Overblog
Suivre ce blog
Administration Créer mon blog
5 novembre 2015 4 05 /11 /novembre /2015 17:45
L'UE et la Tunisie signent un accord pilote dans la sécurité

 

05 novembre 2015 Romandie.com (AFP)

 

Tunis - L'Union européenne a signé jeudi un accord d'un montant de 23 millions d'euros avec le gouvernement tunisien pour soutenir la réforme et la modernisation du secteur de la sécurité dans ce pays en proie à la menace jihadiste.

 

Ce programme, signé par l'ambassadeur de l'UE Laura Baeza et le ministre de l'Intérieur Najem Gharsalli, revêt un caractère pilote et accompagnera la Tunisie dans la mise en oeuvre de la réforme du secteur de la sécurité, en développant une doctrine sécuritaire en phase avec les valeurs démocratiques, a déclaré Mme Baeza.

 

Depuis la révolution de 2011, la Tunisie fait face à une augmentation des attaques jihadistes, la plupart revendiquées par des mouvements liés à Al-Qaïda, qui ont coûté la vie à des dizaines de militaires, policiers et gendarmes. Elle a en outre été frappée par deux attaques, en mars au musée du Bardo et en juin à Sousse, qui ont fait 60 morts dont 59 touristes et ont été revendiquées par le groupe Etat islamique (EI).

 

L'accord prévoit d'appuyer une réforme des inspections, du recrutement et de la formation des forces de sécurité, dans l'optique de rétablir la confiance des citoyens, selon un communiqué de l'UE. Il comporte ainsi un important volet dédié à la redevabilité, à la probité et à la transparence.

 

Il doit également contribuer à renforcer les capacités dans la lutte contre la criminalité transfrontalière, avec la création d'une cellule de crise interministérielle ou encore de trois centres opérationnels rapides non loin des frontières algériennes et libyennes.

 

Le gouvernement a récemment annoncé que 20% du budget 2016 serait consacré aux secteurs de la sécurité et de la défense.

 

En juillet, un rapport du centre de réflexion International Crisis Group (ICG) a toutefois relevé que l'appareil sécuritaire était, malgré les sommes engagées, globalement dysfonctionnel, appelant à une réforme d'ampleur.

 

Des pays alliés, dont les Etats-Unis, ont annoncé vouloir renforcer leur coopération avec la Tunisie après l'attentat de Sousse. Paris et Tunis ont conclu le mois dernier un accord avec pour domaines prioritaires les forces spéciales et le renseignement, l'engagement financier de la France s'élevant à 20 millions d'euros sur deux ans.

 

La Tunisie pâtit notamment du chaos en Libye voisine et a entrepris la construction d'un mur frontalier de quelque 200 km. Interrogée, une source officielle a indiqué à l'AFP qu'elle était en cours d'achèvement, une quinzaine de km seulement devant encore être érigés.

 

Dans une récente étude, l'ONG Transparency a toutefois déploré la participation de responsables de sécurité tunisiens à la contrebande d'armes, notamment à la frontière libyenne.

 

La police tunisienne, qui entretenait une relation tendue avec la population sous le régime déchu de Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, reste en outre accusée par des ONG de perpétuer certaines pratiques oppressives.

 

Mercredi, des sit-in ont par ailleurs été organisés par les forces de sécurité intérieure sur tout le territoire. Les manifestants ont réclamé des augmentations salariales, dont une hausse de la prime de danger déjà existante.

13 octobre 2015 2 13 /10 /octobre /2015 16:50
Rheinmetall KZO UAV - ILA 2010

Rheinmetall KZO UAV - ILA 2010

 

13 October 2015 by defenceWeb

 

Tunisia, Mali, Nigeria, Jordan and Iraq have been identified as potential recipients of up to €100 million in funding from Germany aimed at helping partner countries improve their security situations.

 

Defense News last week reported that the German government has set up a €100 million fund to help partner countries in Africa and the Middle East. The fund will become operational in the 2016 financial year.

 

Katrin Suder, state secretary of the German Ministry of Defense, said in Berlin last week that the initiative is designed to help partner countries prevent crises and stabilize their overall security environment. The money will be used to procure equipment and services for tasks like border protection, small arms controls or the clearing of minefields.

 

The secondary purpose of the fund is to support the German defence industry, as the money will be used primarily to buy equipment and services in Germany. The fund will be jointly managed by the German Ministry of Defence and Ministry of Foreign Affairs. However, the fund is still awaiting final approval as part of next year’s budget by parliament, with approval possibly being granted in the next few weeks.

