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26 juin 2013 3 26 /06 /juin /2013 10:35
Pakistani Chief of Army Staff General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani

Pakistani Chief of Army Staff General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani

Jun 26th, 2013 news360.lk


Pakistani Chief of Army Staff General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani will arrive in Sri Lanka on Thursday to further enhance military ties between the two nations.


The three day visit to the Island will be Kayani’s second visit to the country.


During his stay in Sri Lanka, General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani will meet the top military leadership of the country.


A statement from the Pakistani embassy in Colombo said the visiting military leader will hold discussions on matters of professional interests with Secretary Defence Sri Lanka, Gotabaya Rajapaksa.


He will also review the Passing out Parade at Sri Lanka Military Academy, Diyatalawa on 28th June 2013 as the Chief Guest of the event.


“The visit of Pakistan’s Army Chief will provide both sides an opportunity to review ongoing cooperation and collaboration, and to discuss ways to further broaden and deepen this relationship”, the Pakistani embassy statement further announced.

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14 juin 2013 5 14 /06 /juin /2013 11:35
Pakistan Increases Defence Budget by 10 Percent

13/06/2013 by Victoria Knowles - Armed Forces International Reporter


Pakistan is increasing its annual defence budget by 10 percent, the country's new government announced, only a week after taking office.


This is despite a disabling budget scarcity of 8.8 percent. For the 2013-14 fiscal year, commencing July 1, the budget comes in opposition to a climate of feeble economic growth, unprecedented power cuts, diminishing reserves of foreign exchange and high inflation.


But the new budget, announced Wednesday, allocated 627 billion rupees ($6.3 billion) for defence: this is a 10 percent increase from the 570 billion rupees earmarked for the year outgoing June 30.


Nawaz Sharif took office as Prime Minister last week following the May 11 elections, representing a historic shift in democratic power in a nation where the military ruled half of its life.


Increased Military Budget in First Week of Office


Pakistan's most powerful institution is the military. Sharif has had unfavourable relations with the army in the past, which deposed him in 1999 in a bloodless takeover.


Ishaq Dar, finance minister, informed the national assembly that the government would dispel the energy sector of $5 billion worth of circular debt, within the next two months.


"This will greatly help minimize power cuts in the country," said Dar. He provided no further particulars on how the government would actually come up with the money to foot these bills.


Years of corruption, under-investment and mismanagement have lead to blackouts spanning up to 20 hours each day, nearly the entire day, when outside temperatures are hitting up to 50c.


Pakistan continues to pay an International Monetary Fund loan amounting to $11.3 billion from five years ago.


Dar said they have drawn out a comprehensive reforms programme targeting economic development, but again provided no exact details.


Dar's government promised to cut the budget deficit during the forthcoming year by 2.5 percent to 6.3 percent, and within three years down to four percent.


"The key point of our budget this year is to reduce the fiscal deficit and prevent the national economy from being adversely affected," said the minister.


GDP for the concluding fiscal year was 3.6 percent, just short of a four percent target, said Dar. For the forthcoming fiscal year, the government has set the bar higher at a 4.4 percent target.

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14 juin 2013 5 14 /06 /juin /2013 07:35
Le Pakistan augmente les dépenses de défense dans son nouveau budget

2013-06-13 xinhua


Le Pakistan a augmenté mercredi les dépenses de éfense dans son budget pour l'année fiscale 2013-14 à 627 milliards de roupies (6,32 milliards de dollars), soit une hausse de près de 15% par rapport aux dépenses pour l'exercice en cours se terminant le 30 juin 2013.


Les documents budgétaires montrent que l'allocation pour les trois services de la défense s'élevait à 15,73% du budget fédéral de 3,98 trillions de roupies pour 2013-14.

Le Pakistan augmente les dépenses de défense dans son nouveau budget

L'armée de terre a reçu la part la plus importante des dépenses avec 301,54 milliards de roupies. L'allocation pour l'armée de l'air estt de 131,18 milliards de roupies, tandis que les dépenses pour la marine étaient de 62,80 milliards de roupies.

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13 juin 2013 4 13 /06 /juin /2013 16:35
New Nukes Overshadowed By Massive Retirements

June 13, 2013: Strategy Page


The great nuclear disarmament that began in the 1990s continues. While China, Pakistan, India and North Korea together added 40-50 warheads, the U.S. and Russia continued to reduce their huge Cold War era nuclear stockpiles by some 1,800 warheads. It was only three years ago that the major powers confirmed how many warheads they had. The holdings were; Britain- 225, France- 300 and the U.S.- 5,113. Unofficially China was believed to have 300, Israel 80, India 70 and Pakistan 75. The U.S. and Russia each had about 2,200 usable warheads and a new treaty in 2010 pledges to reduce that to at least 1,550. The U.S. has 7,700 and Russia 8,500 warheads but most are disassembled or partially disabled. Recycling the nuclear material as power plant fuel takes time.


At the end of the Cold War, the U.S. still had over 20,000 warheads. This is way down from its Cold War peak (in 1967) of 31,225.  Since 1945, the U.S. has built over 70,000 nuclear warheads. Only 1,054 were detonated, all but two of them in tests. Detonations ceased, because of a treaty, in 1992. Over the last two decades most of these Cold War era warheads have been demilitarized, and their nuclear material recycled as power plant fuel. This was one of the more successful nuclear disarmament efforts since the Cold War ended. It was a joint effort by the United States, Russia and the successor states of the Soviet Union to round up and secure or destroy thousands of nuclear weapons. It worked. In particular, the smaller weapons (nuclear artillery shells and "backpack" nukes) never fell into terrorist hands.  By the end of the 1990s, Russia reported that it had accounted for, and dismantled all its nuclear armed rocket warheads and artillery shells.


All this was accomplished by an agreement between the United States and Russia to account for all Soviet nuclear weapons, and dismantle most of them. The U.S. would provide funding and technical assistance, but the hard work would be carried out by Russian experts and diplomats. Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine inherited nuclear weapons when the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991 (and everyone agreed that whatever Soviet assets were on the territory of the 14 new nations created from parts of the Soviet Union, were the property of the new country.) Russia, with the financial and diplomatic help of Western nations, bought and dismantled the nukes owned by those three nations.


Russia was quick getting rid of their smaller nuclear warheads because they had fewer of them (than the U.S.) and wanted to rid themselves of a serious security threat. These small weapons were ideal for terrorists, and if the bad ahold of one and used, it could be traced back to the manufacturer (via analysis of the radioactive reside). It took the U.S. another three years to get rid of their small nukes. By the early 1970s, the United States had over 7,000 nuclear warheads stored in Europe, most of them 8 inch and 155mm artillery shells. The last of these was finally dismantled in 2003.


