatic 40mm machine-guns (weighing over a 50 kg/110 pounds) on armored vehicles or light trucks. The Chinese, however, have more light (few vehicles) infantry. So for them the W87 makes a lot of sense. But apparently Chinese troops, and weapons developers, thought better of the QLB87 and came up with the lighter QLB06.

 

Automatic grenade launchers, firing low speed 30-40mm shells, became popular in the 1960s when the usefulness of the American single shot M79 40mm grenade launcher was noted. Many troops today want the M79 back. But back then Russia and the United States proceeded to develop automatic grenade launchers. This was actually the second generation, as the Russians originally developed such weapons in the 1930s. By 1939 the Russian Navy was testing a 40.8mm weapon and the army followed a year later. The 21 ounce shells were based on the Djakonow rifle grenade and were fired at 129 meters (400 feet) per second (about 40 percent the speed of a pistol bullet) for a maximum range of 1,200 meters. The weapon weighed 24 kg (53 pounds) and was used in the 1940 Winter War with Finland. For political reasons (the weapons designer fell out of favor) the weapon was withdrawn from service before the Germans invaded in 1941 and was forgotten. This sort of thing happens a lot in military history.

 

In 1965, the U.S. developed and put into service the M18 40mm automatic grenade launcher. This weapon used the same 40mm round as the M79. The 8.6 kg (19 pound) M18 used a hand crank to load rounds (from a belt). Work on this weapon actually began in 1962, but it took the popularity of the M79 in Vietnam to spur production. Some 1,200 M18s were built through 1968, and it was a popular weapon on U.S. Navy river patrol boats, where ambushes were frequently encountered. Starting in 1966, the M18 was replaced by the heavier M19 that was truly automatic but weighed 34 kg (75 pounds). This was also developed by the U.S. Navy. Russia followed in 1974 with the AGS17, a 30mm grenade launcher weighing the same as the M19 but firing a 285 gram (ten ounce) shell instead of the 458 gm (16 ounce) 40mm shell used in American weapons.

 

The U.S. and other nations have since come out with lightweight grenade launchers that fit under the assault rifle barrel. But the appeal of a dedicated grenade launcher for a "grenadier" has always been popular. One skilled grenadier with a weapon like the QLB06 or LG5 can be very effective and the Chinese are determined to come up with more effective and cheaper weapons of this type.  

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:35
Weapons: The China Solution

 

May 26, 2015: Strategy Page

 

China has arming its troops with the new ZH-05, a weapon that combines a 5.56mm assault rife with a computer controlled 20mm grenade launcher (with a max range of 700 meters). The ZH-05 has been seen with Chinese marines sent abroad warships working with the Somali anti-piracy patrol. Chinese special operations troops have the ZH-05 and the army ordered several thousand of them so that each four man infantry fire-team will have one. That puts China ahead of the other two countries (United States and South Korea) with similar weapons. The Chinese version is lighter, simpler and cheaper and the Chinese feel the ZH-05 is worth buying and issuing to the troops. There’s not been similar enthusiasm with the American and South Korean versions.

 

The U.S. began working on this type of weapon back in the 1990s as the OICW (Objective Individual Combat Weapon) and that mutated into the XM25 (the “X” in XM25 designates a system that is still in development). The South Korean one is the K11. The three weapons are different in important ways. The American and South Korean weapons both have a magazine for the computer controlled grenades while the ZH-05 is a single shot weapon, requiring 20mm rounds to be loaded manually each time. This makes the ZH-05 the lightest of the three weapons, weighing five kg (11 pounds) loaded (with a single 20mm round and a magazine with 20 rounds of 5.8mm ammo). The M25 got rid of the assault rifle element and upped the caliber to 25mm. Thus an M25, with a four round magazine, weighs 5.5 kg while the K11, loaded with a 20 round 5.56mm and five round 20mm magazines weighs 7.2 kg. The M25 is the only one of three to have been tested extensively in combat but because of misfire during a demonstration, budget cuts and troops finding there were not really that many situations calling for the M25, the system was cancelled (development funding was eliminated) in 2013.

