7 déc. 2015 NZ Defence Forces
A glimpse of the new state of the art rifles to be introduced into service in 2016.
7 déc. 2015 NZ Defence Forces
A glimpse of the new state of the art rifles to be introduced into service in 2016.
05.11.2015 par BBC Afrique
Dans le contexte de conflit au Soudan du Sud, des armes seraient stockées par les deux parties en dépit de l’accord de paix signé en août, selon des experts de l’ONU.
Mais le Conseil de sécurité a décidé de ne pas imposer d’embargo sur les armes pour le moment. Si plusieurs efforts de paix ont échoué, beaucoup ont cru à l’accord signé en août et soutenu par les pays de la région, qui avait créé un gouvernement de partage du pouvoir. Des pays africains ainsi que la Russie auraient notamment suggéré qu’on laisse plus de temps à l’accord de paix pour faire ses preuves avant d’imposer des sanctions.
Suite de l’article
05 October, 2015 BY: James Drew – FG
Washington DC - Lockheed Martin’s F-35 has not yet seen combat, but already the defence manufacturer is exploring “concepts” for installing and employing a high-power fibre laser weapon on the new-generation combat jet for shooting down missiles and other airborne threats.
The company believes it finally has the right technology to produce modular and scalable fibre laser weapons for trucks, ships and aircraft, and a high-power, 60kW example will enter production for the US Army later this month. The F-35 has been in development since 2001 and only recently was declared fit for combat with the US Marine Corps. However, Lockheed’s Rob Afzal says company engineers are already thinking about how a laser weapon system could fit onto the supersonic stealth fighter and its usefulness in combat. “Absolutely, we’re looking at concepts for the integration of a laser weapon onto the F-35,” the Lockheed senior fellow for laser and sensor systems said at a media briefing 5 October. “We’re also looking at the utility and doing models and calculations so you would understand the utility of a leaser weapon system in the F-35.”
September 18, 2015: Strategy Page
In mid-2015 Lithuania temporarily suspended purchases of German G36 assault rifles because a recent German Army study concluded that the G36 was unreliable during sustained combat, especially in hot weather. Lithuania has been using the G36 since 2005 and their current G36 contract is worth about $14 million. Lithuanian soldiers had been satisfied with G36s. That was largely because the heat problems were never noticed because the troops typically used the G36 for training (typical single or short burst fire) and often in cold European weather.
In early 2015 the German Amy issued a report that admitted, after years of user complaints and several rounds of testing, that there were major accuracy and reliability problems with its G36 assault rifle. The G36 is a 3.3 kg (7.3 pound), 999mm (39 inch) long (758mm with stock folded) 5.56mm assault rifle. Effective range is 800 meters and it can use a 30 or 100 round magazine and was designed to be an improvement on the M16 design from the 1960s. On paper the G36 was a success but in combat it was not. This was particularly true in Afghanistan. While the G36 entered service in 1995 it didn’t get exposed to heavy combat use until 2008 and that’s when the complaints from the troops began.
The main problem was that the G36 suffers accuracy and reliability problems when the barrel gets very hot. This tends to happen when the rifle fires a lot of rounds in a short period and is worse in areas where the outdoor temperatures are very hot to begin with. This was a common situation in Afghanistan. In 2014 despite formal investigations and test results that backed up the complaints of the troops the German government ordered one last round of tests and a temporary halt in purchases of G36s. The results of those tests confirmed earlier results and the G36 was said to have no future in the German military. That admits the problem but does not solve it.
Although German troops went to Afghanistan in 2002, they were deliberately kept away from combat for several years. But by 2008 German troops were regularly fighting the Taliban and experiencing extended firefights during the warm weather. At that point the troops encountered the previously unknown G36 flaws. There were incidents where hours of combat caused several very obvious problems. One of the more obvious culprits was the polymer (plastic) parts of the rifle getting a bit soft when the metal parts got very hot due to heavy use in a short period of time. The barrel and receiver could move a tiny bit under those conditions and that threw off accuracy to a small degree that became especially noticeable only at longer (over 200 meters) ranges. It was later discovered that the manufacturer had not been using the right type of plastic for the rifle and the cheaper substitute was more prone to failure in high-heat conditions.
By 2012 it was also discovered that there were no practical (workable and affordable) solutions. At first the German government insisted the problem had to do with bad ammunition. The ammo manufacturers denied that and were able to make a convincing case. Meanwhile the complaints from the troops, confirmed by many witnesses and cell phone photos, of the heat related problems and total failure of the rifle in some cases kept showing up in the media. German politicians and procurement officials initially responded by trying to make all this go away. The government officials did not want to admit they made a major mistake in putting the G36 into service. They also don’t want the major expense of replacing the G36 with a better design.