Meanwhile, the Russians had other, uniquely Russian, problems. They had a lot (tons) of other highly radioactive material in circulation, much of it in power form, and largely used for medical and industrial purposes. Particularly worrisome are the hundreds of Radiothermal Generators (RTGs) Russia set up in remote parts of the country during the Soviet era. The RTGs were similar to the power supplies found on some space satellites, using radioactive material to generate heat, and thus electricity, for radio beacons and signal repeaters in remote areas. In the early 1990s, the Russians weren't even sure where some of these RTGs were, and there were cases of civilians finding them, cracking them open and being injured, or killed, from the radiation. The Russians noted that there have been many attempts to steal radioactive material in Russia, but none, so far as is known, have succeeded. All of the RTGs were eventually found and destroyed.


There was one last problem. Russian officials admitted that, during the 1990s, 5-10 pounds of enriched uranium and several ounces of weapons grade of plutonium had been stolen from their nuclear power facilities. Some of this stuff was later discovered, in small quantities, in Western Europe, Turkey and Russia as the thieves sought to sell it. The amount the Russians admit to losing is not enough to make a bomb, and much of the missing stuff could be accounting and handling errors (both common in the Russian bureaucracy.)


In the last two decades, the only radioactive material smuggled out of Russia was small quantities, and usually low-level stuff unsuitable for a bomb. Most Russian nukes have been disassembled and their nuclear material turned into power-plant fuel. The remaining nukes are under very tight security and most of their nuclear scientists were given financial and career incentives (paid for by the U.S.) to leave nuclear weapons work behind. Nevertheless, for two decades, breathless new stories of Russian "loose nukes" were a media staple on slow news days.

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7 juin 2013 5 07 /06 /juin /2013 16:35
Un officier indien tué au Cachemire par des tirs de l'armée pakistanaise (armée indienne)

07 juin 2013 Romandie.com  (AFP)


SRINAGAR (Inde) - Les forces armées pakistanaises ont tué par balle un officier de l'armée indienne, vendredi, près de la frontière disputée avec le Pakistan, dans la région du Cachemire, a déclaré le commandement de l'armée indienne.


Un officier a été tué par l'armée pakistanaise près du secteur de Poonch, a indiqué à New Delhi un officier supérieur de l'armée à l'AFP. Tout à coup, il y a eu des tirs depuis l'autre côté de la frontière, et notre officier a été tué, a-t-il précisé, sous couvert de l'anonymat.


Le militaire tué, Bachan Singh, était stationné dans la région de Poonch, à 200 kilomètres au sud-ouest de la capitale du Cachemire indien, Srinagar.


Un autre officier de l'armée indienne au Cachemire, Rajesh Kalia, a indiqué que cette dernière attaque n'a pas pour l'instant été déclarée comme une violation du cessez-le-feu car l'enquête est en cours.


L'Inde et le Pakistan, deux puissances nucléaires fortement militarisées, se sont livré trois guerres depuis leur indépendance concomitante en 1947 de l'empire britannique. Deux de ces conflits portaient sur le Cachemire, région divisée en deux mais revendiquée par chaque pays.


La région a été récemment le théâtre d'accrochages militaires entre l'Inde et le Pakistan.


La situation au Cachemire indien, où une insurrection séparatiste née voici plus de vingt ans a nettement diminué en intensité ces dernières années, s'est de nouveau tendue après l'exécution en février d'un séparatiste local.

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5 juin 2013 3 05 /06 /juin /2013 17:45
U.S. transfers suspected senior al Qaeda member to Mauritania

03 June 2013 defenceWeb (Reuters)


U.S. authorities have transferred Younis al-Mauritani, a suspected senior member of al Qaeda previously held in Afghanistan, to Mauritania, officials in the West African nation said.


Pakistan said in September 2011 it arrested al-Mauritani, better known in his homeland Mauritania as Youssouf Al Mauritani, during a joint operation with U.S. intelligence services.


Witnesses at the airport in Mauritania's capital, Nouakchott, saw a U.S. military plane deliver a prisoner late on Friday, Reuters reports.


Mauritanian authorities confirmed al-Mauritani's identity, adding that he had been transferred from the U.S. military base in Bagram, Afghanistan.


"It's indeed Youssouf Al Mauritani, real name Abderhamane Ould Mohamed Al-Hussein," a senior security official told Reuters, asking not to be named.


"He was in Bagram and was handed over to the Mauritanian authorities by the Americans. He indeed arrived at the Nouakchott airport last night," he said.


A Mauritanian judicial official specialized in terrorism cases also confirmed that the prisoner transferred on Friday was al-Mauritani. U.S. embassy officials in Nouakchott declined to comment.


Pakistani military authorities said Al Mauritani was planning to attack U.S. economic interests including pipelines, hydro-electric dams and oil tankers when he was captured.


They said he had also been tasked by Osama bin Laden with hitting European and Australian targets.


Mauritanian authorities issued an international warrant for his arrest, accusing him of participating in a 2005 attack on the Lemgheity army base which killed 17 soldiers and a deadly shoot-out with police in Nouakchott in 2008.


Mauritania, with one of West Africa's more effective armies, carried out military strikes against Islamist bases in neighboring Mali in 2010 and 2011 and is seen as one of the West's principal allies against al Qaeda in the region.

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3 juin 2013 1 03 /06 /juin /2013 07:35
China, India, Pakistan, boost nuclear arsenals: study

Stockholm (AFP) June 02, 2013 Spacewar.com


Three of the world's nuclear powers -- China, India and Pakistan -- have increased their arsenals over the past year, while the other five have cut their strength or kept it stable, the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute said Monday.


China now has 250 nuclear warheads against 240 in 2012, while Pakistan has increased its warheads by about 10 to between 100 and 120 and India has also added roughly 10 for a total of 90 to 110, SIPRI said in its annual report.


According to SIPRI, the arms race is all the more disturbing because of what the institute called a "fragile" peace in Asia, characterised by growing tensions since 2008 between India and Pakistan, China and Japan, and the two Koreas, among others.


"While states have avoided direct conflict with each other and have stopped supporting insurgent movements on each other's territory, decades-old suspicions linger and economic integration has not been followed up with political integration," SIPRI said.


Only the two old superpowers have cut their warheads, Russia reducing its number from 10,000 to 8,500, and the United States scaling back from 8,000 to 7,700.


The warheads controlled by France stayed at 300, while Britain's remained at 225, and Israel's at 80.


SIPRI acknowledged that the figures were to a large extent estimates, as the nuclear powers aren't equally transparent, China being totally opaque, and Russia gradually becoming less open.


SIPRI does not count North Korea and Iran as nuclear powers yet, as their respective programmes are still considered in their early stages.


While the global total of warheads was down, SIPRI said it did not translate into a significantly diminished nuclear threat.


"Once again there was little to inspire hope that the nuclear weapon-possessing states are genuinely willing to give up their nuclear arsenals. The long-term modernisation programmes under way in these states suggest that nuclear weapons are still a marker of international status and power," said SIPRI Senior Researcher Shannon Kile.


Efforts to reduce arsenals of chemical and biological weapons have also been slow, according to SIPRI, a long-time advocate of abolishing weapons of mass destruction.