 

XM-25

XM-25

The initial spectacular success and popularity of the XM25 grenade launchers in Afghanistan led the army to request that the weapon enter regular service as the M25 in 2014. But Congress, looking for ways to reduce military spending in 2013 cut all money for the M25. The army managed to scrounge enough cash to keep the M25 on the books and hopes to get the money to build 1,100 of them. Currently the M25 cost $35,000 each with the 25mm ammo going for $55 per round. SOCOM (Special Operations Command) apparently has some M25s but with few American troops in combat there is not a lot of demand for a weapon like this.

 

When the first evaluation models of the XM25 arrived in Afghanistan in 2011 the weapon soon became much sought after by infantry troops. There were never more than a few dozen XM25s in Afghanistan and limited supplies of ammunition. Despite that the weapon quickly developed a formidable reputation. The Special Forces have priority on the weapon because it is very useful for special operations missions. The army planned to buy enough so that they could issue one per infantry squad. There are 27 squads in an infantry battalion.

 

The XM25 grenade launcher went through several major design changes and it wasn’t until 2005 that the first XM25s were delivered to the U.S. Army for troop testing. In 2007 a few were sent overseas for testing in combat situations. While the troops have been very enthusiastic about the new weapon, there were a lot of suggestions, mostly about minor items. So the army kept tweaking and refining the weapon. It appeared that the XM25 was a success after only 55 of the 25mm rounds were fired in combat. The users protested having to give them up after the few months of field testing. All this was because the XM25s worked as advertised, firing "smart rounds" that exploded over the heads of Taliban hiding behind rocks or walls, or hiding in a cave or room. Enemy machine-guns have been quickly knocked out of action and ambushes quickly disrupted with a few 25mm shells. Encounters that might go on for 15 minutes or longer, as U.S. troops exchange fire with hidden Taliban, end in minutes after a few 25mm, computer controlled rounds were used. But over time it was found that there were not that many situations in combat calling for an M25 and some troops left them behind most of the time.

 

The XM25 was originally one of two weapons (the other being a 5.56mm rifle) incorporated in the 8.2 kg (18 pound) XM29 OICW. The OICW was originally developed as a replacement for the 40mm grenade launcher attached to the grenadiers M16 as well as providing a more accurate and capable grenade launcher. Didn't work out as intended. The big problem was effectiveness. The older 40mm, unguided, grenade rounds weigh 540 grams (19 ounces) each, the original 20mm OICW round weighed half that. This was one of the several major problems with the OICW. It was too heavy and ungainly, and the 20mm "smart shell" it fired did not appear capable of effectively putting enemy troops out of action consistently, especially compared to the 40mm shell it was replacing. So, in August, 2003, it was decided to take the 5.56mm portion out of the OICW and develop it as a separate weapon (the XM8) while the grenade launcher part that fired the "smart shell" continued development as the XM25. But the XM-25 would now use a 25mm shell, which would generate 50 percent more fragments (and heavier ones at that) than the 20mm shell of the OICW. China and South Korea insist that their 20mm grenades inflict sufficient hurt on the enemy to be effective. The U.S., with lots of combat testing believes that 25mm is the only way to go. China disagrees and insists its 20mm shell is quite lethal.

 

The 20mm and 25mm "smart shells" both use a computer controlled fuze. The XM25 operator could choose one of four different firing modes via a selector switch on the weapon. The four modes include "Bursting" (airburst). For this to work, the soldier first finds the target via the weapons sighting system. The sight includes a laser range finder and the ability to select and adjust the range shown in the sight picture. For an air burst, the soldier aims at an enemy position and fires a round. The shell is optimized to spray incapacitating (wounding or killing) fragments in a roughly six meter (19 foot) radius from the exploding round. Thus if enemy troops are seen moving near trees or buildings at a long distance (over 500 meters), the weapon has a good chance of getting them with one shot. M-16s are not very accurate at that range, and the enemy troops will dive for cover as soon as M-16 bullets hit around them. With smart shells, you get one (or a few) accurate shots and the element of surprise. The smart shells can be used out to 700 meters, but not as accurately. At those longer ranges, you can't put a shell through a window, but you can hurt a crowd of gunmen standing outside the building.

 

The other modes are "PD" (point detonation, where the round explodes on contact), PDD (point detonation delay, where the round detonates immediately after it has gone through a door, window or thin wall) and "Window", which is used for firing at enemy troops in a trench, behind a stone wall or inside a room. The round detonates just beyond the aiming point. For buildings, this would be a window or door frame, cave entrance or the corner of a building (to get enemy troops thought to be around the corner.)