The G36 was initially very popular as the standard German infantry assault rifle. By 1997 in was widely used and troops appreciated the fact that it used a short-stroke piston system. The M16s uses gas-tube system, which results in carbon being blown back into the chamber. That leads to carbon build up, which results in jams (rounds getting stuck in the chamber, and the weapon unable to fire.). The short-stroke system also does not expose parts of the rifle to extremely hot gases (which wears out components more quickly). As a result, rifles using the short-stroke system, rather than the gas-tube, are more reliable, easier to maintain and last longer. That was the good news. The bad news stayed hidden for a decade.
The G-36 assault rifle had been created in the early 1990s as the successor to the outdated G3 rifle which was incompatible with the current NATO standards. The new 5.56mm assault rifle has been adopted by the Bundeswehr in the 1995 and achieved some export success. The rifle is made mostly from reinforced composites. Thanks to this it is very light. The lightest version weighs only 2.8 kilograms and the heaviest variant is only 3.6 kilograms.
11 Mar 2015 By Ben Farmer, Defence Correspondent - TheTelegraph
Britain is joining the Star Wars arms race with a new Ministry of Defence project to build and test a prototype laser weapon
The Ministry of Defence will begin building an experimental laser weapon later this year as a prototype for Star Wars-type armaments that could one day be used by British forces. The project costing up to £100 million aims to create a high-energy laser that can track and hit moving targets in any weather. Britain is joining the laser arms race as America has already developed a series of drone-killing and ship-burning lasers and already has one weapon on board a warship in the Gulf. The MOD is looking for defence firms to help build prototype machines “to enhance the UK’s understanding of the capability of a laser based weapon system”. “The potential of laser based weapons systems has been identified as an opportunity and offers significant advantages in terms of running costs as well as providing a more appropriate response to the threats currently faced by UK armed forces,” according to the MoD.
Sep 16, 2014 ASDNews Source : Textron
Textron Systems Weapon & Sensor Systems, a Textron Inc. (NYSE: TXT) business, announced today its G-CLAWTM precision guided weapon successfully completed a live-fire demonstration recently at the U.S. Army’s Yuma Proving Ground in Arizona. The GPS-guided G-CLAW struck within four meters of the designation spot and detonated on the target as intended, proving the weapon’s guidance, warhead and its fuzing capability.
15 July 2014 by Oscar Nkala - defenceWeb
The South Sudanese army has taken delivery of a consignment of new infantry weapons including anti-tank guided missiles (ATGMs), grenades, assault rifles and machineguns, which are expected to boost the army in its fight against armed rebels led by former deputy president Riek Machar.
According to Bloomberg, the consignment supplied by Chinese arms manufacturer China North Industries Group Corp (Norinco) includes 100 HJ-73D anti-tank missile launchers, nine simulators, 200 batteries, 1 200 missiles and spares parts worth $14.5 million.
The HJ-73D is a Chinese clone of the Russian AT-3 Sagger, but features a tandem warhead for defeating explosive reactive armour (ERA), and semi-automatic command to line of sight (SACLOS) guidance. The new anti-tank weapons may have been bought in response to Sudan’s acceptance of 110 T-72M1 tanks between 2010 and 2012.
The rest of the $38 million shipment includes small arms, notably 9 574 Type 56 assault rifles (based on the AK-47/AKM) with 20 million rounds of 7.62x39 mm ammunition; 2 394 40 mm grenade launchers with 20 000 BGL2 anti-personnel grenades; 319 Type 80 machineguns (based on the PKM) with 2 million rounds of 7.62x54 mm ammunition; 319 Type 69-1 rocket propelled grenade launchers (RPG-7 copy) with 40 000 high explosive anti-tank rounds; and 660 NP-42 pistols (export version of the QSZ-92) with two million rounds of 9x19 mm ammunition. It is believed the grenade launchers are designed to be fitted under the barrels of the assault rifles.
The shipment left the Chinese port of Xinjiang in Guangdong province on 16 May aboard the Feng Huang Song and arrived in the Kenyan port of Mombasa on 7 June.
South Sudanese defence minister General Kuol Manyang Juuk confirmed the delivery of the Chinese arms saying they were ordered well before the outbreak of the ongoing civil war in December last year. “My role is to defend the nation. That means I have to arm my army. The army has to be equipped," Juuk told Bloomberg.
China has good relations with South Sudan and currently buys most of its oil output. Chinese-made weapons have been used widely in the series of low-level rebellions which have taken place in the country since its independence from Khartoum a few year ago. Conflict monitoring groups have reported the use of Chinese-made weapons which include mortars, B10 recoilless rifles, Type 56-1 assault rifles, rocket-propelled grenades, vehicle-mounted anti-aircraft guns and landmines.
