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23 mars 2015 1 23 /03 /mars /2015 12:36
A French Rafale Marine Flotille 11F - carrier qualifications aboard the USS Carl Vinson photo US Navy

A French Rafale Marine Flotille 11F - carrier qualifications aboard the USS Carl Vinson photo US Navy


New Delhi, March 20: telegraphindia.com


French aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle, heading a battlegroup of ships involved in strikes against the Islamic State from the Persian Gulf, will be in the Arabian Sea next month for 10 days of war games with the Indian Navy.


The exercise, the latest of a series named "Varuna", will also involve India's aircraft carrier, the INS Vikramaditya, other Indian warships and a submarine.


The nuclear-powered Charles de Gaulle carries on board the navalised Rafale fighter jet that also landed on and took off from the American USS Carl Vinson aircraft carrier earlier this month in the Persian Gulf.


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23 mars 2015 1 23 /03 /mars /2015 12:35
India Developing Network of Coastal Radars

Indian PM Narendra Modi inspects the Guard of Honour, at the Ceremonial Reception, in Seychelles on March 11.(Photo M.Asokan -Indian Prime Minister's Office)


March 20, 2015 By Oscar Nkala – Defense News


GABORONE, Botswana — Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi has activated the first of the Indian Navy's planned 32 coastal surveillance radar (CSR) stations in the Seychelles, marking the beginning of the rollout of an Indian-led maritime surveillance project set to have stations in the Seychelles, the Maldives, Mauritius and Sri Lanka.


Modi activated the radar system during his recent tour of the Seychelles as he visited key Indian Ocean region allies in a move some military strategists view as an effort to forge a strong alliance to counter aggressive expansion by the Chinese People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN) in the region since October.


Addressing senior Indian Navy and Seychelles Coast Guard officers during the commissioning, Modi said India's plan includes setting up radar stations in the Seychelles, Mauritius and the Maldives. Negotiations to set up at least 10 more in Sri Lanka are ongoing.


He said the CSRs will improve the operational capabilities of the maritime security forces of partner nations and the overall security of the exclusive economic zones which make up the region's "blue economy."


"We regard Seychelles as a vital partner in our Indian Ocean neighborhood. Our relationship is unique and special. It is founded on a deep sense of mutual trust and confidence. Our security partnership is strong and has enabled us to fulfill our shared responsibility to advance maritime security in the region," he said.


"It is a privilege to be a partner of the Seychelles in the development of its security capabilities. We also hope that Seychelles will soon be a full partner in the maritime security cooperation between India, Maldives and Sri Lanka," Modi said.


Regional defense analysts say that once completed, the 32-station surveillance project will enable the Indian Navy, through its allies, to monitor the movements of all ships operating in the Indian Ocean.


Modi pledged to donate a second Dornier maritime surveillance aircraft to boost the intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance capabilities of the Seychelles Coast Guard.


India donated the first Dornier (Do 228) aircraft and some naval vessels to the Seychelles in mid-2013. Seychelles President James Michel said the stations are proof of his country's exemplary defense and security relationship with India.


"Everybody recognizes India's footprints on many facets of our economic, social and cultural development. We have an exemplary partnership in the defense and security sectors.


"This is very much reflected in our fight against piracy and the joint patrolling of our oceans and also the training of our defense personnel. We are very encouraged by the willingness of the government and people of India to work with us in the context of the development of our blue economy,"


In addition to the newly commissioned CSR on the main island of Mahe, more will be installed on the smaller islands of Farqhuar, Astove and Assumption. All are expected to be commissioned into service between July and August.


In neighboring Mauritius, Modi signed an agreement to set up eight Indian-controlled CSR stations and pledged to continue strengthening the Mauritius Coast Guard with new aircraft, naval vessels and Indian training for its seamen.


The IOR surveillance project is widely seen as India's response to China's aggressive new operations in the region. In January, the Chinese Ministry of National Defense said it will step up the deployment of Navy vessels in the area to protect its security and economic interests while contributing to regional international anti-piracy operations.


The Indian move follows recent reports suggesting that China is pushing for the establishment of at least 18 deepwater ports with African and Asian littoral states to set up bases and maintenance yards for vessels.

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23 mars 2015 1 23 /03 /mars /2015 12:35
Rafale Vs. Su-30MKI - The New Indian Dogfight

March 23, 2015 by Shiv Aroor - Livefist

Intensifying since the turn of the new year, you couldn't possibly have missed the roar of AL-31s in all talk of India's turbulent final dash for a Rafale jet deal. It's unmissable. The fact that the Su-30 MKI was pushed into the M-MRCA conversation by none other than India's defence minister ensured the notion strengthened quickly, unscathed by intrigue and rumours. And then, it exploded.

On the evening of December 30, when Manohar Parrikar suggested to reporters that 'additional Su-30s' could save the IAF in the event that 'complications'-ridden negotiations with Dassault Aviation for 126 Rafale fighters didn't end in a purchase contract. That the seed of the idea came from the proverbial horse's mouth, and not South Block hearsay, gave it furious immediacy.


The suggestion caught the Indian Air Force completely off guard, flying as it did in the face of an unusually defiant stance the IAF leadership had decided on in 2012 about there being 'no Plan-B' in the event that the Rafale failed. But this time, the IAF resisted an immediate rebuttal. This was, after all, the Defence Minister who had weighed in. But what truly unnerved the IAF -- and several planners within the MoD -- was that Parrikar had gone out on a limb less than two months after being handpicked as Defence Minister. His specific comments on the negotiations revealed three things: One, that he'd hit the ground running and was fully abreast of the negotiations and where they were stuck. Two, that he was fully willing to question for the first time the presupposition both within the MoD (and especially the IAF) that there would was likely to be extended turbulence, but a deal would finally be signed. Finally, and perhaps most importantly, it showed that Parrikar has been empowered by the PM to lead decision-making on a deal that's so large that it has everything to do with the political leadership, and little to do with the act of hardware procurement.


But there was blood in the water that couldn't be ignored. If Parrikar's pre-New Year comment sparked a fire, he pretty much flung a barrel of gasoline at it two weeks later when in an interview to Karan Thapar on Headlines Today, he said in response to a question on the possibility of the Rafale deal not working out, "Sukhoi-30 choice is always there. What I mean to say is: upgrade the Sukhoi-30, make it more capable."