The United States and Russia have not destroyed all their chemical weapons in 2012 as promised, and Syria has said it is prepared to use them in the case of foreign attack.


SIPRI figures also show that the number of peacekeepers deployed around the world fell by more than 10 percent in 2012, reflecting partly the beginning withdrawal of international forces from Afghanistan.


SIPRI noted an increase in recent years in the number of intrastate conflicts that are internationalised, as outside states have supported one side or another.


"Such involvement often has the effect of increasing casualty rates and prolonging conflicts," SIPRI said in its report.


SIPRI's annual report also contains data already published, including figures showing a decline in global arms spending in 2012 of 0.5 percent, the first drop since 1998.


The report also said China has overtaken Britain as the world's fifth largest arms exporter after the United States, Russia, Germany and France.

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3 juin 2013 1 03 /06 /juin /2013 05:35
Chine, Inde et Pakistan seuls à accroître leur arsenal nucléaire

03 juin 2013 Romandie.com (AFP)


STOCKHOLM - Trois pays disposant de l'arme atomique, la Chine, l'Inde et le Pakistan, accroissent leur arsenal nucléaire, alors que les cinq autres le réduisent ou le maintiennent, a indiqué l'Institut international de recherche sur la paix de Stockholm (Sipri) dans un rapport lundi.


La Chine a aujourd'hui 250 têtes nucléaires contre 240 en 2012, le Pakistan 100 à 120 contre 90 à 110, et l'Inde entre 90 et 110 contre 80 à 100, écrit-il.


Cette course aux armements est d'autant plus inquiétante que le Sipri juge fragile la paix en Asie, vu les tensions croissantes depuis 2008, comme entre Inde et Pakistan, entre les deux Corées, ou encore entre Chine et Japon.


Les pays qui réduisent leur arsenal sont les signataires du traité de désarmement nucléaire START, la Russie (8.500 têtes aujourd'hui) et les Etats-Unis (7.700).


La France (300 têtes), le Royaume-Uni (225) et Israël (80) le gardent au même niveau.


Ces chiffres sont des estimations dont le Sipri reconnaît qu'elles sont plus ou moins fiables selon les pays, la Chine maintenant par exemple une opacité totale, tandis que la Russie est de moins en moins transparente. Le Sipri suppose que la Corée du Nord et l'Iran n'ont pas encore réussi à se doter de l'arme nucléaire.


Pour le centre de recherche, la baisse quantitative de l'armement n'est pas synonyme de réduction de la menace nucléaire.


Il y avait peu de choses pour nous insuffler l'espoir que les pays possédant l'arme nucléaire aient sincèrement la volonté d'abandonner leur arsenal. Les programmes de modernisation à long terme en cours dans ces Etats montrent que les armes nucléaires sont toujours une marque du statut international et de la puissance, a affirmé le coordinateur de la recherche sur le nucléaire au Sipri, Shannon Kile, cité dans un communiqué.


Dans le domaine des armes chimiques et biologiques, la réduction des stocks pour laquelle milite le Sipri n'a progressé que lentement. Les Etats-Unis et la Russie n'ont pas détruit toutes leurs armes chimiques en 2012 contrairement à ce qu'ils avaient promis, et la Syrie s'est dite prête à les employer en cas d'attaque étrangère.


Les chiffres du Sipri montrent par ailleurs que le nombre des soldats de la paix déployés dans le monde a baissé de plus de 10% en 2012, le retrait des forces internationales ayant commencé en Afghanistan.


Toutefois, le nombre des combattants déployés en dehors de l'Afghanistan a en fait des chances de croître, notamment au Mali, plus largement au Sahel, et potentiellement en Syrie.


Ces dernières années, il y a eu une hausse du nombre des conflits intra-étatiques qui se sont internationalisés, à savoir qu'un autre Etat soutient un camp ou l'autre. Une telle implication a souvent eu pour effet d'accroître la mortalité et de prolonger les conflits, a constaté le Sipri.


Son rapport annuel reprend des données déjà publiées.


Les dépenses mondiales en armement ont reculé en 2012 pour la première fois depuis 1998, de 0,5% en tenant compte de l'inflation. Et la Chine a détrôné la Grande-Bretagne en tant que cinquième exportateur mondial d'armes, derrière les Etats-Unis, la Russie, l'Allemagne et la France.

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31 mai 2013 5 31 /05 /mai /2013 07:35
Pakistan Air Force suspends “Air Force Development Plan 2025,” says report



30th May, 2013, dawn.com


ISLAMABAD: Due to financial constraints and non release of funds by the federal government, the Pakistan Air force (PAF) has suspended its up gradation and development plan called “Air Force Development Plan 2025,” says a report of the Senate’s standing committee on defence Thursday.


The committee quoted Air Chief marshal Tahir Rafique in its report, who, it said, told the committee members during its recent visit to the air headquarters that the AFDP 2025 programme was launched in 2003/04 by former president Pervez Musharraf aimed at making it at par with modern air forces of the world.


He said under the plan, the PAF received money by the federal government till 2007.


“After 2007 PAF did not get a penny from federal government and had to shelve the plan,” the air chief was quoted as saying in the report by its Chairman Senator Mushahid Hussain Syed.


The report further said that due to suspension of the development plan, PAF had to close number of projects which have affected the overall up gradation in the country including air bases, jets and other facilities.


The report also quoted air chief as saying that the PAF was also not given full share in the defence budget and it received only 60 per cent of the whole budget allocated for PAF.

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25 mai 2013 6 25 /05 /mai /2013 16:35
Interview with Chief Architect of the JF-17 Thunder


25 May 2013 terminalx.org


People's Daily, Beijing, May 23 (Reporter Yang Mu) - Chinese Premier Li Keqiang came to his official visit to Pakistan on May 22nd. He arrived at Islamabad, at the Nur Khan air field. Earlier, when Li Keqiang's plane entered Pakistani airspace, the Pakistan Air Force sent six JF-17 fighters to escort the Premier. On stepping out of the door of the airplane, an additional overpass was made over the airport. When the news of this came out, it immediately aroused worldwide attention.

JF-17 is made by the China Aviation Industry Group CATIC, Chengdu Aircraft Industry Corporation and Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute, among other organizations, in joint development with the Pakistan Air Force. The JF-17 is a new generation of single engined, single-seat, multi-role light fighters and is an important cooperation between the two countries. It is known as a successful example of cooperation between China and Pakistan. Pakistan Air Force named it the JF-17 Thunder.

On the afternoon of May 23rd, a People's Daily reporter Yang interviewed the "Fierce Dragon" fighter's Chief Architect.

Reporter: As the designer of the JF-17, how did you feel when Premier Li Keqiang's plane was escorted by the JF-17 when visiting Pakistan?

Yang: Prime Minister's visit being escorted by Pakistani JF-17 fighter jets reflects on the political importance of the visit and also the close relationship between China and Pakistan. As the developer we are very proud. A full escort is pretty spectacular and we read the news and saw the pictures. Pakistan sent 6 JF-17s, reflecting the importance of the JF-17 in the Pakistan Air Force.