Due to the current conflicts in both Sudan and South Sudan, in which at least ten thousand civilians have died recently, the European Union maintains an arms embargo on both countries.
Mar. 24, 2014 By Erik Schechter - FG
New York - Concerned about the emerging threat of unmanned aircraft, the US Army is canvassing American defence contractors for information on systems that can detect, classify and destroy drones of varying sizes.
According to the request for information (RFI), the army’s Aviation and Missile Research, Development, and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) is open to both “kinetic and non-kinetic options” – the latter referring to lasers.
The US Navy has already placed a laser weapon system demonstrator aboard the destroyer USS Dewey and tested the weapon against target drones in June 2012. The Army has likewise tested a vehicle-mounted Boeing high energy laser mobile demonstrator against mortar rounds and drones. However, there is no programme of record among the services to develop such a directed energy weapon.
Another interest of ARMDEC is that proposed systems be able to operate at both at the brigade-and-above and brigade-and-below echelons, which have their own network connectivity issues and levels of situational awareness.
The RFI, for example, notes that those at the tip of the spear resemble those homeland security operators in terms of the ad hoc nature of their deployment and size of their area of operation.
Indeed, the systems proposed should be designed for both overseas and domestic operations, the RFI states.
Contractors have until April 1 to answer the RFI, with selected respondents invited to two-day workshop starting April 30 at Redstone Arsenal, Ala.
The RFI opens the acquisition phase of the army’s pursuit of a capability to defeat unmanned aircraft.
Last year, the army’s armaments research, development and engineering center (ARDEC) at Picatinny Arsenal staged an experiment.
The center integrated a fire control radar with existing weapon systems. Using a “novel warhead design”, a gun-launched munition destroyed a small-class unmanned aircraft, according to army documents.
One challenge in the fight against unmanned aircraft is the cost. The army has highly capable air defence batteries, but their cost may seem excessive if used against a small unmanned aircraft.
The ARDEC experiment focused on a “low-cost-per-kill weapon system”, the army says.
December 5, 2013: Strategy Page
Denmark recently received the first six (of 16) LITENING G4 targeting pods for its 30 F-16s. These pods cost nearly $3 million each and have annual maintenance costs of over $50,000 each. The pods, packed with electronics and sensors, are very popular with fighter pilots, mainly because they contain FLIR (video quality night vision infrared radar) and TV cameras that enable pilots flying at 6,200 meters (20,000 feet) to clearly make out what is going on down on the ground. The pods also contain laser designators for laser guided bombs and laser range finders that enable pilots to get coordinates for JDAM (GPS guided) bombs. The G4 version, introduced in 2008, has improved sensors and software, including the ability to have the software identify many military vehicles and systems automatically. The 200 kg (440 pound) LITENING G4 pod hangs off a hard point, like a missile, bomb or fuel tank.
Safely outside the range of most anti-aircraft fire (five kilometers up and up to fifty kilometers away) pilots can literally see the progress of ground fighting and have even been acting as aerial observers for ground forces. These capabilities also enable pilots to more easily find targets themselves and hit them with laser guided or JDAM bombs. While bombers still get target information from ground controllers for close (to friendly troops) air support they can now go searching on their own in areas where there are no friendly ground troops.
In 1990 the first targeting pods (the U.S. two pod LANTIRN system) were nearly ready for service. These first electronic targeting pods, which looked like thin bombs, contained laser designators and night vision equipment. LANTIRN got a workout in the 1991 Gulf War, even though the system was still undergoing testing. Israel soon followed with a cheaper, more reliable, and more capable LITENING system. An American manufacturer then brought out the Sniper XR and XTP pod. All this competition has made the pods (one pod is all that is needed now) more capable, easier to use, more reliable, and cheaper. Over 1,200 LITENING pods are in use by 25 countries. The first version of LITENING entered service in the 1990s.
Colt Canada est depuis longtemps un fournisseur de fusils et d'armes légères pour l'armée canadienne et ses tireurs d'élite (Colt)
21/11/2013 par Jacques N. Godbout - 45eNord.ca
Deep Vision et Colt Canada signent un accord en vue d’intégrer le système de détection autonome de Deep Vision aux systèmes de contrôle de tir automatiques Colt Canada, y compris le système «Sword» (Sniper Weapon & Observer Reconnaissance Devices (SWORD) Technology Demonstrator).
Le système SWORD de Colt non seulement permet à l’observateur de désigner des cibles pour plusieurs tireurs, mais, avec ce système, les tireurs d’élite peuvent également partager des données à travers le réseau (Colt)
Deep Vision a déclaré par voie de communiqué à ce propos que cet accord permettra aux systèmes automatisés de contrôle de tir de Colt de se démarquer grâce à l’intégration de son système de détection automatique de cible.