The latch-on was instantaneous. Hours after Parrikar's comments were broadcast, Russian think-tank the Center for Analysis of World Arms Trade declared on Jan 13 that India's potential choice of more Russian Su-30 MKIs instead of Rafales would "advantageous to the country’s air force in terms of cost, tactical and technical characteristics of the plane and a series of other reasons". For good measure, the Russians stoked France's controversial hold-back of Mistral-class amphibious intended for Russia. The example had been broached before, but Moscow really ground it in this time.


A month later, Livefist learns, a concerted effort was made by Russia's mission & trade office in New Delhi to pull India's External Affairs Ministry into the conversation. The specifics of what was on the table isn't fully known. A curious Russian media report quotes junior minister in the MEA, former Army chief, Gen (Retd.) Vijay Kumar Singh as having said that the Su-30 was cheaper than the Rafale and more reliable.


In February, with the Su-30 vs. Rafale debate stewing for nearly two months to the consternation of Dassault, IAF chief Arup Raha was fairly buttonholed into saying, "There's M-MRCA and there's Sukhoi-30. The requirements are slightly different. And they have their own capabilities. They compliment each other but do not replace each other." A statement, it was immediately clear, that practically subverted what the Defence Minister had suggested.


At Aero India 2015, where the IAF chief made that comment, the spotlight also shined on friction between Sukhoi and the IAF over the unexplained seat ejection that caused the type's fifth accident last year. The Russians weren't happy. "When we are wrong, we will say so. When the Indian pilot is wrong, the IAF should not be shy to admit that," an irritated UAC officer told me at the time.


Dassault Aviation and the French government were always prepared for rumblings of power-play and suggestive pressure from the Indian MoD, but the speed at which the conversation heated up caught all involved by surprise. For Dassault, it would now be fighting on two fronts -- one with a confident new government that promised quick action either way. And two, with the Russians, India's largest supplier of military hardware, practically invited into the tense last lap of the M-MRCA fight by the Indian MoD. The French Defence Minister, who visited Delhi last month for the second time in less than two months, didn't bring up the Su-30 MKI. The French didn't have a direct play, political or otherwise. It was felt that things were too delicate at the negotiations table to poke at something that was, Paris understood, a direct message that India wasn't going to budge on final sticking points. Informed that it needed to work on a joint liability matrix with HAL for the license build programme, Dassault decided to bide its time.


Of course, by this time, plenty of journalism in India, Russia and France -- and the furious online military aviation subculture -- had gotten the Rafale and Su-30 to dogfight on paper. It wasn't until March that France's patience cashed out. It was a veritable neutron bomb on the Su-30's two month supercruise through arms & diplomatic circles, and even the French couldn't have expected such a break: a statement by Defence Minister Parrikar himself that the Su-30 fleet had serious problems.


For Dassault and the French government, the new conversation was 


Here's the latest state of play:

  1. Russia smells real blood. Through their Trade Office and the Embassy, an existing conversation about additional numbers of the Su-30 & upgrades of earlier units has been re-energised with the additional sweetener of a markedly higher degree of local content and sourcing on any additional Su-30s India may choose to license build in Nashik.
  2. Livefist can confirm that Russia has also offered India the Su-35 'Super Flanker', but kept the details open. The type is officially on the table now with Russia inviting India to help configure a Su-35 'MKI'.
  3. Russia is attempting to contain the twin damage of (a) information about engine trouble and fleet availability. Rosoboronexport has begun discussions with the IAF and HAL. And (b) the issue of the mysterious seat ejections. Both sides have decided to sort out the issue cordially and in private. It doesn't want to lose the momentum it received from the initial suggestion that more Su-30s could cushion the potential collapse of the M-MRCA.
  4. Dassault and HAL are currently working at a furious pace to have something to show to the MoD in the next one week, though it remains unlikely that there will be anything for Prime Minister Modi & President Hollande to announce next week in Paris.
  5. On March 18, Defence Minister Parrikar said, "They have to tell us whether they can do it or not. Can’t keep waiting."

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23 mars 2015 1 23 /03 /mars /2015 08:55
Mirage 2000H - photo Guillaume Carré

Mirage 2000H - photo Guillaume Carré




Au mois de Juillet 2011, Dassault Aviation et Thalès ont signé avec l'Inde un contrat portant sur la modernisation d'une cinquante de Mirage 2000H (monoplace) et Mirage 2000TH (biplace) appartenant à la Force Aérienne Indienne.


Ces appareils, acquis dans les années 80, commençaient sérieusement à vieillir, et à devenir obsolètes face à des avions construits ces dernières années. C'est pourquoi, l'Inde, qui veut s'assurer d'être un pays leader et puissant en Asie, tout en ayant les moyens de pouvoir contrer les menaces qui déstabiliseraient son état, en particulier avec les tensions très vives qui existent avec son voisin, le Pakistan.

Cette modernisation, d'un montant de 2,4 milliards de dollars, apporte donc à Delhi et à sa flotte de Mirage 2000H/TH un nouveau souffle avec l'implantation d'un nouveau radar plus puissant, d'un système de contre-mesures plus efficace, la possibilité d'emporter des missiles air-air MICA IR et MICA EM, dont 500 ont été commandés, un viseur de casque, une nouvelle avionique, ainsi que des calculateurs internes modernes.


Suite de l'article


Galerie Flickr du photographe, à visiter : Cliquez ici .

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22 mars 2015 7 22 /03 /mars /2015 08:35
Successful test for the Indian ASTRA BVR missile


Mar 20, 2015 defense-update.com


It was the fifth air launch of the Indian BVR missile. The first live launch was carried out on May 4, 2014. A previous test earlier this week has failed, as the missile failed to launch.


India’s Beyond Visual Range (BVR) air-to-air missile ASTRA completed a successful test flight on thursday. Developed by the Indian Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO), the unarmed missile was launched from a Sukhoi Su-30MKI against a Lakshya target over the Integrated Test Range in Balasore, off the coast of Odisha. Telemetry and Electro-optical tracking stations confirmed the successful engagement. Operational ASTRA missiles will carry a 15kg high-explosive fragmentation warhead.


It was the fifth air launch of the Indian BVR missile. The first live launch was carried out on May 4, 2014. A previous test earlier this week has failed, as the missile failed to launch. More tests are scheduled to follow, as part of the weapon’s validation and integration program, with SU-30MKI and LCA, activities currently undertaken by Hindustan Aircraft Ltd. The recent test confirmed the missile’s high turn rate (30g). Astra is designed to intercept targets beyond visual range, head on at a range of 80km, or 20 km-range in tail-chase mode.