Reporter: What improvements are to be made on the JF-17 in the future?

Yang: As a fighter, sensor suite and strike capability is the force multiplier. We will focus on improving the JF-17 in terms of information perception, system integration capabilities and weaponry, making it a better third generation aircraft. [Chinese 3rd Generation = Western 4th Generation]

Reporter: Are there plans to develop a two-seater JF-17?

Yang: We have plans to develop two-seater, and there are plans to develop series models.

Reporter: Will the stealth performance further improve?

Yang: The JF-17 itself is not a full stealth aircraft, but the design is considered low observable because of such factors as a front edge of the wing sweep angle, S bend inlet, etc., which are better for stealth. In addition, the JF-17 among third generation aircraft, in the head is relatively small, whose stealth is good. The future will take low-cost stealth measures to further improve the stealth ability.

Reporter: What is the status of the JF-17's engine development?

Yang: The engine of the JF-17 fighter and other major national engine developments is going according to plan and has made considerable achievements.

Reporter: Are there any plans for improving air refueling capability in the "Fierce Dragon" jets?

Yang: Within a year or two, we will see the air refueling capability of the "Fierce Dragon" aircraft in Pakistan.

[Refined English translation from http://world.people.com.cn/n/2013/0524/c349424-21595064.html]





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10 mai 2013 5 10 /05 /mai /2013 11:35
China's arms export 11 billion in 5 years, Pakistan major buyer: Pentagon

May 7, 2013 economictimes.indiatimes.com


WASHINGTON: Asserting that China has signed agreements for arms exports worth $11 billion from 2007 to 2011, the Pentagon has said that Pakistan remains Beijing's primary customer for conventional weapons.


"From 2007 to 2011, China signed approximately $11 billion in agreements for conventional weapons systems worldwide, ranging from general purpose materiel to major weapons systems," the Pentagon told the Congress in its annual report on China.


In 2012 and the coming years, China's arms exports will likely increase modestly as China's domestic defence industry improves, it said, adding that Chinese defence firms are marketing and selling arms throughout the world with the bulk of their sales to Asia and the Middle East/North Africa.


In 2012, China unveiled the Yi Long tactical unmanned aerial vehicle, which will probably be marketed to developing countries, it said.


Pakistan, it said, remains its primary customer for conventional weapons. "China engages in both arms sales and defence industrial cooperation with Islamabad, including co-production of the JF-17 fighter aircraft, F-22P frigates with helicopters, K-8 jet trainers, F-7 fighter aircraft, early warning and control aircraft, tanks, air-to-air missiles, anti-ship cruise missiles, and cooperation on main battle tank production," the Pentagon report said.


"We describe in this report China's bilateral military interactions with other countries, including Pakistan. China has a very longstanding historical relationship with Pakistan, and it's one that we watch and we report on in this report," Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defence for East Asia David Helvey told reporters during a Pentagon news conference.


Helvey said the US is monitoring very carefully China's military modernisation, the implications of that modernisation both for opportunities to cooperate with China in a multinational or bilateral context, but also for potential implications for regional stability.


According to the report, Sub-Saharan African countries view China as a provider of low-cost weapons with fewer political strings attached compared to other international arms suppliers.


"China uses arms sales as part of a multifaceted approach to promote trade, secure access to natural resources, and extend its influence in the region," it said.

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9 mai 2013 4 09 /05 /mai /2013 11:35
‘Pakistan cruise missiles pose key challenge to India’

May 8, 2013 SOURCE: IANS


With Pakistan arming itself with nuclear capable cruise missiles with stealth capabilities, a new dimension has been added to India’s maritime security challenges, says leading Indian defence expert retired Commodore C. Uday Bhaskar.


“Taking a leaf from China, Pakistan seems to be investing in cruise missiles,” he said, referring to Pakistan’s indigenously developed cruise missile Babur, which can carry both nuclear and conventional warheads.


“This has lowered the index of stability in the region,” Bhaskar said at an Asia-Pacific security seminar on India’s Maritime Security Challenges at the East-West Centre Tuesday.


But in dealing with issues ranging from low intensity conflict and piracy to major-power strategic contests, India’s key challenges were resource constraints, ship building capabilities, maritime infrastructure and the changing geo-political environment, he said.


The rapidly changing strategic environment in South Asia and emergence of an “extended global common” posed another challenge, said Bhaskar, currently a distinguished fellow with the Society for Policy Studies and a visiting fellow at the National Maritime Foundation in New Delhi.


Over the next decade, the US, China and India will form a critical strategic triangle and their individual relationships with the ASEAN, Iran and Pakistan will have significant regional and global implications, he said.


Given its distinctive geography and the recent shift of global maritime focus from the Atlantic-Pacific combine to the Indo-Pacific continuum, the importance of the Indian Ocean Region in India’s national security calculus has greatly increased in the post-Cold War/post 9-11 era, Bhaskar said.


Yet the Indian Navy mandated to address this wide spectrum security domain received about a sixth of an overall defence budget of less than $40 billion in fiscal 2012-13, he said.


He noted that within the Indian military matrix, the navy was referred to as the “Cinderella service”.


India’s ship building capabilities too were “not really flattering”, blighted as they were by time and cost overruns, Bhaskar said.


He listed the ability to build credibly fight capable ships as another key challenge.


The country’s maritime infrastructure too was “less than rudimentary”, he said. He added that that in terms of ports, India’s top port Mumbai was listed at the 30th spot in the world.


However, Bhaskar said there was a growing awareness at the national level that over the next two decades India’s future aspirations and anxieties will be increasingly shaped by its ability to address the challenges and opportunities of the maritime domain.

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8 mai 2013 3 08 /05 /mai /2013 16:35
Delegation of US Army's JIEDDO visits Pakistan Army GHQ

May 8, 2013 terminalx.org


Rawalpindi - May 7, 2013: US delegation headed by Director Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization (JIEDDO), Lieutenant General Michael D Barbero visited General Headquarters on 6th May 2013 to discuss Counter Improvised Explosive Device (IED) cooperation framework between Pakistan Army’s Counter IED Organization (CIEDO) and JIEDDO.


Lieutenant General Barbero called on Chief of General Staff, Lieutenant General Rashad Mehmood and discussed matters related to IEDs and measures required to minimize the effects of this menace. Thereafter, Director JIEDDO held bilateral talks with Director General Military Operations and Chairman CIEDO. Bilateral talks were focused on Counter IED efforts of both militaries, further collaboration at regional level and ways to improve the existing cooperation aspects.

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8 mai 2013 3 08 /05 /mai /2013 11:35
Heavy logistic movement gave away Indian army's positions in Chumar to China: sources

08 May 2013 indiatvnews.com


New Delhi, May 8: Movement of heavy logistics, including surveillance equipment, by the army may have given away the location of its positions in Chumar in Ladakh region to the Chinese troops which started raising protests on it.