Colt Canada pour sa part affirme dans le communiqué annonçant cet accord que l’entente avec Deep Vision permettra d’augmenter la capacité , les opportunités de marché et la valeur de son offre de systèmes de contrôle de tir automatiques en intégrant la technologie d’ exploitation de la sonde Deep Vision.
Le protocole d’entente vise à établir des principes concernant cette proposition de collaboration qui, disent les deux sociétés, devrait aboutir à des résultats commerciaux positifs mutuellement bénéfiques pour les deux parties – en particulier en ce qui a trait à l’amélioration des prototypes de systèmes de contrôle de tir de Colt Canada et démontrer ainsi clairement la capacité qu’a Deep Vision d’améliorer leur capacité fonctionnelle en ce qui concerne l’autonomie , l’exactitude , l’utilité et la précision .
Deep Vision développe des capteurs et systèmes de perception pour l’industrie de la défense et l’aérospatiale.
La technologie de Deep Vision permet le suivi d’objets en temps réel.
Le système de «tracking» Deep Vision (Deep Vision)
Les données des capteurs sont traitées rapidement et présentées dans une forme qui permet un classement et une analyse efficace.
Les images, créées à partir des données brutes, couplé avec leur position sur le capteur et les positions relatives dans le temps, fournissent la base pour le suivi d’objets en temps réel.
Avec et sans connaissance préalable des objets ciblés, ou de leurs caractéristiques, la technologie de suivi d’objets de Deep Vision offre une solution de verrouillage de cible fiable, en temps réel.
Quant à Colt Canada, il est est depuis longtemps un fournisseur de fusils et d’armes légères pour l’armée canadienne et ses tireurs d’élite, en plus d’être le fournisseur de plusieurs corps de police dans le monde.
«Pendant plus de 35 ans», souligne le communiqué de l’entreprise, «les armes Colt Canada ont été testées et éprouvée au combat à travers la jungle de la boue, la neige et la glace arctique, le désert et les conditions de combat extrêmes.».
October 04, 2013 By Lauren Williams - The Daily Star / Lebanon News
BEIRUT: Some Saudi Arabian-supplied anti-tank missiles intended for mainstream Syrian rebels have inadvertently landed in the hands of the Al-Qaeda linked Nusra Front, throwing plans to arm moderates via neighbor Jordan into question.
The failure of the pilot plan has forced Western and Arab opposition backers to reconfigure efforts to arm and vet moderate opposition types, and shift these efforts to the northern, Turkish border, The Daily Star has learned.
Senior Free Syrian Army and Jordanian sources, along with video evidence, have confirmed that European-made anti-tank missiles were obtained, and in some cases sold, to the hard-line Nusra Front after being supplied to vetted Free Syrian Army battalions across the Jordanian border.
The debacle prompted Jordan to back away from arrangements to arm moderate rebels, and close its borders in May.
The plan to train and arm moderate rebels via Syria’s southern border gained Western and Saudi support earlier this year, as concerns mounted over gains by Bashar Assad’s forces, backed by his Lebanese ally Hezbollah, as well as the proliferation of hard-line Islamist rebel brigades.
Special Forces personnel from the United States and the United Kingdom are known to have conducted training operations for vetted opposition troops.
An investigation by Reuters revealed that Saudi Arabia began transferring small numbers of shoulder-fired anti-aircraft missiles to Syrian rebels under the command of Gen. Salim Idriss, the chief of staff of the FSA, through Jordan in March.
The supply was reportedly coordinated by Saudi Arabia in consultation with France and Britain.
But Jordan, weary of the presence of Islamists at home, voiced concern over plans to arm the rebels, fearing that the weapons might end up in the hands of radicals, further jeopardizing Jordan’s security.
Jordan’s foreign minister, Nasser Judeh, cast doubt early on about the ability to properly vouch for rebel elements.
“Our position was always, arming who? And do we have addresses and do we have CVs? ... We are a country that neighbors Syria, and therefore, while we don’t interfere in the internal affairs of Syria, we are certainly affected by the outcome of what’s going on in Syria,” Judeh told reporters, in response to questions about arming the rebels, during a joint news conference with U.S. Secretary of State John Kerry in Amman in May.
Those fears have only been compounded by hard-line jihadist gains in northern Syria. Increasing clashes between hard-line Islamist groups and Western-backed FSA battalions are also troubling Western opposition backers, who fear the Islamist rebels will prove hostile to their interests.
Complicating matters further, a group of over 30 mostly Islamist factions issued a statement late last month rejecting the authority of the Turkey-based, Western-backed Joint Military Council of the FSA, which has been struggling to unite armed opposition groups on the ground.