Prior to the live launch, rigorous Captive Flight Tests (CFTs) were carried out by IAF with the support from HAL during the 2012-2014 period. The CFT trials were carried out in three phases to assess the aero-structural and mechanical integrity for carriage, validation of Weapon Control System and its electrical and avionic interfaces with missile and performance of missile system in transmission and reception mode of missile seeker respectively.

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22 mars 2015 7 22 /03 /mars /2015 08:35
First Upgraded IAF Mirage 2000 Photo Dassault Aviation

First Upgraded IAF Mirage 2000 Photo Dassault Aviation


March 20, 2015 by asian-defence.net


India will get its first upgraded Mirage 2000 later this month from France under a Rs 10,000 crore deal.


French defence major Dassault Aviation, the original manufacturer of the fighter jet, will hand over two upgraded aircraft to India on March 25 at the Istres Dassault Aviation Flight Test Center.


India had in 2011 signed an upgrade programme worth over Rs 10,000 crore with Dassault Aviation for upgrading the fleet of its Mirage 2000 aircraft totalling 51.


However, at least three aircraft have been lost in crashes since then.


The firm, which is negotiating a multi-billion dollar deal for supplying 126 Rafale combat aircraft to India, has said that after the successful completion of this phase, the rest of the fleet will be upgraded in India by state-run HAL with help from Dassault and Thales, another French firm.


The IAF had started procuring the Mirage 2000 in the early 80s and the upgrade is likely to expand its life span by around 10-15 years.


The upgrades on the aircraft include a night vision goggle-compatible glass cockpit, advanced navigational systems, advanced Identification Friend or Foe (IFF) system, advanced multi-mode multi-layered radar, fully integrated electronic warfare suite besides others.

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22 mars 2015 7 22 /03 /mars /2015 08:35
Su-30MKI With BrahMos-A at AeroIndia 2015 photo Livefist

Su-30MKI With BrahMos-A at AeroIndia 2015 photo Livefist


March 19th, 2015 defencetalk.com


The Indian Air Force plans to start mounting BrahMos cruise missiles on its aircraft in 2016, BrahMos Aerospace CEO Sudhir Mishra told RIA Novosti Wednesday.


The short-range supersonic missile was jointly developed by Russia and India and has been in use by the Indian Navy since 2005.


“The missile is scheduled to be adopted in 2016, ten more tests will be carried out by the end of the year,” Mishra said.


He added that the next test flight is due in May with the aircraft carrying the missile launcher. This will be followed by flights with the equipped missiles and, eventually, test firing them.


India is Russia’s biggest arms trade partner, with more than 70 percent of India’s military equipment coming from Russia or the former Soviet Union, according to Russia’s state arms exporter.


The two countries are taking part in the major Langkawi International Maritime and Aerospace Exhibition (LIMA’15), currently underway in Malaysia.

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19 mars 2015 4 19 /03 /mars /2015 08:35
India to Overhaul DRDO, State-Owned Defense Firms


Mar 18, 2015 defense-aerospace.com

(Source: Indian Ministry of Defence; issued March 17, 2015)


Overhauling of the DRDO and DPSUs


The functioning of Defence Research and Development Organization (DRDO) was reviewed by a Committee headed by Prof. P. Rama Rao. DRDO has accepted several recommendations which inter-alia include:


-- creation of Seven Technology Domain based Clusters headed by Director’s General;

-- Restructuring of DRDO HQrs;

-- Creation of Directorate of Quality, Reliability and Safety (QR&S);

-- increase in budget for Extramural Research;

-- creation of empowered Defence Technology Commission (DTC);

-- creation of a Commercial Arm of DRDO;

-- creation of 5 Senior Administrative Grade (SAG) posts along with 162 other posts for full scale implementation of Integrated Financial Advisor (IFA) Scheme etc.


Recently, a review of all DRDO Projects along with the three Services, OFB and Defence Public Sector Undertakings (DPSUs) has been carried out so as to realign the focus towards the “Make in India” Programme.


Also, more than 1,000 small, medium and large Indian industries have been involved in the development and productionisation of products for the delivery to the Services.


With the objective of achieving self-reliance in defence production, the DPSUs have been continuously modernizing and upgrading their capabilities and widening their product range. Some of the DPSUs have also collaborated with DRDO and other R&D institutions in this regard. There is also increasing emphasis on partnerships of DPSUs with the private sector for sourcing various components so that DPSUs can play the role of system integrators and become more competitive.


This information was given by Defence Minister Shri Manohar Parrikar in a written reply to Shri Rajeev Chandrasekhar in Rajya Sabha today.

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19 mars 2015 4 19 /03 /mars /2015 08:35
photo Armée de l'Air

photo Armée de l'Air


18/03/2015 Armée de l'air - Economie et technologie


Partie d’Abu Dhabi le 9 mars 2015 pour le premier tour du monde en avion solaire, l’équipe de Solar Impulse 2 a fait une escale à Ahmedabad en Inde. Les sous-lieutenants Charly et Axel, les deux élèves de l’École de l’air intégrés au projet, relatent cette étape.


Lors de l’escale à Ahmedabad, la population locale a pu découvrir l’avion HB-SiB de Solar Impulse 2 lors d’une porte ouverte. Ne devant initialement être ouverte au public que deux heures, la tente abritant l’avion est finalement restée ouverte toute l’après-midi, face à l’engouement de la population locale.


Au total, plus de 15 000 personnes ont fait le déplacement pour voir cet avion solaire, qui éveille la curiosité de tous, à commencer par les jeunes écoliers venus observer l'appareil. Cet intérêt est une motivation supplémentaire pour l’équipe : « tant de sourires et de remerciements nous font prendre pleine conscience de la portée exceptionnelle de ce projet » confie le sous-lieutenant Axel.


Toujours en Inde, les deux élèves ont rejoint Varanasi dans la nuit du 14 au 15 mars, avec l’Advance team. Composée de 10 personnes, l'équipe est envoyée sur le lieu de la prochaine escale quelques jours avant l'arrivée de l'avion, pour régler les préparatifs avec l'aéroport local.