 

The XM25 is still a heavy weapon, with the final version coming in at 5.5 kg (12 pounds). The 25mm shells weigh over half a pound each (270 grams). On the plus side, there is already a 25mm armor piercing round (using a shaped charge capable of penetrating over 50mm of armor) available. This makes the XM-25 capable of knocking out light armored vehicles. Then there are the types of 25mm ammo, like fuel-air explosive (or "thermobaric"). Such a shell would cause greater blast effect in an enclosed space, and actually suck most of the oxygen out of a cave or closed room long enough to make surviving troops at least a bit groggy. This gives the attacking troops an opportunity to rush in and kill the enemy or take prisoners. In combat, every little advantage helps. With the XM-25, hiding behind rocks, trees, walls or in caves will no longer protect you. There is also a flechette ("shotgun") round. The XM-25 also has a 4x thermal sight.

 

K11 dual-caliber air-burst weapon

K11 dual-caliber air-burst weapon

It was only in 2009 that South Korea revealed it had developed the K11, a $14,000 20mm/5.56mm weapon which appeared to be identical in concept to the U.S. Army XM29. The South Korean version weighs 6.1 kg (13.4 pounds) empty and combines a 5.56mm rifle, with one firing 20mm computer and laser controlled shells. The South Korean weapon appears to operate the same way as the 20mm shell of the XM-29. The South Koreans plan to issue the K11, on the basis of two weapons per squad (an infantry unit containing 10-12 men). The K11 was both cheaper and lighter than the XM29.

 

It's unclear if the South Koreans found solutions to the problems the XM29 and XM25 encountered, or simply developed an improved XM29 and decided it was useful in small numbers. South Korea used some K11s in Afghanistan and there were lots of complaints about reliability and effectiveness. This did not result in the K11 being cancelled, but the weapon does not have a good reputation among the troops. The South Koreans have found that the 20mm smart shell is effective out to about 500 meters. South Korean troops began receiving the K11 in 2010. In 2011 South Korea halted production of the K11 for a while because nearly half of those already distributed to the troops had design or manufacturing problems. This included some that had been sent to South Korean troops in Afghanistan. The K11 problems were fixed and so far over 4,000 have been built. The K11 manufacturer insists that problems have been fixed but troops and many commanders are not so confident.

 

The Chinese ZH-05 has three types of 20mm ammo. One is impact detonation, the second is air burst and the third is a shotgun type shell. The computerized fire control system only provides for the user to select at what range the air burst round will detonate. Because these 20mm rounds have fewer electronics in them they carry more fragments and the Chinese believe (but don’t know from combat experience) that this supplies adequate wounding capability.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:35
Armor: Arjun Back From The Dead Again

 

June 3, 2015: Strategy Page

 

India continues to have problems with its tank fleet. The latest disaster is the low readiness of the 120 locally designed Arjun tanks the army was forced to buy in order to keep an Indian tank factory working. After several years of use over 70 percent of the Arjuns are inoperable because of technical problems, mostly relating to imported spare parts. Over half the Arjun components are foreign made and the procurement bureaucracy, the army and the Arjun factory cannot agree on specifications and quantities of these parts. In addition to that there are dozens of unresolved technical problems with Arjun. All this adds up to nearly a hundred separate problems that need to be resolved to increase the readiness rate. The government seems to agree that Arjun is a failure and while the factory only has to make four more, it also now has orders for 118 Arjun 2s.

 

The order for the 124 original Arjuns came about in 2010 when competitive tests between the Indian designed (by DRDO, the government defense research and development organization) Arjun and Russian T-90 tank resulted in an unexpected victory by the Arjun. The Indian Army had been compelled (by pro-Arjun politicians) to conduct a field test between the domestically designed (but troubled and largely rejected) Arjun tank, and the Russian T-90 (now considered the army's primary tank). Fourteen of each tank were used, and the results were classified. But journalists had no trouble getting unofficial reports that the Arjun managed to best the T-90 in tests of mobility, endurance and gunnery.

 

This was surprising because until then Arjun was considered an expensive and embarrassing failure. Development of the Arjun began in the 1980s and by 2006 the army had received only five of them, for testing and evaluation. The evaluation did not go well. Originally, the Arjun was to have replaced thousands of older Russian tanks, but after so many delays, the army only reluctantly accepted enough to equip one Armored Brigade. The new test reports resulted in renewed pressure on the army to buy more Arjuns.