Those concerns appear to have come to fruition with the Saudi-supplied missiles apparently landing in the hands of the Nusra Front “within days” of arrival.
“Saudi [Arabia] supported the FSA with anti-tank missiles, which were worth about 1 million Syrian pounds ($5,000) each,” one Joint Military Council source told The Daily Star.
“But within days Nusra paid $15,000 for each.”
“So they are going in, and immediately being sold on.”
Whether FSA fighters were selling the missiles or Islamist fighters were acquiring them by force is unclear. But the effect was immediate.
Rebel fighters made steady gains in Deraa province on the border with Jordan in July and August, after the missiles began to be supplied.
But the growing role of Islamist groups in spearheading the fighting there was highlighted last week, when a group of mainly Islamist brigades, including the Nusra Front claimed to have taken control of the main Ramtha border crossing following days of intense fighting.
Jordan has closed its main borders to Syria for months, but officials and analysts say that events effectively ended the program and halted all weapons supply.
“Because Nusra has now taken control of the borders, arming has completely stopped,” said Fahd al-Khitan, political analyst and commentator at Al-Ghad newspaper.
“The transfer of weapons did not produce practical results on the ground.
Khitan noted incidents in which it appeared Nusra fighters had captured the weapons from their intended recipients during clashes.
“Jordan was always concerned that these shipments would reach radical groups and their concerns were proven correct,” he added.
Videos and photographs of Nusra Front fighters with the new weapons have recently circulated on the Internet.
“It was intended as a message from Nusra,” the Joint Military Council source said of one video statement.
“All this proves is that the SMC needs to work more on how to protect their property,” he said.
Blogger Eliot Higgins, aka Brown Moses, who maps the spread and use of weapons in the Syrian conflict, documented Nusra Front fighters using the Saudi-supplied missiles in joint operations in Deraa in March, but noted that in joint operations, it was unclear whether the intended recipients were also using the weapons.
TUCSON, Sept. 11 (UPI)
A $136.2 million contract has been given to Raytheon by the U.S. Navy for the re-manufacture, overhaul and upgrade of Phalanx Close-in Weapons Systems.
Phalanx is a rapid-fire, computer-controlled radar and 20 mm gun system that automatically acquires, tracks and destroys enemy threats.
The contract is for work on 19 Phalanx systems. It also provides for production of four SeaRAM Anti-ship Missile Defense Systems, the company said, and has a $94 million option for fiscal year 2014 to produce an additional dozen Phalanx systems and four more SeaRams.
"Phalanx is a vital ship self-defense system, providing the critical inner-layer of protection to sailors, Marines and ships," said Rick Nelson, vice president of Raytheon Missile Systems' Naval and Area Mission Defense product line.
"With SeaRAM comes a significant extension of that inner-layer battle space and the capacity to effectively engage multiple high-performance threats. Raytheon's ability to re-manufacture Phalanx equivalent to new manufacture condition -- in appearance, operation and performance -- provides a significant cost savings to our customers."
22/04/2013 par Nicolas Laffont – 45enord.ca
Les ministres européens des Affaires étrangères devaient envoyer lundi un signe de soutien à l’opposition syrienne en assouplissant l’embargo européen contre le pétrole syrien en vigueur depuis septembre 2011, tandis que le débat sur l’opportunité de lui livrer des armes se poursuit.
L’objectif est, qu’en obtenant le feu vert de l’Union européenne, les rebelles pourraient relancer l’extraction et l’exploitation pétrolière dès cette semaine.
Depuis décembre 2012, l’Armée syrienne libre contrôle le champ pétrolifère d’Al-Tanak dans la province de Deir Ezzor où se trouve les plus grandes réserves du pays. Elle en contrôlait trois autres un peu plus tôt, mais ils ont été repris par l’armée du régime de Bachar al-Assad.
En soutenant l’opposition, les pays de l’Union européenne veulent soutenir les anti-Assad dans la mise en place de leurs propres institutions.
Avant la révolte de 2011, l’Europe était le principal client de Damas. Depuis l’embargo, les ventes sont passées de 7,2 milliards à 185 millions $, ce qui représente environ 130 000 barils/jour, selon les dernières estimations de l’Agence internationale de l’énergie (AIE).
«Nous voulons aider à la reconstruction économique» des régions contrôlées par l’opposition «afin que la population se rende compte qu’il existe une véritable alternative au régime d’Assad», a souligné le chef de la diplomatie allemande, Guido Westerwelle.
Pour faire de l’importation du brut ou des investissements, les entreprises étrangères devront demander l’autorisation de leur gouvernement, qui tentera de son côté d’obtenir des garanties de la Coalition.