Suite aux conditions météorologiques défavorables, l'arrivée du HB-SiB n'est prévue que le mercredi 18 mars. L'avion effectuera un arrêt mécanique puis redécollera pour Mandalay (Myanmar), jeudi 19 mars au petit matin.


Les deux élèves seront en piste pour l’atterrissage à Varanasi et le décollage jeudi pour Myanmar. « Nous accueillerons l'avion en début de soirée. Il faudra l’installer dans le hangar mobile, monté pour cette escale de trois jours.
 La période à venir s'annonce comme la plus dense de ce tour du monde ! »

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19 mars 2015 4 19 /03 /mars /2015 08:35
photo Livefist

photo Livefist


March 18, 2015 by Shiv Aroor - Livefist


It's unmissable. The intensifying sense over the last two months that the Su-30 MKI has swooped into M-MRCA airspace. From the politics of it, to the powerplay smack dab in the middle of final negotiations, from the journalism drumming up the new face-off to diplomatic leverage and the criticality of the Indian Air Force's own situation during an increasingly fluid phase of its largest ever procurement. A comprehensive Livefist report that draws on all of these aspects to provide a clear sense of the state of play, and what's turning out to be one of the most interesting phases an eight year procurement effort.

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18 mars 2015 3 18 /03 /mars /2015 18:35
source Livefist

source Livefist


Mar 18, 2015 defense-aerospace.com

(Source: Indian Express News Service; published Mar 17, 2015)


Technical Glitches: Astra Test-Fire Fails


BALASORE, India --- A fresh trial of beyond visual range air-to-air missile (BVRAAM) Astra was deferred on Monday, reportedly due to a technical snag. The missile could not be launched though an unmanned aerial vehicle which was to be used as a target for the missile was flown from the Integrated Test Range (ITR) off Odisha coast.


Defence sources said the missile was initially planned to be tested on March 12, but was rescheduled for Monday. A defence official associated with the mission said though the pilotless target aircraft was flown as per schedule, the missile could not be fired due to technical glitches in the system.


ITR Director MVKV Prasad said there was a possibility of the trial on Tuesday or Wednesday. As part of induction phase trials, the test was aimed at checking the control system and its stability which would have propelled its quick induction into the Armed Forces.


However, it is not for the first time that the missile has developed problem. In 2011, it had failed twice, but in 2012 and 2014, a series of developmental tests, captive flights and trials from fighter aircrafts was successful.


The indigenously developed Astra is designed for an 80-km range in head-on mode and 20 km-range in tail-chase mode.

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18 mars 2015 3 18 /03 /mars /2015 17:35
Su-30MKI - photo UIMC Rostec

Su-30MKI - photo UIMC Rostec


Mar 18, 2015 defense-aerospace.com

(Source New Delhi TV.com; published Mar 17, 2015)


Sukhoi-30 MKI, Air Force's Most Modern Fighter Jet, Plagued by Engine Trouble


NEW DELHI --- Sukhoi-30 MKI, the most powerful and modern fighter jets in Indian Air Force's stable, has been hit by mid-air engine failures. Defence Minister Manohar Parrikar said in Parliament today that as many as 35 instances of engine failures were reported in 2013-14 - that's nearly three a month.


In all, there are 69 instances of engine failure in the last four years, the minister said. Inquiries by the Air Force have revealed that in as many as 33 instances, the engines failed because of impure fuel, in another 11 cases, the problem was caused by excessive vibration and in eight others, engine failures were reported because of low pressure in the lubricant tanks, the Defence Minister said. About five SU-30 MKI have crashed since 2009.


Like all twin-engine jets, the Russian made Su-30s are capable of landing on a single engine. But to reach its maximum potential of carrying a total eight tones of payload including bombs, missiles and spare fuel tanks, the jet needs both its AL-31FP engines to function.


Engine failures is fast becoming a major concern for Air Force and also puts a question mark on India's ability to defend its skies. Another problem area that senior Air Force officers point out is serviceability. "Serviceability of the aircraft is about 50 per cent only," an officer said. It means at any given time, roughly half out of a fleet of 200 jets are available for operational purposes. This becomes crucial in times of emergencies like war.


Mr Parrikar said that the engines were scheduled to be overhauled after every 1000 hours of flying, but the defects started showing-up after only 500 hours of flying. The minister said that Russia-based NPO Saturn, manufacturers of Su-30 Al-31FP engines, offered to make "nine technological improvements" during overhauls, and added that after the modifications the engines were flying for upto 900 hours.


To address the growing capability gap, especially that created by increasing obsolescence of MiG-21, India is talking to France to buy 126 medium multi-role Rafale fighter jets. But the negotiations have been dragging on for three years. Although the acquisition has got mired on per unit cost and number of man hours required to produce it in India, a resolution of these issues can be expected when Prime Minister Narendra Modi visits France in April.

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18 mars 2015 3 18 /03 /mars /2015 11:50
Solar Impulse 2 a amorcé son survol de l'Inde


18.03.2015 Romandie.com (ats)


L'avion solaire Solar Impulse 2 a décollé mercredi d'Ahmedabad pour la ville sainte Varanasi (Bénarès), poursuivant dans le ciel indien son tour du monde sans carburant. De petits problèmes d'ordre migratoire ont retardé le départ, au grand dam de Bertrand Piccard.

Une fois réglées ces formalités de dernière minute avec les autorités indiennes, l'avion a décollé à 07h18 locales (02h48 heure suisse), indique l'organisation de Solar Impulse dans un communiqué. Le pilote André Borschberg était aux commandes.

Bertrand Piccard s'est plaint mercredi des lenteurs de la bureaucratie indienne. Le pilote a expliqué à la presse que le décollage de l'appareil d'Ahmedabad, dans l'Etat occidental de Gujarat, avait été retardé à cause de formalités administratives.

"Le retard est dû à l'administration, aux papiers, aux tampons", a-t-il déclaré. "Je ne suis pas là pour accuser qui que ce soit. Je dit juste qu'au cours des cinq derniers jours, on a essayé de réunir les tampons nécessaires et que tous les jours, on nous disait 'demain'". "Cela fait cinq jours qu'on essaye d'avoir les tampons et il nous en manque encore", a encore ajouté Bertrand Piccard.


Quinze heures de vol

La troisième étape du voyage de l'avion solaire, un vol de plus de 1000 kilomètres au-dessus de l'Inde, devrait durer une quinzaine d'heures. Après un arrêt de neuf heures à Varanasi, où l'atterrissage de Bertrand Piccard est attendu pour 22h38 (18h08 heure suisse), l'appareil devrait repartir jeudi pour Mandalay, en Birmanie, avant de continuer sa course vers la Chine.