 

Wolfgang Hellmich, chairman of the defence committee of the German Bundestag, expects delivery of German surveillance unmanned aerial vehicles Tunisia, Defense News reports.

13 octobre 2015 2 13 /10 /octobre /2015 15:45
photo EMA

photo EMA

 

13/10/2015 Sources : Etat-major des armées

 

Le 6 octobre 2015, lors de son déplacement en Tunisie, le général d’armée Pierre de Villiers a rencontré le chef d’état-major de l’armée de Terre (CEMAT) le général de division Ismail Fathalli.

 

A l’occasion de leur première rencontre, le CEMA et le général Fathalli ont tout d’abord fait le point sur le contexte sécuritaire régional, rappelant que la menace terroriste nécessitait de renforcer les coopérations bilatérales, internationales mais aussi interministérielles. A ce titre le général de Villiers et le CEMAT tunisien ont confirmé leur volonté de développer leur coopération dans le domaine du contre-terrorisme. Ils ont ensuite réaffirmé leur volonté de poursuivre la dynamique d’échanges académiques et opérationnels au profit d’une interopérabilité renforcée. Cela passe notamment par la réalisation des exercices annuels de composante comme Amitié, Pangolin et Circaete qui engagent respectivement les forces terrestre, maritimes et aériennes.

13 octobre 2015 2 13 /10 /octobre /2015 15:45
photo EMA

photo EMA

 

13/10/2015 Sources : Etat-major des armées

 

Le 7 octobre 2015, le général d’armée Pierre de Villiers était en Tunisie, pour la réunion annuelle des chefs d’état-major de l’Initiative 5+5 au format Défense.

 

Au lendemain de son entretien bilatéral avec le général Fathalli, chef d’état-major de l’armée de Terre et des opérations tunisien, le CEMA a participé à la réunion de l’ « Initiative 5+5 défense » dont la Tunisie assure actuellement la présidence tournante.

 

Dans le cadre d’un dialogue stratégique engagé avec l’ensemble des partenaires de l’Initiative 5+5, les chefs d’état-major se sont entretenus sur la situation sécuritaire régionale, évoquant les enjeux actuels de défense sur les deux rives de la Méditerranée. Les échanges ont notamment portés sur la surveillance maritime et la sûreté terrestre. A cet égard, le CEMA a tenu à rappeler sa volonté d’appuyer, de renforcer et aussi d’optimiser la coopération interministérielle interalliée dans ces domaines. Le succès de l’exercice Amitié 5+5 mené en partenariat avec la Tunisie constitue à ce titre un exemple de coordination réussie dont le succès a été salué en séance.

 

Ce rassemblement a été l’opportunité pour le CEMA de poursuivre ses échanges bilatéraux avec la plupart de ses partenaires méditerranéens.

 

REPERE

Lancée en décembre 2004, l’ « Initiative 5+5 défense » associe cinq Etats de la rive Nord de la Méditerranée (Espagne, France, Italie, Malte et Portugal) et cinq Etats de la rive Sud (Algérie, Libye, Maroc, Mauritanie et Tunisie). Dernier né d’un ensemble de partenariats construits dans le même périmètre, cette enceinte de coopération multilatérale porte exclusivement sur la Défense. 4 axes sont privilégiés : la surveillance maritime, la sûreté aérienne, la contribution des forces armées à la protection civile et la formation/recherche.

6 octobre 2015 2 06 /10 /octobre /2015 16:45
photo Ministère de la Défense de Tunisie

photo Ministère de la Défense de Tunisie

 

5 octobre 2015 par Nicolas Laffont – 45eNord.ca

 

En visite en Tunisie, lundi 5 octobre, le ministre de la défense français, Jean-Yves Le Drian a signé, avec son homologue tunisien, Farhat Horchani, un accord d’aide de 20 millions d’euros sur deux ans.

 

Cette aide financière en 2016 et 2017 est destinée à soutenir les forces spéciales ainsi que la coopération dans le domaine des renseignements pour lutter contre le terrorisme.

«Notre coopération militaire est historique et il faut la renforcer. La France est sur la même ligne que la Tunisie. Nous avons les mêmes préoccupations, celle de la sécurité», a déclaré Jean-Yves Le Drian, lors d’un point de presse.