These positions are located at key heights at a place called Zhipugi Arla in Chumar area and from there, the Army troops were able to look deep inside the Chinese  erritory including some of its important road links, government sources said.


After the location of the position was compromised, the Chinese side started demanding that they be dismantled as they were built in violation of an understanding between the two sides against construction in disputed areas, they said.


The sources said following Chinese protest, the Indian side has only "taken-off" a "tin-shed" construction done in Chumar on April 18.


During the flag meetings between the two sides on the issue, the Chinese side was adamant that India dismantle its positions in Chumar before it could consider withdrawing from the Depsang Valley in Daulat Beg Oldi sector where they had pitched their tents since April 15.


The two sides held more than five flag meetings on the issue and agreed on Sunday evening to withdraw their troops to the pre-April 15 positions.

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6 mai 2013 1 06 /05 /mai /2013 11:35
photo Marine Nationale

photo Marine Nationale


03/05/2013 Sources : EMA


Le 2 mai 2013, au large du Yémen, le bâtiment de commandement et de ravitaillement BCR Somme, navire amiral de la CTF 150, a porté assistance à un navire marchand pakistanais à la dérive.


Le BCR Somme est actuellement engagé au sein de la Task Force 150, volet maritime de l’opération Enduring Freedom. Mise en place au lendemain des attentats du 11 septembre 2001, la TF150 a pour objectif de lutter contre le terrorisme international et ses réseaux de soutien dans l’océan Indien. Depuis le 14 avril la France a pris la tête de l’opération en succédant à l’Australie. Elle coordonne ainsi une force multinationale composée notamment de bâtiments américains, australiens, canadiens, britanniques, saoudiens et pakistanais dans une zone comprenant la mer Rouge et le nord de l’océan Indien jusqu’au détroit d’Ormuz.


Composée de marins du bord ayant reçu un entraînement approprié, l’équipe de visite de la Somme peut, en conformité avec le droit international, monter à bord de navires pour prendre contact avec les équipages, vérifier les documents officiels ou encore contrôler les cargaisons à la recherche d’armes ou de drogue venant en soutien du terrorisme international.


En 3 jours, l’équipe de visite a contrôlé et porté assistance à deux boutres. Le 29 avril, l’équipe de visite est allé à a rencontre de pêcheurs iraniens. Invités par le capitaine, l’équipe – dont un médecin - a embarqué et pu échanger sur la situation dans la zone. Ce fut l’occasion de prodiguer quelques soins aux marins. Le 2 mai, la Somme portait assistance à un navire marchand pakistanais à la dérive suite à une avarie de moteur. La pièce cassée a été emmenée à bord de la Somme pour y être réparée.


L’état-major français la CTF 150 est actuellement embarqué à bord de la Somme pour un période de 4 mois et assume le commandement jusqu’en août prochain où il passera alors le relais au Pakistan.

photo Marine Nationale

photo Marine Nationale

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25 avril 2013 4 25 /04 /avril /2013 07:35
Pakistan commissions last Zulfiquar frigate




Pakistan's navy commissioned the fourth and last F-22P Zulfiquar class frigate at a ceremony at Karachi Shipyard and Engineering Works.


Commissioning of the PNS Aslat completes the $750 million technology-transfer contract signed in 2005 between Pakistan's Ministry of Defense Production and China Shipbuilding Trading Co., the defense news website PakSoldiers said.


The first ship, PNS Zulfiquar -- "Sword," in English -- was handed over to the navy in July 2009 and the second vessel, PNS Shamsheer, was commissioned in January 2010.


The PNS Saif was the third frigate -- the last to be built in China at the Hudong Zhonghua shipyard, Shanghai -- and was commissioned in September 2011.


Pakistani Chief of Naval Staff Adm. Mohammad Asif Sandila was a guest at the ceremony attended by officials and dignitaries from Pakistan and China, including the ambassador of People's Republic of China, PakSoldier said.


Sandila said construction of the 2,500-ton, 404-foot Aslat at KSEW and other ships including a fast attack craft, small tankers and utility ships is a result of the government's determination to attain self-reliance in defense capabilities.


The contract with China includes ammunition for the vessels' single 76mm deck-mounted guns and six Harbin Z-9EC anti-submarine helicopters, already delivered to the navy, PakSoldier reported in February 2012.


The Z9EC helicopters -- a licensed version of the French Eurocopter AS365 Dauphin and manufactured by Harbin Aircraft Manufacturing Corp. -- were purchased from China National Aero Technology Import and Export Corp. and operate from the Zulfiquar frigates.


The vessels carry 200 personnel and have eight C-802/CSS-N-8 subsonic Saccade anti-ship missiles made by China Haiying Electromechanical Technology Academy, the defense news website NavalTechnology said.


They also have 8-round FM-90 surface-to-air missiles, the export version of the HQ-7 missile, which includes infra-red tracking system and built by China National Precision Machinery Import and Export Corp.


Pakistan's navy also took delivery of two 12-ton Bollard Pull Pusher tugs constructed at the KSEW, which handed over the vessels to Vice Chief of the Naval Staff Vice Adm. Muhammad Shafiq last month.


The navy has on order with KSEW a 15,000-ton capacity tanker -- an example of the government's need to develop the country's indigenous defense manufacturing sector, Shafiq said during the handing over ceremony for the tugs.


He said the changing geo-political dynamics means access to foreign defense technology will be denied or hard to come by for Pakistan in the coming year.


KSEW, the only major shipyard in Pakistan, was set up in the 1950s and operates as an autonomous commercial organization within the Ministry of Defense.

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18 avril 2013 4 18 /04 /avril /2013 13:29
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18 avril 2013 4 18 /04 /avril /2013 11:43
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17 avril 2013 3 17 /04 /avril /2013 10:55
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15 avril 2013 1 15 /04 /avril /2013 21:32
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13 mars 2013 3 13 /03 /mars /2013 08:35


Corvettes indonésiennes des types Sigma et Parchim

crédits : US NAVY


12.03.2013 Mer et Marine


La marine pakistanaise n’a toujours pas commandé les 6 sous-marins qu’elle envisage depuis plusieurs années ; un type chinois semblant devoir être préféré à des modèles européens. Elle procède actuellement à la mise en place du système anaérobie (AIP) MESMA sur ses 2 premiers sous-marins du type Agosta 90 B et envisage de doter ces navires de missiles de croisière Babur avec tête nucléaire le cas échéant. Elle a même émis le vœu de se doter d’un sous-marin nucléaire d’attaque de construction nationale, ce qui semble pour le moins utopique.



Sous-marin du type Agosta 90B (© : DCNS)



Sa flotte de surface s’est étoffée avec la livraison des 3 premières frégates du type Zulfiqar construites en Chine en 2009 et 2010, la 4e est en cours de réalisation à Karachi et 2 autres ont été commandées en novembre 2012.  L’US Navy a, en outre, livré en 2010 une frégate du type O.H. Perry et 4 autres sont prévues. Enfin 2 nouveaux patrouilleurs lance-missiles aux formes furtives ont été mis en service (Azmat construit en Chine) ou vont l’être incessamment (Dehshat construit au Pakistan). La commande d’un navire de soutien logistique a, par ailleurs, été annoncée début 2013. Il sera réalisé à Karachi avec l’assistance du chantier turc TMK et remplacera le vieux Moawin (ex-Poolster néerlandais). Différents autres projets d’acquisition de bâtiments d’occasion ou neufs sont également à l’étude.