Le brouillard avait empêché Solar Impulse de décoller d'Ahmedabad mardi comme prévu. L'appareil révolutionnaire devait même initialement repartir dimanche, mais en avait déjà été empêché par le mauvais temps.

En réalisant un tour du monde en douze étapes, les deux Suisses Bertrand Piccard et André Borschberg veulent démontrer que les technologies propres et les énergies renouvelables permettent d'accomplir des exploits considérés jusqu'ici comme "impossibles".

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18 mars 2015 3 18 /03 /mars /2015 08:35
Japan and India's Warming Defense Ties

U.S., Japanese, and Indian officers during Malabar 2014. Credit: U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist Seaman Apprentice Patrick Dionne


March 04, 2015 By Mina Pollmann – The Diplomat


From defense sales to joint exercises, Tokyo and New Delhi are expanding the scope of military cooperation.


The assertiveness of China’s People’s Liberation Army Navy in the Indian Ocean is forcing the government of Narenda Modi to look to modernize India’s naval forces as quickly as possible. This venture, as would be expected, includes overtures to the U.S. (for example, to share technology for India’s next aircraft carrier), but India is increasingly seeking cooperation with Japan as well. India has asked Japan to consider working with India to build submarines and recently announced its plans to purchase Japanese amphibious search and rescue (SAR) aircraft.

Russian-made SAR flying boats had also been considered, but India chose the Japanese option because the Indian defense ministry valued the US-2’s ability to take off and land on waters with high waves. If the export of Japan’s Maritime Self-Defense Force’s US-2 air-sea SAR aircraft to India is realized, it will be the first export under Japanese Prime Minister Shinzo Abe’s new three principles on defense equipment transfers, declared in April 2014.

Aside from defense equipment deals, Japan and India have been working to improve their bilateral cooperation in the fields of maritime security, counter-terrorism, and anti-piracy operations since January 2014, when then-Indian Defense Minister A.K. Antony met with then-Japanese Defense Minister Itsunori Onodera.

At the time, the two defense ministers put off the issue of Japanese US-2 sales to India, but it was given added momentum during Modi’s trip to Japan last September. Modi declared during a  joint press briefing with Abe, “We intend to give a new thrust and direction to our defense cooperation, including collaboration in defense technology and equipment, given our shared interest in peace and stability and maritime security.” At the same meeting, Abe and Modi agreed to upgrade “two-plus-two” security talks, increase working level talks on defense equipment and technology cooperation, hold regular maritime exercises, and continue Japanese participation in U.S.-India drills.

Abe and Modi have capitalized on their close personal ties with each other – and the increasingly uncertain external environment created by China’s bellicose foreign policy – to increase security cooperation despite several remaining obstacles, such as the lack of a civilian nuclear cooperation agreement.

Last July, Japan participated in the Malabar exercises, traditionally a bilateral India-U.S. exercise, at India’s invitation. Prior to 2014, the last time Japan had participated was in 2007 and 2009. There is no word yet on Japan’s participation in this year’s exercises — whether India and Japan will stand firm in the face of Chinese criticism of Japan’s participation is a critical test of how strong and resilient India-Japan relations can be in the near future.

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16 mars 2015 1 16 /03 /mars /2015 17:20
Photo US Air Force

Photo US Air Force


March 16, 2015 Dave Majumdar - nationalinterest.org


America has an opportunity to export its expertise.


Last month, the U.S. State Department unveiled new export guidelines for commercial and military unmanned aircraft—colloquially known as drones. While ostensibly holding firm to the U.S. government’s adherence to the voluntary Missile Control Technology Regime, the new policy would allow the export of drones with ranges greater than 300 kilometers and a payload of more than 500 kilograms on “rare occasions.”

The new policy formalizes the de facto arrangement that already existed, which allows the U.S. government to currently export machines like the General Atomics MQ-9 Reaper and the Northrop Grumman RQ-4 Global Hawk. But perhaps more significantly, it sets up a standard for the export of commercial drones—imposing restrictions on the sale of those machines.

With the door more or less open to a wide range of sales to foreign operators—here are five countries that might benefit from U.S. drone technology.


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13 mars 2015 5 13 /03 /mars /2015 08:35
India Tejas Light Combat Aircraft PV-1 (KH2003) in flight.

India Tejas Light Combat Aircraft PV-1 (KH2003) in flight.


Mar 13, 2015 defense-aerospace.com

(Source: Indian Ministry of Defence; issued March 10, 2015)


Delay In Tejas LCA Project

The First Series Production Light Combat Aircraft (LCA) Tejas has been handed over to Chief of Air Staff by Raksha Mantri on 17th January 2015.

The following are some of the reasons for delay in completion of LCA project:
-- Ab-initio development of the state-of-the-art technologies.
-- Non-availability of trained / skilled manpower in the country.
-- Non-availability of infrastructure / test facilities in the country.
-- Unanticipated technical / technological complexities faced in structural design.
-- Non-availability of critical components / equipment / materials and denial of technologies by the technologically advanced countries.
-- Enhanced User’s requirements or change in specifications during development.
-- Increase in the scope of work.
-- Inadequate production facility at HAL

The initial cost of Full Scale Engineering Development (FSED) Programme Phase-II of LCA Tejas was Rs. 3301.78 crore. Based on modifications required in the aircraft, an additional sanction of Rs. 2475.78 crore was granted, which increased the total sanctioned cost of Phase-II Programme to Rs. 5777.56 crore.

From the open sources, it is seen that the contemporary aircraft of LCA developed in other countries are JAS-39 by Sweden, FA-50 by South Korea and JF-17 by Pakistan / China.

The engines installed in these aircraft (except that of JF-17) are GE-404 series engines. LCA parameters, such as empty weight, all-up weight (except that of JAS-39), thrust, speed (except that of JAS-39) are better than those of the other aircrafts.

Similarly, development / unit cost of LCA are less than those of JAS-39 and FA-50 but more than that of JF-17. However, LCA’s Ferry Range is less than those of other aircrafts.

This information was given by Defence Minister Shri Manohar Parrikar in a written reply to Shri Palvai Govardhan Reddy in Rajya Sabha today.