Rappelons que la Tunisie a été frappée cette année par deux assauts djihadistes très meurtriers revendiqués par le groupe armé État islamique: le 18 mars contre le musée du Bardo (22 morts, dont 21 touristes étrangers) et le 26 juin contre un hôtel près de Sousse (38 morts dont 30 Britanniques) sur le littoral de l’Est.

Le ministre français de la Défense a également annoncé la signature avec son homologue tunisien d’une lettre d’intention engageant l’un et l’autre pour le moyen terme à renforcer et à fructifier cette coopération. Il a aussi annoncé qu’il a été décidé, d’un commun accord de revoir sur le plan juridique la convention militaire entre la Tunisie et la France, depuis 1973, afin de l’adapter à la nouvelle donne.

6 octobre 2015 2 06 /10 /octobre /2015 16:45
source businessnews.com.tn

source businessnews.com.tn

 

05/10/2015 businessnews.com.tn

 

Le chef du gouvernement Habib Essid a accueilli ce lundi 5 octobre 2015, le ministre français de la Défense Jean-Yves Le Drian, au Palais du Gouvernement à la Kasbah.

 

Selon un communiqué de l'ambassade de France, Jean-Yves Le Drian a également rencontré le Groupement des forces spéciales tunisiennes. Il échangé avec le commandement et a assisté à une démonstration dynamique. Le ministre de la Défense français s'est, par ailleurs, entretenu avec le ministre de la Défense nationale tunisien Farhat Horchani afin d’évoquer les pistes de renforcement de la coopération entre les deux pays et la situation régionale.

4 octobre 2015 7 04 /10 /octobre /2015 11:45
A Scan Eagle UAV

A Scan Eagle UAV

 

02 October 2015 by defenceWeb

 

Five African countries will receive 62 armoured personnel carriers manufactured by Mack Defense of the United States under a contract awarded by the United States Army in support of US Africa Command, while another six countries will receive Oskosh military trucks and two will receive Scan Eagle UAVs.

 

The US Department of Defence announced the armoured vehicle contract on 25 September, which will see Mack Defense of Allentown, Pennsylvania, supplying the vehicles to Cameroon, Ethiopia, Somalia, Tunisia and Uganda.

 

The firm fixed-price foreign military sales contract is worth $24 974 528 and covers armoured personnel carriers in both left-hand and right-hand drive as well as common spare parts.

 

Work will be performed in France with an estimated completion date of 30 December 2016. Bids were solicited via the Internet with seven received. Army Contracting Command, Warren, Michigan, is the contracting activity.

 

In July the United States Army announced it would seek between 19 and 400 new armoured personnel carriers for the US military’s Africa Command. The presolicitation notice posted on the Federal Business Opportunities (FBO) website, stated that the vehicles should be 2015 or later year models and have a minimum seating capacity for ten passengers. They should also have B7 360-degree ballistic protection (against armour piercing 7.62 mm rounds), 4x4 drivetrain with a V-hull chassis design, manual transmission, mechanically-controlled, high-sulphur (5,000 ppm) diesel engine in both left-hand drive and right-hand drive and operator manuals in English and French or Arabic.

 

The estimated three-year combined vehicle quantities in year one are 155, year two 125, and year three 120.

 

Also on 25 September the US Department of Defense announced it had awarded Oshkosh Defense LLC a $21 774 963 modification to an existing foreign military sales contract for Djibouti, Jordan, Kenya, Tunisia, Uganda and Ethiopia for an additional 84 Medium Tactical Vehicle trucks and 59 B-kits (supplemental armour).

 

The estimated completion date of the truck contract is 28 February 2017.

 

Oskosh offers its Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles in a variety of configurations, such as five ton tractor, 8.8 ton Load Handling System, 4x4 and 6x6 cargo, ten ton dump truck and five ton wrecker.

 

One of the other contracts awarded late last month include the delivery of one Insitu Scan Eagle unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) system (comprising multiple aircraft) to Kenya and another to Cameroon. In-country work will be carried out in Nanyuki in central Kenya and the Cameroonian port city of Doula. Both contracts are expected to be completed by September 2016.

4 octobre 2015 7 04 /10 /octobre /2015 07:45
Tunis rejoint la coalition contre l'EI

 

03.10.2015 par BBC Afrique

 

Le Premier ministre tunisien a confirmé la participation de son pays à la coalition internationale contre le groupe Etat islamique (EI) en Syrie et en Irak.