Frégate du type Zulfiqar (© : MARINE NATIONALE)


La frégate Alamgir, du type O.H. Perry (© : MARINE PAKISTANAISE)


Le patrouilleur Azmat (© : CHINESE MILITARY FORUM)



La marine du Bangladesh a choisi de se renforcer sensiblement avec l’aide de la Chine : elle va ainsi acquérir 2 frégates d’occasion du type Jianghu III chinoises en 2013, alors que deux corvettes du type 056 ont été commandées (la construction de la première a débuté à Wuhan en janvier 2013) ; la Chine va également lui livrer 2 patrouilleurs lance-missiles de 650 t (Durjoy et Nirmul) en 2013 et l’aide à construire 5 patrouilleurs à Khulna (le premier, le Padma, a été mis en service le 24 janvier 2013) et à mettre en place des missiles antinavires C 704 sur les 2 patrouilleurs du type Castle qu’elle a achetés à la Royal Navy en 2010 en même temps que le navire hydrographique Roebuck. L’US Coast Guard va, par ailleurs, transférer au Bangladesh le cotre Jarvis du type Hamilton, qui a été désarmé en décembre 2012 à l’âge 40 ans. Deux sous-marins du type Ming ou Song auraient, de plus, été achetés d’occasion à la marine chinoise.



Frégate chinoise du type Jianghu III (© : CHINESE MILITARY FORUM)


Corvette chinoise du type 056 (© : CHINESE MILITARY FORUM)


Patrouilleur du type Durjoy (© : MARINE DU BANGLADESH)


Patrouilleur du type Castle (© : H. EHLERS - COLLECTION FLOTTES DE COMBAT)


Un cotre américain du type Hamilton (© : USCG)


Sous-marin chinois du type Song (© : CHINESE MILITARY FORUM)


Sous-marin chinois du type Ming (© : CHINESE MILITARY FORUM)



La marine du Myanmar a adopté la même démarche en achetant en 2012 à la Chine 2 frégates du type Jianghu II à bord desquelles elle a fait embarquer des missiles antinavires plus modernes. Elle a mis en service en 2008 sa première frégate de conception et construction nationales mais dotée de missiles chinois, l’Aung Zeya, et lancé la seconde  (Kyan Sittha) le 22 octobre 2012. Elle poursuit la construction de patrouilleurs du type 551 dont il semble que la plupart doivent recevoir des missiles antinavires C 802. Enfin, un patrouilleur d’un nouveau type de 480 tonnes aux formes furtives a été mis à flot fin 2012.



Frégate chinoise du type Jianghu II (© : CHINESE MILITARY FORUM)


La frégate Aung Zeya (© : COLLECTION M. MAZUMDAR)


Patrouilleur du type 551 (© : DROITS RESERVES)



La marine indonésienne va pouvoir doubler sa force sous-marine avec la commande de 3 unités du type 209/1400 à la Corée du sud, la dernière devant être construite en Indonésie avec l’assistance coréenne. Début mars 2013, les trois frégates du type F2000 construites initialement en Grande-Bretagne pour le sultanat de Brunei ont été acquises. Le système Seawolf aurait été débarqué et pourrait être remplacé par des missiles VL Mica.  Après avoir reçu les 2 dernières des 4 corvettes du type Sigma néerlandais, l’Indonésie a commandé une version améliorée en 2012 avec une option pour 2 autres. Le nombre de ses patrouilleurs lance-missiles a également augmenté avec l’achat à Brunei de 2 navires du type Waspada et la construction locale de 3 unités du type Clurit (le dernier, Beladau, a été mis en service le 25 janvier 2013). Le Klewang, prototype d’une série de 4 patrouilleurs lance-missiles très innovants avec coque trimaran et formes furtives, devait s’y ajouter, mais malheureusement ce bâtiment a été complètement détruit par un incendie le 28 septembre 2012, un mois à peine après son lancement.



Sous-marin sud-coréen du type 209 (© : US NAVY)


Frégate du type F2000 (© : BAE SYSTEMS)


Corvette du type Sigma (© : US NAVY)


Nouveau modèle de Sigma commandé en 2012 par l'Indonésie (© : DAMEN)


Patrouilleur du type Waspada (© : DROITS RESERVES)


Patrouilleur du type Clurit (© : DROITS RESERVES)


Le Klewang avant destruction (© : MARINE INDONESIENNE)



Les missiles Harpoon des frégates du type Van Speijk, qui avaient dépassé leur date de péremption, ont été remplacés ou sont en passe de l’être par des SS-N-26 russes ou des C 802 chinois. Il faut enfin mentionner la mise en service des 2 derniers exemplaires des 5 transports de chalands de débarquement du type Tanjung Dalpele ; avec ces 5 bâtiments et les nombreux bâtiments de débarquement de chars (LST) qu’elle a achetés ou fait construire, l’Indonésie dispose d’une force amphibie non négligeable.



Frégate du type Van Speijk (© : DROITS RESERVES)


L'un des trois premiers TCD du type Tanjung Dalpele (© : MARINE NATIONALE)


L'un des deux derniers TCD du type Tanjung Dalpele (© : US NAVY)


Article de Bernard Prézelin, auteur de Flottes de Combat


Flottes de Combat, l'ouvrage de référence des forces navales (© : MARINES EDITIONS)


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20 février 2013 3 20 /02 /février /2013 12:30

Shapar UAV

A Pakistani-built Shahpar tactical UAV


Feb. 19, 2013 - By CHRISTOPHER P. CAVAS  - Defense News


ABU DHABI — If anything has changed in the past few years at defense trade exhibitions, it’s the explosion in the number and variety of UAVs on display.


Big ones, medium ones, small, smaller and still smaller ones. Multi-winged or single-wing aircraft, pusher or tractor engines to power them, vertical systems with one, two or four rotors. Man-portable systems that fit in a rucksack. Craft with wheels or skids or hooks. A plethora of often interchangeable payloads of sensors and — increasingly — weapons the machines can put in the air. Also featured are a variety of control systems and units, ranging from trucks or trailers to laptops and wrist bands.


All the big boys in the business are here at the IDEX defense exposition and its NavDex naval component. Lockheed Martin, General Atomics and Boeing’s Insitu from the U.S.; Denel from South Africa; and a host of European entries, including vehicles from France, Austria, Switzerland, Sweden and Turkey are all vying for attention.


Among the UAV craft are an ever-growing number of offerings from countries not often associated with displaying home-grown military products. In South Asia, Pakistan has developed a range of UAVs, with several on display here.