Under Water Vehicles Developed By DRDO
Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed an Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV) as technology demonstrator. A project has been taken up to demonstrate certain enhanced critical parameters of the AUV.

DRDO has undertaken a feasibility study for the development of different types of AUV platforms that could be used for a variety of roles, like surveillance and mine counter measures etc.

This information was given by Defence Minister Shri Manohar Parrikar in a written reply to Shri Aayanur Manjunatha and Shri Mohd. Ali Khan in Rajya Sabha today.

100 Per Cent FDI In Defence Sector
The Government vide Press Note 7 of 2014 Series dated 26.8.2014 has notified revised FDI Policy in defence sector, according to which FDI upto 49% is allowed in the sector through FIPB route and above 49% through approval of Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) on case to case basis, wherever it is likely to result in access to modern and state-of-the-art technology in the country.

After opening up of the defence industry sector for FDI in 2001, 33 FDI proposals / Joint Ventures have been approved in defence sector for manufacture of various defence equipment to Indian companies.

This information was given by Defence Minister Shri Manohar Parrikar in a written reply to Shri P Bhattacharya in Rajya Sabha today.

JV In Defence Sector
After launching of “Make in India” campaign, the ‘Acceptance of Necessity (AoN)’ have been accorded for 40 projects with Indian as well as Foreign manufacturers, with an amount of approximately Rs. 1,01,264 crore. Further, project-wise details cannot be divulged in the interest of National Security.

The Government vide Press Note 3 of 2015 Series dated 26.6.2014 has notified defence products list for the purpose of issuing Industrial License for manufacturing in the private sector which includes items like electronic warfare, radar etc. apart from other licensable items designed or modified for military purpose.

This information was given by Minister of State for Defence Rao Inderjit Singh in a written reply to Dr. T Subbarami Reddy in Rajya Sabha today.

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9 mars 2015 1 09 /03 /mars /2015 19:35
Pourquoi la France doit se soucier de la situation en mer de Chine


09/03/2015 Par Jean Guisnel - Défense ouverte / Le Point.fr


Le député socialiste du Finistère Gwenegan Bui est le coauteur d'un rapport sur les tensions, notamment maritimes, en mer de Chine méridionale. Interview.


Le Point : Avec votre collègue Jean-Jacques Guillet (UMP, Hauts de Seine), vous publiez un rapport parlementaire d'information titré L'Asie du Sud-Est à la confluence des océans. Pourquoi vous intéresser maintenant à cette partie du monde ?


Gwenegan Bui : En fort développement économique et démographique, l'Asie du Sud-Est voit aussi passer un quart du commerce maritime mondial. Si un incident un peu sérieux s'y produisait, ses conséquences seraient proches de celles de la crise financière de 2008. Dois-je vous rappeler que le tsunami au Japon, en 2011, a provoqué une crise durable de notre industrie automobile ? La France doit impérativement regarder de près ce qui s'y passe.


Vous écrivez que les principaux partenaires de la France dans cette région sont Singapour et la Malaisie. Pourquoi seulement ces deux pays ?

En réalité, la France a noué des partenariats stratégiques d'ensemble avec le Japon, l'Inde et l'Australie. En Asie du Sud-Est plus particulièrement, des accords ont également été signés avec le Vietnam, et l'Indonésie, mais c'est avec la Malaisie et Singapour que les relations sont les plus abouties, en raison, notamment, d'une longue histoire commune en matière de vente d'armes et de partenariats économiques et technologiques intenses. Je vous rappelle que Singapour est, avec l'Allemagne, le seul pays disposant de forces stationnées en permanence en France. Depuis une quinzaine d'années, un escadron d'entraînement de l'armée de l'air singapourienne est installé sur la base aérienne de Cazaux (Gironde).


Suite de l’entretien

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9 mars 2015 1 09 /03 /mars /2015 18:35
Rafale at Aero India 2015 photo Shruti Pushkarna

Rafale at Aero India 2015 photo Shruti Pushkarna


March 9, 2015 Defense News


Now that Paris has shelved plans to deliver two helicopter assault ships to Russia, Moscow is working overtime to convince India to dump plans to buy French fighters and instead buy a new Sukhoi jet.


In 2012, New Delhi tapped Dassault's Rafale as its next fighter, with plans to acquire 126 of the twin-engine jets for $12 billion. At the time, Indian officials said the French jet would help them reduce their reliance on Russian equipment (India also flies French Mirage 2000 jets as part of a longstanding policy to avoid exclusive dependence on Moscow for military hardware).


By choosing Rafale, India also gains access to cutting-edge technology to advance its aerospace and defense industries.


But talks have stalled over price and who would bear responsibility for Rafales license-produced in India by Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd.


Russia is irked that its once-close ally has invested tens of billions of dollars on American transports, helicopters and maritime patrol planes and now is about to buy French jets.


At the recent IDEX trade show in Abu Dhabi, Rostec CEO Sergey Chemezov announced that Russia and India had inked a deal to co-develop a new version of Sukhoi's Su-35. Indian officials, however, say Russia has pitched the jet, but have not yet agreed to move forward on the project.


The Su-35 is a formidable aircraft and an improvement over India's Su-30s, but the Rafale is superior as a system, with greater mission capability and reliability. And its technology is more likely to serve as a foundation for a more competitive Indian defense and aerospace industry.


The entire rationale behind the Rafale deal wasn't to get the least expensive fighter to meet India's needs, but the aircraft that would best satisfy the nation's long-range military needs as well as its industrial interests.

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9 mars 2015 1 09 /03 /mars /2015 17:35
INS Sindhuratna - photo Indian Navy

INS Sindhuratna - photo Indian Navy


9 mars 2015. Portail des Sous-Marins


Le gouvernement indien a retenu 2 chantiers navals — Larsen & Toubro (L&T) et Pipavav Defence & Offshore Engineering Company — pour l’attribution d’un contrat de construction de 6 sous-marins classiques dans le cadre de son projet 75i.


Selon des sources haut-placées, un comité de haut-niveau présidé par le vice-amiral Subhedar, a inspecté à la fois des chantiers navals privés et publics en vue de sélectionner les chantiers pouvant postuler à l’attribution du contrat. Dans sa présentation au ministère de la défense la semaine dernière, le comité a retenu les 2 chantiers navals du secteur privé : le chantier Katupalli de L&T et Pipavav.