 

Habib Essid a précisé, lors d'une conférence de presse samedi, que la participation de la Tunisie consisterait essentiellement à "un échange d'informations".

 

Le 29 septembre, le président américain Barack Obama, dont le pays dirige la coalition, avait annoncé l'entrée de trois nouveaux pays. En l'occurrence la Tunisie, la Malaisie et le Nigéria.

 

Cette participation permettra à la Tunisie "d'obtenir toutes les informations qui pourraient être efficace dans la guerre contre le terrorisme en Tunisie", s'est défendu M. Essid.

 

Il est, en revanche, resté évasif sur la possibilité d'une participation militaire de la Tunisie contre les djihadistes de l'EI.

 

Le chef du gouvernement tunisien s'est contenté de dire que si une telle demande était faite par la coalition, les autorités appliqueraient l'article 77 de la Constitution.

 

Cet article stipule que le chef de l'Etat peut "envoyer des forces à l'étranger en accord avec le président du Parlement et le gouvernement".

 

Selon les Nations Unies, la Tunisie est l'un des pays où les groupes djihadistes du Moyen Orient recrutent la plupart de leurs nouveaux combattants.

 

Récemment, deux attentats revendiqués par le groupe Etat islamique (EI) ont fait de nombreux morts dont 21 étrangers au musée du Bardo, à Tunis, en mars, et 38 dans un hôtel en bord de mer à Port El Kantaoui, près de Sousse en juin.

8 septembre 2015 2 08 /09 /septembre /2015 16:45
Algeria: The Quiet Revolution Gets Louder

 

September 5, 2015: Strategy Page

 

A power struggle in the government has finally gone public with the August 27 arrest of Abdelkader Ait Ouarab. This is a big deal because this is the guy who led the counter-terror campaign in the 1990s that defeated the Islamic terrorists. Ouarab continued serving until he retired (apparently under pressure) in late 2013. All this internal strife has been going on, quietly, for over a decade. Things heated up in early 2013 when president Abdelaziz Bouteflika had a stroke and was disabled. Pro-reform members of the senior leadership pushed for Bouteflika to resign followed by free elections The Bouteflika family and corrupt officials who had benefitted from Bouteflika rule got organized and resisted. No one wanted a civil war, but the two sides were sharply divided and compromise was not possible. By late 2013 it was clear that most Algerians wanted the government to clean up the rampant corruption and that there was support for that on the inside led by several senior Intelligence officers. Most of the corrupt officials and their civilian allies belong to the extended family of the elderly (nearly 80) president Bouteflika. Then there were the clans of several other families that led the country after freedom was achieved in the 1960s and have dominated government and the economy ever since. The Bouteflikas were apparently slow to realize that their most dangerous political enemies were the senior people in the intelligence and security agencies who were keen on cleaning up the corruption. There were also a lot of military officers who favored anti-corruption reforms. Fortunately for Bouteflika many senior military commanders were corrupt, some because they felt refusing the economic perks offered when they achieved high rank would be seen as disloyal. Bouteflika always believed the loyalty of the military was essential to keeping his corrupt crew in power. Yet by late 2013 many Bouteflika loyalists noted the split within the military and began moving more of their assets out of the country, just in case. That’s because if there’s another large-scale uprising and the military refuses to suppress it (or, worse, splits or falls apart because of disagreements among officers) the current government is done. Bouteflika also realizes that most of the troops are keen on anti-corruption efforts. In short, it’s a dangerous time in Algeria and now it’s out in the open.

 

There have been hints of trouble recently. In late July local media revealed that the government had unexpectedly replaced three of the most powerful generals in the military (the heads of counter-intelligence, the Republican Guard and presidential security). This was immediately linked with two other odd events. First there was the large number of troops showing up at the presidential residence on July 16th. Whatever was going on there was never made public. Finally there is the fact that president Bouteflika has not spoken or appeared in public for months and many Algerians believe he is dying or at the very least not getting any better.

 

Since early 2014 the government has denied that there was a feud raging between the intelligence services and the corrupt senior politicians. For over a year there have been rumors of senior people in the intelligence and security agencies who are keen on cleaning up the corruption and pressuring the government to support this effort. There were also a lot of military officers who favor the anti-corruption drive and the government responded by accusing the reformers of being disloyal and plotting a coup. That’s a possibility now, despite efforts to persuade the Bouteflika clan to do the right thing and let the people decide. Right now Algerians are finding out that the key men in the counter-terror forces are being forced out. Not just the older ones who are eligible for retirement but younger ones who are not. This provides leaders for any future rebellion against the corrupt government and the Bouteflikas are running out of options.