Ce qui inquiètent beaucoup les pays occidentaux c’est en effet de savoir quel mouvement rebelle contrôle tel ou tel champ pétrolier. Selon l’Observatoire syrien des droits de l’Homme (OSDH), ceux de Deir Ezzor (est) et Hassaka (nord-est) seraient aux mains du Front Al-Nosra, affilié à Al-Qaïda.
Autre dossier sensible: les armes
Les Européens suivent donc la même ligne que les États-Unis, qui ont annoncé samedi un doublement de leur assistance directe à l’opposition.
Union Européenne et États-Unis hésitent toujours à fournir des armes lourdes aux rebelles afin de lutter contre les attaques aériennes de Damas.
Londres et Paris restent isolés sur cette question, mais Berlin a indiqué être disposée à «ne pas s’opposer» si «un ou deux pays veulent livrer des armes», tout en soulignant de nouveau le risque qu’elles «tombent entre de mauvaises mains».
La question sera tranchée d’une manière ou d’une autre d’ici au 1er juin prochain, date à laquelle le régime de sanctions visant la Syrie doit être renouvelé, ou amendé.
Aux yeux de plusieurs ministres européens, ces craintes sont renforcées par l’état de division de l’opposition. Le chef de la diplomatie belge, Didier Reynders, a jugé « très inquiétante » la démission annoncée dimanche de son chef, Ahmed Moaz al-Khatib. Il faut « continuer à demander à l’opposition d’être plus organisée, plus inclusive », a-t-il ajouté.
TEL-AVIV, 18 avril - RIA Novosti
Le premier ministre israélien Benjamin Netanyahu a mis en garde jeudi dans une interview à la BBC contre la livraison d'armes aux rebelles en Syrie, où "le mal combat contre le mal".
"Armer les rebelles pose la question de quels rebelles et quelles armes, C'est une question extrêmement difficile pour chaque pays", a déclaré le chef du gouvernement israélien.
M.Netanyahu s'est rendu à Londres pour les funérailles de l'ex-première ministre britannique Margaret Thatcher et a eu l'occasion de s'entretenir avec le chef du gouvernement britannique David Cameron, fervent partisan de la levée de l'embargo sur les livraisons d'armes aux adversaires du régime de Bachar el-Assad.
Le premier ministre israélien a toutefois refusé d'indiquer s'il avait appelé son homologue britannique à maintenir cet embargo expirant fin mai.
"Nous sommes inquiets que des armes capables de changer l'équilibre des forces au Proche-Orient tombent entre les mains des terroristes", a-t-il dit, évoquant des groupes jihadistes et Al-Qaïda dans les rangs de la rébellion syrienne.
Selon M.Netanyahu, l'Etat hébreu se réserve le droit d'empêcher que cela se produise.
En deux ans, le conflit en Syrie a fait plus de 70.000 morts et des centaines de milliers de réfugiés. Les rebelles syriens bénéficient d'un soutien étranger. Damas affirme que des milliers de mercenaires étrangers, y compris des commandos de groupes terroristes, combattent dans les rangs de l'opposition armée.
Paris et Londres ont à plusieurs reprises annoncé leur volonté d'armer l'insurrection syrienne.
October 16, 2012 China Military News
2012-10-16 — (by Bill Gertz) China’s military is set to conduct a test of a new and more capable anti-satellite missile that United States intelligence agencies say can knock out strategic satellites in high-earth orbit, according to U.S. officials.
However, a recent intelligence assessment said the test of the Dong Neng-2 direct ascent anti-satellite (ASAT) weapon is being delayed in an apparent effort to avoid upsetting President Barack Obama’s reelection bid, said officials who spoke on condition of anonymity.
Intelligence reports from September and this month revealed China will test fire the new DN-2 missile from a ground base sometime in early to mid November.
The missile is described by intelligence agencies as a high-earth orbit interceptor designed to destroy satellites by ramming them at high speeds. The intelligence reports called the new missile a strategically significant counterspace weapon, said the officials familiar with the reports.
Testing a high-earth orbit anti-satellite missile would represent a major advance in China’s satellite-killing capability, which has been underway for more than a decade. High-earth orbit, also known as geosynchronous orbit, is the location of major communications and navigation satellites, which orbit at a distance of between 12,000 miles and 22,236 miles from earth.
China’s last ASAT test in 2007 destroyed a low-earth orbit weather satellite about 558 miles in space, causing an orbiting debris field of tens of thousands of pieces of metal that U.S. officials say will threaten orbiting satellites and human space travelers for 100 years.
U.S. officials said it is unlikely China will conduct an impact test of a kinetic kill vehicle against an aging weather satellite as occurred in 2007, although the possibility of a second, major debris-causing test cannot be ruled out.
Instead, officials said the test most likely will be a demonstration of a precision-guided direct ascent missile flying out tens of thousands of miles.