Le contrat sera du type “achat et construction en Inde”. Cela implique que le ou les chantiers devront conclure des accords avec des sociétés étrangères.


Le chantier Pipavav a déjà conclu de tels accords, avec DCNS par exemple. L’objectif du chantier est de se diversifier sur le marché des sous-marins. Il a aussi la capacité de construire plusieurs sous-marins en même temps.


Le Projet 75i prévoit la construction de 6 sous-marins classiques à propulsion anaérobie. La livraison doit intervenir en 2022.


Référence : Financial Express (Inde)

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9 mars 2015 1 09 /03 /mars /2015 17:35
INS Viramaditya (foreground) and INS Viraat – photo Indian Navy

INS Viramaditya (foreground) and INS Viraat – photo Indian Navy


March 8, 2015 by Dinakar Peri - thehindu.com


Reiterating that India-U.S. partnership is a “key component” of America’s “rebalance” to the Indo-Asia-Pacific, a top U.S. Admiral last week expressed concern over China’s increased “assertiveness” in enforcing its claims in the South China Sea and supported India’s increased role in the region under the principles of open sea lanes and freedom of navigation.


During the visit of U.S. President Barack Obama to India in January, both sides signed a strategic vision document, “U.S.-India Joint Strategic Vision for the Asia-Pacific and Indian Ocean Region,” which specifically referred to safeguarding maritime security in the South China Sea. It had not gone down well with Beijing.


“The South China seas are international waters and India should be able to operate freely wherever India wants to operate. If that means the South China Sea, then get in there and do that,” said Admiral Harry Harris, Commander US Pacific Fleet while speaking at the National Maritime Foundation.


At the same time, the Admiral described China’s naval presence in the Indian Ocean as “positive” as it was involved in anti-piracy operations in the Gulf of Aden.


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9 mars 2015 1 09 /03 /mars /2015 12:30
photo F. Robineau Dassault Aviation

photo F. Robineau Dassault Aviation


March 9, 2015: Strategy Page


Egypt, looking to strengthen its military muscle, has placed an order for 24 Dassault Rafale Fighter Jets. Egypt has a long history of buying from the French and currently have some 100, Mirage V’s and Mirage 2000’s, in service. These two predecessors to the Rafale have served the Egyptian air force well, seeing action most recently in the 2014 bombing of Libya. But these Mirages are getting old and will have to be retired within the next ten years. Egypt has a large force of American F-16s, but the U.S. has lots of rules that prevent some countries from buying more and the rules change all the time. France is less judgmental when it comes to selling warplanes.


The Rafale costs between $100 and $130 million. Its design was based heavily off the Mirage 2000 and like most other Dassault fighters it has the Delta Wing configuration. The Rafale has a maximum speed of 2,130 kilometers an hour and a range of over 3,700 kilometers. It is equipped with a 30mm cannon and can carry nine tons worth of weapons. It is a battle tested aircraft that has already seen service with French Forces in Afghanistan, Mali, Libya and Iraq.


Over the past few years’ export buyers for the Rafale have been scarce. The Rafale is up against stiff competition for sales from aircraft such as the Eurofighter Typhoon, Gripen NG, F-18 and Su-30. Thus in 2013 Brazil passed on buying the Rafale and instead went with the cheaper Swedish Gripen NG. The UAE (United Arab Emirates) is still considering a purchase as is India. This latest sale to Egypt is a much needed to boost for Dassault and an aircraft that has not been selling well. What helped make this sale happen was Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and UAE providing half the financing and the French government guaranteeing most of the other half. Egypt is not a good credit risk and has been kept afloat since 2011 by massive charity from Gulf Arab oil states (like Saudi Arabia, Kuwait and UAE).


France has had nothing but hard times trying to find export customers for its Rafale. In 2009 the production rate was reduced from 14 a year to 11 aircraft a year and that was further reduced later. This was to slow down the delivery of Rafales, mainly because the Defense Ministry has decided that other things were more important. The new emphasis (and spending) is on peacekeeping and anti-missile defenses. Another reason for slowing down Rafale production was the lack of export orders.


India is currently taking a closer look at the Rafale. The country has been seeking to modernize its military and has most recently turned to the United States for assistance. France wants to build up its relationship with India, as well, and would like it to purchase the Rafale. The Indian air force is already using the Mirage 2000 and has historically liked Dassualt aircraft. The two main sticking points, standing in the way of a deal, are the Rafale’s rising price tag and whether India will be able to produce the fighter domestically. India insists on coproduction (some Rafale manufacturing done in India) and the French believe India overestimates its capabilities in handling some of the advanced technologies that go into Rafale. Of course India wants local manufacturers to handle that advanced tech and this is how you learn. But India also wants the French held responsible for the quality of items produced in India and this is still being negotiated. The French are confident and hope to close out a $20 billion deal for the Indian Rafale by the end of 2015

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8 mars 2015 7 08 /03 /mars /2015 13:30
Crédits G. Gesquière Armée de Terre

Crédits G. Gesquière Armée de Terre


08.03.2015 i24news (AFP)


La crainte d'un rapprochement entre les USA et Téhéran pousse l'Arabie saoudite à importer plus d'armes


L'Arabie saoudite a dépassé l'Inde pour devenir en 2014 le premier importateur mondial d'équipements militaires dans un marché dont le volume a atteint un niveau record, nourri par les tensions au Moyen-Orient et en Asie, indique un rapport d'experts publié dimanche.

En 2014, les ventes d'armes "ont augmenté pour la sixième année consécutive", atteignant 64,4 milliards de dollars, contre 56 milliards en 2013, soit une augmentation de 13,4%, affirme ce document rédigé par le cabinet d'experts IHS Janes, basé à Londres.

"Ce chiffre record a été alimenté par une demande sans précédent des économies émergentes pour des avions militaires et la hausse des tensions régionales au Moyen-Orient et (dans la zone) Asie Pacifique", explique Ben Moores, de IHS Janes.

Le rapport, qui couvre quelque 65 pays, indique que Riyad est désormais le plus gros acheteur d'armes au monde, avec des importations atteignant 6,4 milliards de dollars.