 

Meanwhile the fight against Islamic terrorists continues with over 60 of them killed so far this year compared to about a hundred in all of 2014. Many Algerians fear that dismissing many key counter-terrorism leaders will eventually reduce the effectiveness of operations against Islamic terrorists. The national leadership seems more concerned about maintaining their power and ability to plunder the national wealth for personal benefit. The government also appears incapable of dealing with the financial crises. Oil and gas income has fallen by nearly half since 2011. That’s about $30 billion less each year. Oil and gas are nearly all (97 percent) of the country's export revenues, and 40 percent of GDP. The 2015 budget keeps spending levels largely the same and to do that over $30 billion has to come out of the reserves. This cannot continue for long as Algeria only has $158 billion in reserves and not much in the way of credit for big loans to cover budget deficits. These shortages make the corruption more of an issue. For example, corrupt officials enable over $40 billion in untaxed goods to be smuggled in each year. While the army and police concentrate on the small operators bringing goods in overland in the south or from Morocco, the big money is in bribed officials allowing shiploads to come in untaxed. The government is going through the motions of cracking down but most Algerians believe this is all for show. 

 

August 31, 2015: In Jijel Province (365 kilometers east of the capital) soldiers have lately been capturing more smugglers with weapons, lots of ammo and even rifle cartridge reloading equipment. Many of these smugglers are bringing in people in addition to the usual cheap fuel and food. In the west, on the Moroccan border, soldiers shot a smuggler crossing the border illegally.

 

August 28, 2015: West of the capital soldiers ambushed Islamic terrorists and killed one. Weapons and documents were seized.

 

August 27, 2015: The government arrested former (until late 2013) counter-terrorism chief Abdelkader Ait Ouarab. Also known as “General Hassan” he ran the DRS (main intelligence agency). Ouarab was charged with possessing illegal firearms, withholding information and insubordination. East of the capital troops found an Islamic terrorist hideout that was used to store and build bombs. Several bombs were seized along with weapons and ammo. This was part of a week-long operation that has so far left five Islamic terrorists dead and large quantities of weapons, ammo and equipment seized.

 

August 25, 2015: In the last three days troops on the Mali and Niger borders have killed or arrested over 120 smugglers and seized large quantities of weapons, ammunition and other goods.

 

August 23, 2015: Tunisian border guards were ambushed by Islamic terrorists near the Algerian border. One border guard was killed and three wounded. This appears to be part of an effort by one of the major Islamic terror groups in Tunisia to get the security forces to back off. That has not been working so far and the Islamic terrorists have suffered heavy losses recently.

 

August 22, 2015: In the northeast (Skikda province, 500 kilometers east of the capital) troops clashed with a group of Islamic terrorists and killed two of them. The army has a major search operation going on in the province because of reports that a group of armed Islamic terrorists (as many as 30) were in the area.

 

August 18, 2015:  In the east, across the border in Tunisia, Islamic terrorist landmines killed two Tunisian soldiers.

 

August 14, 2015: In the northeast (Skikda province) Islamic terrorists ambushed an army patrol and killed two soldiers.

23 mars 2015 1 23 /03 /mars /2015 12:45
Tunisie: un soldat tué dans l’explosion d’une mine posée par des jihadistes

 

23 mars 2015 45eNord. Ca (AFP)

 

Un soldat tunisien a été tué dimanche soir dans l’explosion d’une mine posée par des jihadistes dans une région montagneuse de l’ouest de la Tunisie, à la frontière avec l’Algérie, a annoncé à l’AFP le porte-parole du ministère de la Défense.

 

Un militaire a été tué et deux autres ont été blessés lorsqu’une mine a explosé au passage de leur véhicule sur les hauteurs ouest, à la frontière avec l’Algérie, a indiqué Belhassen Oueslati, sans vouloir préciser le lieu exact parce qu’une opération était en cours.

 

La mine a été posée par des éléments terroristes, a-t-il ajouté.

 

La Tunisie, qui vient d’être frappée par un attentat revendiqué pour la première fois par le groupe Etat islamique (EI), tente depuis la fin 2012 de neutraliser – sans succès pour l’instant – un groupe lié à Al-Qaïda au Maghreb islamique (AQMI), actif dans les massifs montagneux et forestiers à la frontière algérienne.