 

One good thing came out of this competition and that was the agreement by the Arjun developers to address the many technical problems with Arjun. To spare government or military officials’ embarrassment this was described as an effort to develop the next generation battle tank. Called the FMBT (Future Main Battle Tank), this vehicle aimed to build on the “success” of the Arjun.

 

This pitted the Defense Ministry weapons development and procurement bureaucrats against the generals. The bureaucrats were under pressure to deliver because the competition was won by Arjun mainly because it was assumed that Arjun would have fixed all the problems it was having with its electronics and some other components. The main problems were with the fire control system, the engine, and that fact that its size and weight prevented it from being used with current tank transporters. Thus the FMBT was to be lighter (50 tons) and based on what worked in the Arjun and other modern tanks. The FMBT is expected to replace older Russian tanks. The result was called Arjun 2 and it fixed most of the Arjun problems, including the size and weight issues. Arjun 2 weighs 50 tons and 60 percent of the components are Indian made. All this is optimistic, given what happened with the original Arjun and Indian developed weapons in general. The Arjun was originally intended as a replacement for most of the older T-72s and that still might happen.

 

Meanwhile in 2009 an Indian factory delivered the first ten (of a thousand) T-90 tanks to the Indian Army. The Russian designed armored vehicles are being built in India under license. Many of the components are Indian made, and some of the electronics are imported from Western suppliers. The Indian-made T-90s cost about $3 million each. India has already bought 700 Russian made T-90 tanks, at a cost of $3.5 million each. The Arjun 2 is expected to cost over $5 million each. The high price is due to a lot of high tech. This includes an active defense system to defeat anti-tank missiles, a much more powerful engine, lots of electronics and a hermetically sealed crew department to provide protection against chemical weapons and radiation. All this stuff is tricky to develop, just the sort of thing DRDO excels at screwing up. This is mostly the fault of the DRDO bureaucrats, who are not very good at using all the technical and manufacturing talent India has.

 

Back in 2006 India adopted the Russian T-90 as its new main battle tank. By 2020, India will have 2,000 upgraded T-72s, over 1,500 T-90s, and few hundred other tanks (including over 240 Arjuns, depending on how the Arjun 2 works out in practice). This will be the most powerful armored force in Eurasia, unless China moves ahead with upgrades to its tank force. The border between China and India is high in the Himalayan Mountains, which is not good tank country. India's tank force is mainly for use against Pakistan.

 

The T-90 is a highly evolved T-72. Originally, the T-90 was a fallback design. The T-80 was supposed to be the successor to the T-72. But like the T-62 and T-64 before it, the T-80 didn't quite work out as planned. So the T-72, with a much improved turret and all manner of gadgets, was trotted out as the T-90. Weighting 47 tons, its 7 meters (23 feet) long, 3.4 meters (11 feet) wide and 2.3 meters (7.5 feet) high. Same package, better contents. And with well-trained crews, it can be deadly. The original Arjun was a larger vehicle (59 tons, 10.7 meters long and 3.9 meters wide).

 

Arjun 2 is similar in size to the T-90. Indian armor experts, both military and civilian, are hoping the Arjun 2 is more like the T-90 than the Arjun. But the most worrisome aspect of the Arjun 2 project is DRDO which also developed Arjun. It's feared that the DRDO wonks have not learned from the many errors made with the Arjun. The hope is that the Arjun 2 will not be another DRDO disaster.  

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:35
Armor: Argo In China

source military-today.com

 

May 28, 2015: Strategy Page

 

Chinese airborne and light infantry units are being equipped with a Chinese made amphibious ATV (All Terrain Vehicle). This is an 8x8 vehicle apparently based on the Canadian Argo design, which has been around since the 1960s and has been regularly upgraded, refined, improved and extensively used all over the world. The Chinese ATV can carry six people (including the driver), weighs 1.7 tons and has a max payload of about a ton. If used amphibiously the ATV can only carry about a third of a ton. Max road speed is 60 kilometers an hour. The ATV is 3.9 meters (12.7 feet) long and 1.8 meters (5.9 feet) wide. The Chinese military has several thousand of these vehicles, many (if not most) of them with non-combat units.