Suite de l’article

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8 mars 2015 7 08 /03 /mars /2015 12:35
photo Livefist

photo Livefist


March 06, 2015 by Shiv Aroor - Livefist


A 150-km range stand-off glide weapon and 288-km range light-weight cruise missile. These two mysterious items surfaced at Aero India last month. I'd been meaning to post about them, but decided to first get more information. They're both internal concepts by a group of IAF officers (serving and retired) for stand-off weapons that the service has been looking for for years. What stands out is just how specific the 'performance' parameters of the cruise missile and glide bomb really are. The IAF confirmed to Livefist that neither of the two items on display was part of active development activity, but that the concepts had been showcased as an indication of the kinds of design activities its internal teams are engaged in. The two models were fabricated at an IAF depot. The information on the boards suggest these are concepts with reasonably serious tactical capabilities, especially in terms of their stand-off range. More on these soon.

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8 mars 2015 7 08 /03 /mars /2015 12:35
INS Sindhuvijay (S62)

INS Sindhuvijay (S62)


February 27, 2015 By Franz-Stefan Gady – The Diplomat


Is New Delhi’s submarine fleet in a state of crisis?


This week, Indian Defense Minister Manohar Parrikar announced that the induction of the first of six Scorpene-class submarines will have to be delayed to an unspecified future date. Back in November 2014, the Indian Defense Ministry still maintained that the first vessel would be delivered in September 2016. This new delay, however, makes the on-schedule delivery highly unlikely.

The 1,750-ton, 67-meter Scorpene-class — capable of diving up to a depth of 300 meters —will be equipped with SM-39 Exocet anti-ship missiles. The class is supposed to fulfill a wide range of missions sets for the Indian Navy including anti-surface  and anti-submarine warfare, special operations, intelligence gathering, minelaying, area surveillance, and strikes against land-based targets, according to naval-technology.com.

New Delhi assigns particular importance to building up a modern fleet of submarines. One reason is that the South Asian nation wants to be able to project power deep into the Indian Ocean and dissuade the presence of Chinese military vessels. Another rationale is Pakistan’s effort to upgrade its submarine fleet.

Chietigj Bajpaee, an expert on the Indian military at King’s College in London summarizes New Delhi’s efforts to date:

“The Indian Navy also has a particular focus on enhancing the country’s submarine fleet with the construction of Scorpenes from France, the leasing of submarines from Russia, and upgrades to India’s Russian and German-made submarines. The development of Arihant-class nuclear-powered submarines has also completed the development of India’s nuclear triad.”

In October 2005, a $4.16 billion contract (known as Project 75) was awarded to the French industrial group DCNS  to build six Franco-Spanish Scorpene-class diesel attack submarines (with an option to build six more) at the Mazagon Docks in Mumbai, India. The deal involved extensive technology transfer agreements. However, so far, not a single submarine has been delivered. According to India’s defense minister, this week’s delay is caused by Mazagon Docks Limited (MDL) facing difficulties procuring certain materials from foreign vendors.

India’s submarine fleet is in a state of crisis. Readiness rates are below 40 percent and some vessels (especially the SSK U209 class) need urgent upgrades. On paper, the fleet currently consists of 16 boats: ten Russian SSK Kilo (Sindhugosh) Class, four locally built SSK U209 (Shishumar) Class, a leased nuclear-powered SSN from Russia (INS Chakra), and the INS Arihant ballistic missile submarine (which only began sea trials in December) . However, according to local media reports, the number of active duty subs is now down to 13 diesel-electric submarines and the nuclear-powered INS Chakra.

Nevertheless, the Indian Navy is rated as NATO-quality, according to U.S. naval officers who conducted joint drills with Indian squadrons.

The Indian government has allocated approximately $16 billion for the expansion of its naval forces. India is already the world’s largest weapon’s importer (in 2013, New Delhi spent $6 billion on buying equipment), largely due to a moribund domestic defense industry. India is expected to spend $100 billion over the next decade on a defense upgrade program.

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6 mars 2015 5 06 /03 /mars /2015 08:55
photo S. Randé - Dassault Aviation

photo S. Randé - Dassault Aviation


05 mars 2015 Par Hassan Meddah - Usinenouvelle.com


Pour Eric Trappier, PDG de Dassault Aviation, la vente de 24 appareils à l'Egypte permet de stabiliser les emplois sur la chaîne de fabrication du Rafale. En cas de nouveau contrat, l'avionneur pourrait doubler ses cadences de production.


En marge de la visite du président de la République le 4 mars dernier à l'usine d'assemblage des Rafale de Mérignac (Gironde), Eric Trappier, PDG de Dassault Aviation, a confié un certain optimisme pour la signature d'un nouveau contrat dans le courant de cette année. S'il ne veut pas parler d'une signature imminente, il évoque "des chances certaines d'en faire un deuxième en 2015"

Le récent contrat de vente de 24 appareils à l'Egypte a changé la donne et pourrait accélérer les négociations avec l'Inde, le Qatar, les Emirats Arabes Unis, la Malaisie. "Un certain nombre de pays qui sont très intéressés. Ils étaient déjà très intéressés par le seul fait que le Rafale est opérationnel sur un certain nombre de théâtres d'opération. A cette réussite opérationnelle s'ajoute maintenant une réussite commerciale", se réjouit Eric Trappier.


Finaliser le contrat

Le dirigeant est revenu sur le contrat indien. Les négociations pour la vente de 126 Rafale durent depuis plus de trois ans.

"L'armée de l'air indienne est extrêmement satisfaite avec les définitions techniques. Nous avons finalisé nos accords industriels avec le grand partenaire industriel HAL qui doit fabriquer une grande partie des avions localement, assure le dirigeant. Nous avons un partage contractuel des tâches sur lequel nous nous sommes mis d'accord. Maintenant il nous faut finaliser le contrat avec le ministère indien de la défense."


Doubler le rythme de production ? 

Le PDG a également fait le point sur la charge industrielle du site de Mérignac où 1200 personnes travaillent à la production des jets d'affaires Falcon et des Rafale. Environ 80 ingénieurs, techniciens et compagnons sont mobilisés directement sur la ligne d'assemblage de l'avion de combat. L'usine doit encore produire une cinquantaine d'avions pour l'armée française, auxquels s'ajoutent les 24 appareils égyptiens. 

"Ce type de contrat à l'exportation a une incidence immédiate sur la stabilisation de l'emploi. Du fait d'une certaine substitution des livraisons entre les deux pays, cela donne un plan de charge en flux qui reste le même mais qui dure plus longtemps", explique le dirigeant. En cas de signature d'un second contrat à l'exportation, l'avionneur pourrait doubler son rythme de production en sortant deux appareils par mois.

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