“If the United States loses the strategic high ground of high-earth orbit [from a Chinese high-altitude ASAT missile], we are in real trouble,” said one U.S. official.
U.S. Global Positioning System satellites, used for both navigation and precision missile guidance, are located in medium-earth orbit, or about 12,000 miles, and thus would be vulnerable to the new DN-2.
Whether or not the test is successful, development of the new high-altitude DN-2 ASAT reveals that China’s military is planning for future high-orbit space warfare despite seeking international agreements banning weapons in space.
China’s January 2007 ASAT test drew protests from the United States and other spacefaring nations, who saw it as a major threat to satellites used for both military and civilian purposes. That test also produced tens of thousands of pieces of space debris which threaten satellites.
A second possibility is the DN-2 missile test will be fired against a target missile, as occurred in 2010 as part of a joint Chinese ASAT-missile defense test.
Pentagon spokesmen declined to comment on the DN-2 ASAT program.
Michael Pillsbury, a former Reagan administration defense policymaker, stated in a 2007 report to Congress that Chinese military writers advocated covert deployment of sophisticated anti-satellite weapons system like the kind now being developed by the People’s Liberation Army for use against the United States “in a surprise manner without warning.”
“Even a small scale anti-satellite attack in a crisis against 50 U.S. satellites—assuming a mix of targeted military reconnaissance, navigation satellites, and communication satellites—could have a catastrophic effect not only on U.S. military forces, but on the U.S. civilian economy,” said Pillsbury, currently with the Hudson Institute. Chinese military writings also have discussed attacks on GPS satellites that are located in high-earth orbit, he stated.
ASAT a top-secret program
China’s anti-satellite missile system is a key element of the communist state’s growing arsenal of asymmetric warfare weapons, and remains one of Beijing’s most closely guarded military secrets.
Defense officials have said that with as few as 24 ASAT missiles, China could severely weaken U.S. military operations by disrupting global communications and military logistics, as well as by limiting celestial navigation systems used by high-technology weapons. Such an attack also would severely degrade U.S. intelligence gathering efforts against global targets, a key strategic military advantage.
A U.S. official familiar with reports of the ASAT test said China’s delay in conducting the test until after the Nov. 6 election is a sign Beijing wants to help President Obama’s reelection campaign. “It implies they’d rather have him reelected,” said the official.
The Obama administration has adopted conciliatory policies toward China’s military buildup and its large-scale human rights abuses. Critics say the administration also failed to hold Beijing accountable for its unfair trade practices and currency manipulation.
The administration’s questionable policies were revealed by a 2009 State Department cable that quoted Secretary of State Hillary Clinton as saying, “How do you deal toughly with your banker?”—a reference to China’s potentially coercive leverage over the United States through its large holdings of U.S. debt securities.
Richard Fisher, a Chinese military affairs specialist, said little is known publicly of the DN-2 missile. However, the DN-2 may be China’s designation for an ASAT missile and kill vehicle combination mounted on launchers dubbed KT-2, or KT-2A. This ASAT weapon is based on DF-31 or DF-31A road-mobile intercontinental ballistic missiles, respectively.
“ASATs derived from the KT-2 and KT-2A space launch vehicles have the potential to reach high earth orbits used by many strategic U.S. surveillance, communication, and navigation satellites,” said Fisher, with the International Assessment and Strategy Center.
Fisher said in 2002, during a military show in China, the KT-2A was touted by Chinese officials as having a 2,000-kilogram payload that could reach high-earth orbits.
“Since its appearance a decade ago, the KT series of space launch vehicles presaged what we now know, that a key Chinese strategic goal has been to deny outer space as a sanctuary to support American military operations,” Fisher said.
A KT-1 microsatellite launcher was displayed at the Zhuhai air show in 2000, and “it was fairly obvious that this could become the basis for an ASAT, and it was used as the basis for the SC-19 ASAT demonstrated successfully in January 2007,” Fisher said.
Because China will not join a verifiable space control agreement, “Washington has little choice, if it is to continue to deter China militarily, but to build far greater redundancy, passive and active defenses for outer space,” he said.
China ASAT caused space debris
U.S. officials estimate that China’s 2007 ASAT test that destroyed an aging weather satellite in low-earth orbit now accounts for 45 percent of all space debris in low-earth orbit.
After a year of stonewalling by China on the test, an official U.S. demarche, or protest note, was sent to Beijing in January 2008. According to a copy of the note made public by Wikileaks, the protest warned the Chinese government, “Any purposeful interference with U.S. space systems will be interpreted by the United States as an infringement of its rights and considered an escalation in a crisis or conflict.”