 

Plusieurs dizaines de soldats, policiers et gendarmes ont été tués dans des incidents liés à une mouvance jihadiste en plein essor depuis la révolution de 2011, notamment lors d’attaques les visant ou dans l’explosion de mines.

 

Mercredi, deux hommes armés ont ouvert le feu au musée du Bardo à Tunis, tuant 20 touristes et un policier tunisien. Revendiquée par l’EI, il s’agit de la première attaque à viser des étrangers depuis la révolution.

22 mars 2015 7 22 /03 /mars /2015 08:50
photo Marina Militare

photo Marina Militare

 

March 19, 2015 Defense News (AFP)

 

ROME — Italy said Thursday it would increase its military presence in the central Mediterranean, describing a deadly attack on a museum in Tunis as fresh evidence of a growing threat from extremist groups.

 

"Following a worsening of the terrorist threat, dramatically demonstrated by yesterday's events in Tunisia, an increase in our air and naval deployments in the central Mediterranean has become necessary," Defence Minister Roberta Pinotti told the parliamentary defence and foreign affairs committee.

 

At least two Italian tourists died in Wednesday's attack on the Bardo museum in Tunis.

 

The minister said the increased military presence was required to defend Italy's multiple interests in the area in light of the growing risk posed by the presence of extremist groups and to ensure consistent levels of maritime security.

 

"North Africa has to represent our primary concern," Pinotti told lawmakers.

 

On top of the forces usually deployed, Italy has moved additional naval units, a maritime protection team, helicopters, planes and drones into the area, she added.

 

Pinotti said the extra resources were needed to protect communication lines, merchant shipping and offshore platforms and to facilitate increased surveillance of potential jihadist activity.

 

Italy has been on a heightened state of alert on its own territory for the last month following Islamic State's execution of 21 Egyptian Christians in Libya and threats by the group that it could seek to carry out terror attacks on the former colonial power.

 

Italian security chiefs are concerned that IS appears to be gaining a foothold in conflict-wracked Libya and could use it as a base to mount attacks on merchant ships or on Italy.

 

The chaos in Libya is also seen as a key factor driving an acceleration in the number of migrants arriving on Italy's shores by boat with current rates pointing to more than 200,000 landing this year.

 

Italian Foreign Minister Paolo Gentiloni warned last month that IS loyalists could team up with battle-hardened militia fighters in Libya and seize control of parts of the country.

 

Rome says it is ready to lead a peacekeeping operation in Libya on condition that the warring parties agree to lay down their weapons and the UN issues a green light.

19 mars 2015 4 19 /03 /mars /2015 17:45
L’AP-OTAN affirme sa solidarité avec la Tunisie contre le terrorisme

 

Paris / Bruxelles, 19 mars 2015 - nato-pa.int

 

Après l’attentat meurtrier au musée du Bardo mercredi 18 mars, l’Assemblée parlementaire de l’OTAN a exprimé aujourd’hui sa solidarité avec la Tunisie par la voix de Gilbert Le Bris, président du Groupe spécial Méditerranée et Moyen-Orient.


« Je condamne fermement l’attentat odieux qui a frappé Tunis hier. Mes pensées et celles de tous mes collègues de l’Assemblée parlementaire de l’OTAN vont aux victimes, aux blessés, à leurs familles et à leurs proches.

 

 

Lire la suite

 

18 mars 2015 3 18 /03 /mars /2015 17:45
Sikorsky Wins $93M for Eight UH-60Ms for Tunisia

 

Mar 18, 2015 defense-aerospace.com

 (Source: US Department of Defense; issued Mar 17, 2015)

 

Pentagon Contract Announcement

 

Sikorsky Aircraft Corp., Stratford, Connecticut, was awarded a $93,312,100 modification (P00233) to contract W58RGZ-12-C-0008 for eight "Green" configured UH-60M Blackhawk Helicopters for the Tunisian government.

 

Fiscal 2015 other procurement funds in the amount of $93,312,100 were obligated at the time of the award.

 

Estimated completion date is Dec. 31, 2016. Work will be performed in Stratford, Connecticut.

 

Army Contracting Command, Redstone Arsenal, Alabama, is the contracting activity.