“Most of these aircraft are in service now with the Pakistani military,” Tahir Hameed, a technical engineer with Xpert Engineering, said of four aircraft in an outdoor display area.


Xpert is one of seven companies that make up the Global Industrial and Defense Solutions (GIDS) group, that together makes nearly all the components in the aircraft and payload systems.


Standing by a large Shahpar tactical UAV, Shoaib Iqbal, an engineer with AERO, the Advanced Engineering Research Organization, proclaimed that “everything in this aircraft was made in Pakistan. Everything except the engines and tires.”


AERO builds sensors at its facility near Islamabad, in a region where most of the Pakistani UAV industry is located.


The Shahpar is the most sophisticated of the GIDS aircraft on display here. Configured with a pusher engine and canards and with a wingspan of 6.6 meters, the craft can carry a 50-kilogram payload to heights of 5,000 meters, and stay airborne more than seven hours.


Two flights of the Shahpar entered service in 2012, Iqbal said, one each with the Pakistani Army and Air Force, and GIDS is expanding its production facilities to answer the demand.


A flight, Iqbal explained, consists of five aircraft, a ground control station and a communications station.


Another tactical UAV, the Uqab, entered service in 2008 with the Pakistani Army, Hameed said, and has been in use with the Pakistani Navy since 2010. A wheeled vehicle that can reach an altitude of 3,000 meters and stay aloft for six hours, the Uqab is used for artillery fire correction and battle damage assessment in addition to surveillance duties.


The Huma, a smaller aircraft fitted with rocket boosters for takeoff and a parachute for landing, also is under development, along with the Scout mini-UAV, designed to be carried in a backpack and launched by hand.


Micro Vehicles Expanding


Another growth area is in micro-UAVs, hand-held models not unlike something available at an electronics store or hobby shop.


Datron, a San Diego-based company best known for producing a range of radio and communications gear, is here with its Datron Scout aerial reconnaissance system, a four-rotor, vertical takeoff-and-landing vehicle meant to be used for short-range, short-endurance missions.


Even fitted with its battery pack and a sensor payload, the polycarbonate-construction vehicle barely weighs as much as a laptop computer — not even 3 pounds without the sensor. The Scout is intended to fly to a range of only about three kilometers and remain airborne for about 20 minutes, depending on the payload.


But the craft comes with a sophisticated flight control program, said Christopher Barter, program manager for the UAV.


“We’ve operated this in winds up to 30 miles an hour, with gusts to 55,” he said.


So why did Datron, an electronics company, get into the UAV business?


“The value of a small unmanned aerial system you can pull out of a backpack is extremely lucrative,” he said. “And this model comes with autonomous control from a laptop, with global positioning satellite navigation.”


The Datron Scout, however, is remarkably similar to at least a half dozen other vehicles on display at this show and, at between $60,000 to $120,000 a copy, a bit pricier than most.


“Yes, but ours doesn’t break,” Barter beamed. “It’s extremely rugged.”

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11 décembre 2012 2 11 /12 /décembre /2012 11:35

AAD LAUNCHED (1)-23 nov 2012 source Livefist


December 5, 2012: Strategy Page


On November 24th India held more tests of its ABM (Anti-Ballistic Missile) system. This one involved intercepting multiple incoming ballistic missiles and was declared a success. As a result of this, and several other successful tests earlier this year, Indian missile development officials believe their anti-missile system is ready for mass production and deployment. This would provide some Indian cities protection from Pakistani or Chinese ballistic missiles.


The Indian system uses two types of interceptors. The Prithvi Air Defense (PAD) missile is the larger of the two and is used for high altitude (50-80 kilometers up) interception. The short range Advanced Air Defense (AAD) missile is used for low altitude (up to 30 kilometers) intercepts. The two missiles, in conjunction with a radar system based on the Israeli Green Pine (used with the Arrow anti-missile missile), provide defense from ballistic missiles fired as far as 5,000 kilometers away. A third interceptor, the PDV, is a hypersonic missile that can take down missiles as high as 150 kilometers and is still in development. India is the fifth nation to develop such anti-missile technology.


The Indian system has been in development for over a decade. Ten years ago India ordered two Israeli Green Pine anti-ballistic missile radars. That equipment was used six years ago in a successful Indian test, where one ballistic missile was fired at another "incoming" one. The Israeli Green Pine radar was originally developed for Israel's Arrow anti-ballistic missile system. Arrow was built, in cooperation with the United States, to defend Israel from Iranian and Syrian ballistic missiles. India has since developed, with Israel, the Swordfish radar, which has similar capabilities to the Green Pine and has been operational for two years. Swordfish is part of a system that integrates data from satellites and other sources in order to detect and track incoming missiles.


The interceptor missiles and the fire control systems were designed and built in India, although more Israeli technology may have been purchased to speed things along. India wanted to buy the entire Israeli Arrow system but the United States refused to allow the sale (which involved a lot of American technology). The Indian ABM system wasn’t supposed to become operational for another two years. But the developers believe it is ready now and are asking parliament for money to start building systems to defend places like New Delhi (where parliament is). Even so, it’s doubtful that the ABM system would be operational, even if just around New Delhi, by 2014. Then there is the question of just how effective the India ABM system really is. India has a shabby reputation with developing weapons. Projects go on for decades without ever producing operational weapons. But joint-ventures with other countries (like Russia, France, and Israel) have been more successful. Israel is believed to be more heavily involved in this ABM than official pronouncements indicate. If so, this would be a good thing, even if the Indians don’t like to publicize it.


China and Pakistan could only defeat the Indian ABM defenses by firing more missiles at the same time than the Indians could handle. It's also possible to equip warheads with decoys in an attempt to get the interceptor missile to miss. Israel has technology designed to deal with these decoys and India can probably purchase that. But against an overwhelming number of incoming missiles, some are going to get through.

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18 novembre 2012 7 18 /11 /novembre /2012 08:55



Nov. 17, 2012 washingtonpost.com (AP)


Pakistan’s largest drone, the Shahpur, has a wingspan of about seven meters (22 feet) and can carry 50 kilograms (110 pounds). The U.S. Predator, which can be equipped with two Hellfire missiles, has a wingspan more than twice that and a payload capacity over four times as great.


Pakistani drones also have much more limited range than those produced in the U.S. because they are operated based on “line of sight” using radio waves, rather than military satellites. The Shahpur has a maximum range of 250 kilometers (150 miles), while the Predator can fly over five times that distance.


The British newspaper The Guardian reported Tuesday that Pakistan was working on an armed drone but did not provide details.


The market for drones has exploded in Pakistan and other countries around the world in recent years, as shown by the array of aircraft on display at the defense exhibition in Karachi. Hoping to tap into a worldwide market worth billions of dollars a year, public and private companies wheeled out over a dozen drones that ranged in size from hand-held models meant to be carried in a backpack to larger aircraft like the Shahpur.