“The United States reserves the right, consistent with the [United Nations] Charter and international law, to defend and protect its space systems with a wide range of options, from diplomatic to military,” stated the protest, made by then-U.S. Ambassador to China Clark Randt.
A joint State Department-Pentagon report to Congress on export controls made public in April states that China is “developing space-based methods to counter ballistic missile defenses of the United States and our allies, including anti-satellite (ASAT) weapons.”
“As China advances in operational space capabilities, it is actively focusing on how to destroy, disrupt, or deny U.S. access to our own space assets,” the report said.
China is developing and refining its ASAT weapons as part of a “multi-dimensional program to limit or prevent the use of space-based assets by potential adversaries during times of conflict,” the report said.
“In addition to the direct-ascent [missile] ASAT program, China is developing other technologies and concepts for kinetic and directed energy for ASAT missions,” including electronic jamming of satellite communications and lasers that disrupt satellites, the report said.
ASAT weapons “have significant implications for anti-access/area-denial efforts against the United States in Taiwan Strait contingencies,” the report said. Those weapons and capabilities are being developed by China as a means to force the U.S. military out of Asian waters and territory and make it more difficult for U.S. forces to get into the region during a conflict, such as a defense of Taiwan. Other anti-access area denial weapons include anti-ship ballistic missiles, cyber warfare capabilities, and submarines.
Defense Intelligence Agency director Lt. Gen. Ronald L. Burgess told Congress in February that “China successfully tested a direct ascent anti-satellite weapon (ASAT) missile and is developing jammers and directed-energy weapons for ASAT missions.”
Burgess said that as “a prerequisite for ASAT attacks, China’s ability to track and identify satellites is enhanced by technologies from China’s manned and lunar programs as well as technologies and methods developed to detect and track space debris.”
Another ASAT test by China will likely undermine the Obama administration’s controversial space arms control proposal, introduced in January. Many in the Pentagon oppose the International Code of Conduct for Outer Space Activities over concerns it would place limits on U.S. space capabilities.
U.S. lagging in counterspace
Despite China’s continuing development of space weapons, the administration has done no research or development into so-called counterspace weapons and other capabilities that could deter China from its ASAT and anti-satellite laser and jammer arms, according to military officials. The opposition is based on the administration’s preference for arms control negotiations and agreements as a major element of its U.S. national security policies, the officials said.
Frank Rose, deputy assistant secretary of state for arms control, said in a speech in April that the space code of conduct would include legally nonbinding “transparency and confidence-building measures.”
However, a Pentagon Joint Staff assessment of the space code of conduct concluded that U.S. adherence to the code’s provisions would hurt U.S. space operations in several areas.
The Pentagon’s National Security Space Strategy from 2011 makes little mention of counterspace weapons. It states that U.S. policy is “to dissuade and deter” others from developing space weapons, without providing specifics.
The Pentagon indirectly demonstrated an ASAT capability in 2008 when it used a modified ship-based SM-3 anti-missile interceptor to shoot down a falling, low-earth orbit spy satellite that was considered a danger because its fuel tank might have passed through the atmosphere and landed on earth.
Cables detail PRC’s first ASAT test
According to a classified Jan. 12, 2010, State Department cable made public by Wikileaks, China conducted its most recent ASAT test on Jan. 11 of that year.
According to the cable, an ASAT missile designated SC-19 was fired from China’s Korla Missile Test Complex and successfully intercepted a CSS-X-11 medium-range ballistic missile launched from the Shuangchengzi Space and Missile Center.
The two missiles were tracked by U.S. missile warning satellites to an intercept point at an altitude of about 155 miles in space.
Until then, the SC-19 had been used previously to boost China’s first successful direct-ascent anti-satellite intercept on Jan. 11, 2007, when a missile rammed into China’s FY-1C weather satellite.
“Previous SC-19 DA-ASAT flight-tests were conducted in 2005 and 2006,” the 2010 cable said. “This test is assessed to have furthered both Chinese ASAT and ballistic missile defense [BMD] technologies.”
The cable contained a U.S. protest note to China on the 2010 test seeking an explanation for Chinese officials about the purpose of the test and “what steps were taken to minimize the creation of orbital debris.”
The cable said that since the 2007 ASAT test, the United States had urged China not to conduct further space weapons tests.
An earlier cable revealed that U.S. intelligence agencies had advance word of the 2010 space weapons test, and noted that China was not expected to provide notification in advance of the test, which proved accurate.
Other State Department cables revealed conflicting statements from Chinese officials on whether China planned to conduct future ASAT tests. Chinese Foreign Ministry official He Yafei unequivocally stated to U.S. officials in June 2008 that China would not conduct future ASAT tests. In July, China Lt. Gen. Zhang Qinsheng said there were no plans for an ASAT test in the near future.