Partager cet article
Repost0
4 juin 2015 4 04 /06 /juin /2015 07:20
Weapons: The Marines Want SOST And They Want It Now

 

May 30, 2015: Strategy Page

 

The U.S. Army and Marine Corps stopped using the same 5.56mm ammunition in 2010 when the army began using the new lead-free M855A1 5.56mm round for combat (mainly in Afghanistan) operations. The M855A1 replaces the older M855 long used by the marines as well. The marines also wanted to adopt some new and improved 5.56mm ammo but decided the M855A1 was not it and continued looking. Now the marines believe they have found their new round, the M318 SOST, which has been used by SOCOM for several years. This annoyed a number of key people in Congress who insisted both services use the same 5.56mm ammo. To decide the issue there will be tests, and possibly more tests after that. In the meantime the political winds may shift and make the Congressional mandate for common ammo go away. After all for decades SOCOM has been allowed to use whatever ammunition (or weapons) it feels are best for the job at hand. But Congress considers SOCOM a special case, at least more special than the marines, and leaves SOCOM alone.

 

The new M855A1 round is more expensive and marginally better than the older M855. The major reason for the appearance of the M855A1 was years of political pressure on the army to use non-lead bullets. That came about because training and combat use of army 5.56mm weapons puts 2,000 tons of lead back into the environment each year. This lead was originally taken out of the environment to be temporarily stored in the form of bullets. The lead is also contained in a copper jacket and most of it stays that way. That's probably why no environmental study has ever found lead leaching out of spent bullets and getting into anyone's water. But just the thought of all those billions of lead bullets lying in the ground mobilized an international movement to ban lead bullets.

 

Fortunately the M855A1 was also about several other improvements besides being lead-free. For example, the M855A1 is a little more accurate at longer ranges. This is important in a place like Afghanistan. The M855A1 is marginally better at blasting its way through brick, concrete, and masonry than the older M855. The propellant in the M855A1 burns faster and thus produces a smaller muzzle flash when fired from the short (compared to the M-16) barreled M-4 rifle. The greater penetrating power of the M855A1 is because of a steel penetrator, which also makes the M855A1 more likely to penetrate body armor and sheet metal. The Taliban were increasingly getting their hands on protective vests or adding armor to vehicles (particularly suicide car bombs meant to speed past armed guards).

 

The marines noted that the steel M855A1 bullet also caused more wear and tear on rifles using it. The marines noted that the M855A1 has been causing cracks in rifles that have fired as few as 3,000 of them. Marines also point out that the M855A1 requires larger safety zones for rifle ranges because the M855A1 tends to ricochet farther. The larger safety zones could be very expensive for some marine ranges.

 

While this non-lead policy burnishes the army's image and environmental cred, it was also feared that it might equip troops with an inferior bullet, which was built around a copper alloy (not lead) slug. But inferior to what? Well to another new bullet, the ones the marines want and SOCOM (Special Operations Command) already uses. SOCOM developed the new 5.56mm M318 SOST (Special Operations Science and Technology) round. The SOST bullet solves a problem the M855 has long had, the inability to penetrate things like automobile windshields. SOST uses lead and also has more killing power than the M855 (that did not inflict as much internal damage, and bleeding, as 7.62mm and 9mm rounds). The M855A1 turned out to perform these tasks as well, or nearly as well, as SOST and was still "green" (less potential lead pollution).

 

The army spent over $32 million developing the M855A1. The new bullet is more expensive (because of the more complex manufacturing process) and in the field troops have not noticed much difference. On the down side, the new round generates more pressure in the chamber (and higher speed leaving the barrel). In theory this causes a slight increase in the risk of a rifle exploding. That has not happened yet.

 

Some green bullets have been disasters. Norway introduced one three years ago that made users sick. It seems the new bullet, when used in new rifles, created some toxic gasses. A redesign of the new round fixed the problem and made the new bullet even more expensive. The marines believe the M318 is superior to the M855 and the lead-free M855A1 and has already shown that to be the case in combat (mainly with SOCOM). But Congress cannot be ignored and the marines will have to wait.

Partager cet article
Repost0

Présentation

  • : RP Defense
  • : Web review defence industry - Revue du web industrie de défense - company information - news in France, Europe and elsewhere ...
  • Contact

Recherche

Articles Récents

Categories