All the Pakistani drones on display were advertised as unarmed and meant for surveillance only. One private company, Integrated Dynamics, even promotes its aircraft under the slogan “Drones for Peace.” But several models developed by the Chinese government were marketed as capable of carrying precision missiles and bombs.


The Chinese government has offered to sell Pakistan an armed drone it has produced, the CH-3, which can carry two laser-guided missiles or bombs, industry insiders said.


Also being offered to Pakistan is a more advanced drone, the CH-4, which closely resembles a U.S. Reaper and can carry four laser-guided missiles or bombs, according to Li Xiaoli, a representative of the Chinese state-owned company that produces both the CH-3 and CH-4, Aerospace Long-march International Trade Co., Ltd.


Pakistan has yet to purchase any armed Chinese drones because their capabilities have yet to be proven, but is likely to do so in the future, said the civilian with knowledge of the Pakistani military’s drone program.


Only a few countries, including the U.S., Britain and Israel, are known to have actually used armed drones in military operations.


“China is a bit of a tough nut to crack as you’d expect,” said Huw Williams, a drone expert at Jane’s International Defense Review. “They frequently wheel out exciting looking aircraft but are yet to really demonstrate anything earthshattering.”

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22 octobre 2012 1 22 /10 /octobre /2012 17:55

Agni V Launch

The Agni-V is based on the Agni-III, shown here

during its fourth test flight. (Photo: DRDO)


October 22, 2012 By Debak Das, Research Intern / Institute of Peace and Conflict Studies (IPCS) – defpro.com


Missile testing is currently at an all time high in South Asia. The Indian Navy’s successful test of the supersonic BrahMos cruise missile on 6 October 2012, was the third missile test this month with at least another test (the indigenously built Nirbhay cruise missile) expected in October. The flurry of missile tests in the last few months conducted by both India and Pakistan indicates a competition of one-upmanship that may have negative consequences for strategic stability in the region. In this context, it is important to ascertain what kinds of danger are posed by the testing of such strategic and non-strategic missiles. Can persistent missile testing in the region contain the potential to destabilise South Asian strategic stability?




The year 2012 has reportedly seen India acquire ICBM (Inter Continental Ballistic Missile) and SLBM (Submarine-Launched Ballistic Missile) capacity with the successful testing of the Agni V and the Sagarika/K-15. The Agni V’s declared range of 5000 kms though does not technically qualify it to be an ICBM. Nevertheless, Pakistan and China have not been silent spectators. Pakistan’s response to the Agni V was the intermediate range ballistic missile Shaheen 1A. But the more recent test of the nuclear capable Hatf-VII Babur stealth cruise missile is a more worrying development from the Indian perspective. The Hatf-VII not only possesses the capacity to penetrate advanced air defence systems and ballistic missile defence systems but its range of 700kms also makes this low flying terrain hugging stealth missile a major threat to a large part of North India.


The Indian response to the challenge laid down by the Hatf-VII has been the BrahMos cruise missile that has been jointly developed by the Engineering Research and Production Association of Russia with the Indian DRDO (Defense Research and Development Organisation). The latest version of the BrahMos tested this week was an anti ship missile that flies at a speed of Mach 2.8 and is designed to hit all classes of warships. The Tribune reports that the Talwar class frigate INS Teg, from which the test was conducted has already been armed with this type of missile and two other frigates from the same class – INS Tarkash and INS Trikand shall also be armed with the missile in vertical launch mode.


Meanwhile, according to DRDO Director General, V.K.Saraswat, the turbo jet powered 1000km range subsonic cruise missile, Nirbhay is also ready to be tested this month. This missile shall reportedly possess loitering capability, making it possible to change its target after being fired.




• 19 April

- Missile: Agni V

- Type: ICBM (3-10 MIRV)

- Range: 5000km + (Chinese dispute, 8000km)

- Payload: 1500kg

- Nuclear: Yes


• 25 April

- Missile: Shaheen IA

- Type: IRBM

- Range: 2500-3000km (estd) (officially not released)

- Payload: 200-300kg (Nuclear Warhead), 500-600kg (Conventional)

- Nuclear: Yes


• 25 August

- Missile: Prithvi II

- Type: SRBM (user trial by Army)

- Range: 5000km + (Chinese dispute, 8000km)

- Payload: 500kg (Nuclear and Conventional)

- Nuclear: Yes


• 17 September

- Missile: Hatf VII Babur

- Type: Cruise Missile (Stealth)

- Range: 700km

- Payload: 450kg (Nuclear and Conventional)

- Nuclear: Yes


• 19 September

- Missile: Agni IV

- Type: IRBM

- Range: 4000km

- Payload: 1 Tonne Nuclear Warhead

- Nuclear: Yes


• 21 September

- Missile: Agni III

- Type: IRBM

- Range: 3000km

- Payload: 1.5 Tonnes (Nuclear and Conventional)

- Nuclear: Yes


• 4 October

- Missile: Prithvi II (User trial by the Army)

- Type: SRBM

- Range: 350km

- Payload: 500kg (Nuclear and Conventional)

- Nuclear: Yes


• 5 October

- Missile: Dhanush (Sea Variant of the Prithvi)

- Type: SRBM

- Range: 350km

- Payload: 500kg (Nuclear and Conventional)

- Nuclear: Yes


• 6 October

- Missile: BrahMos

- Type: Cruise Missile (Super Sonic)

- Range: 290km

- Payload: 300kg

- Nuclear: No


• Expected in November

- Missile: Nirbhay

- Type: Cruise Missile (Sub Sonic)

- Range: 1000km

- Payload: Undisclosed

- Nuclear: -




Missile testing ostensibly showcases technological development and strength. But the way India and Pakistan have generated visibility for their respective missile development programmes is a definite case of both the defence establishments trying to ‘outflex’ each other.


These developments are not favourable to South Asian strategic stability, which is precariously balanced on the notion of nuclear deterrence. The recent spate of non strategic weapons tests can only destabilise the region. Indian superiority over Pakistan’s conventional military strength has been hitherto undisputed. The entry of the Hatf-VII changes this equation by making a huge part of North Indian territory vulnerable to attack in a more cost effective manner than building ballistic missiles.


Indian knee jerk responses, having already tested the 4000km range Agni IV ballistic missile and the BrahMos in October, as well as the expected test of the Nirbhay is sure to coax Pakistan into reciprocating. The frequent reminder of one’s capability to penetrate the other’s defences is not a healthy or intelligent roadmap towards attaining or maintaining strategic stability. It is believed though, that this is a part of a larger strategy by India to lure Pakistan into a ‘race’ that the latter can neither win, nor economically support. If that is indeed the case, Indian policy makers must be reminded that an economically drained Pakistan, plunged headlong towards internal instability is not in the best interests of Indian security. As the dominant South Asian power too, Indian actions should be responsibly guided towards larger regional stability. Accentuating the security dilemma does not fit that bill.



*This is a list collated with information available from public sources. The details of some of the payloads and ranges are meant to be indicative and not exact. Certain Missiles have been tested multiple times. The list only indicated the last date of test.

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