13 mars 2015 5 13 /03 /mars /2015 12:45
Algeria: The Peaceful Solution Soaked In Blood

 

March 13, 2015: Strategy Page

 

Algeria has offered to host peace talks for the mess in Libya, as has neighboring Morocco. So far this year Libyan factions have held negotiating sessions in both countries, but no peace deal has yet been agreed to. Despite the appearance of ISIL (Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant) in Libya Algeria and most Western nations (especially the EU) still see a negotiated settlement as the best way to deal with the Libya civil war. The Libyan Tobruk (officially recognized by the UN) government goes along with this, mainly because they cannot afford to annoy the UN and risk losing international recognition as the legitimate government.

 

While the government continues to call for an “Algerian solution” to the chaos in Libya, less well publicized are the details of how Algeria achieved that solution. Algeria finally got a political deal with its surviving Islamic terrorists only after a decade of horrific violence. Because of all that slaughter Islamic radicalism lost most of its popular appeal by the late 1990s. This came after Islamic terrorists organized a rebellion earlier in the 1990s and murdered over 100,000 civilians who did not agree with them (or enthusiastically aid them). That bloodbath ended in 2005 with an amnesty deal that attracted most of the remaining Islamic terrorists. Some of the Islamic terrorists still operating in Algeria seem to acknowledge that connection and avoid further antagonizing civilians with the kind of mayhem still popular in places like Libya, Iraq and Syria. Despite the 2005 peace deal there still about a hundred armed Islamic terrorists killed in Algeria during 2014. So far this year it appears that number will be lower for 2015.

 

The increased Algerian border security, especially on the Mali and Libyan borders has led to more arrests, but almost all of those caught are smugglers, not Islamic terrorists. Most of the smugglers are moving consumer goods (cheap fuel, expensive alcohol, gadgets and low level drugs like cannabis, for use in Algeria) and illegal migrants headed for Europe. More valuable shipments like drugs headed for Europe (cocaine and heroin), precious metals (usually gold), illegal weapons (especially large quantities of explosives, RPGs and assault rifles), illegal migrants (who can afford to pay high fees) and known Islamic terrorists are rarely caught. This shows that these cargoes are relatively rare compared to food, fuel, consumer goods  and people smuggling and that many of the high-end smugglers who move these expensive items still have their arrangements with border security commanders to allow those who can pay large bribes to get through without interference. The border guards have incentives to catch smugglers as they get some of the value of the seized vehicles (usually expensive all-terrain models) and cargo as well as bribes from smugglers carrying items (like cocaine or hashish headed for Europe) that will not cause a unwanted publicity (about lax border security) inside Algeria.  Weapons are often carried by smugglers for self-defense against bandits, but the border guards make a big deal out of each arrested smuggler caught with self-defense weapons as being an “arms smuggler.” The increased border security effort has become a major problem for the low-end smugglers who have had to find new smuggling routes as the traditional ones (some used for centuries) are now patrolled by aircraft and troops on the ground. Because of the Islamic terror threat the government has made it more difficult for the smugglers to bribe their way past the security forces, which has simply led to higher bribes being paid by those (like Islamic terrorist groups that dominate drug smuggling in the region) who can afford it. The low value smugglers still get through, but in fewer numbers and via more difficult routes. The security forces are still detecting or arresting Islamic terrorists in the south and north who got smuggled in successfully or were recruited locally. Most of the smugglers arrested are not Algerians although Algerians tend to be the most common nationality found to be involved.

 

March 12, 2015: A court sentenced a blogger to six months in jail for posting a 2012 comment that the army considered insulting. The prosecutor wanted a ten year sentence and the accused was released after the trial because he had already been in jail awaiting trial for seven months. The blogger showed no regret for what he had done and the trial divided the country with many Algerians believing the government had gone too far in this case.

 

March 11, 2015: In the capital two days of UN sponsored peace talks between the major factions in the Libyan civil war ended with sweet words and eagerness to keep talking, but nothing that would end the fighting. The Libyan factions did admit that these talks are not just an effort to bring back peace and prosperity but also a matter of survival. The appearance of ISIL (Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant) in Libya has caused thousands of the more fanatic Islamic terrorists to sign in as affiliates of this highly destructive and uncompromising group. This has not created a united ISIL force and ISIL appears to spend most of its time raiding and looting just to get fed and resupplied with fuel and ammo. There are still organized Islamic terrorists groups fighting government (both Tripoli and Tobruk) forces but there is less of that because of the need to find something to eat.

 

March 10, 2015: Three Islamic terrorists were killed (and weapons and ammo seized) in a clash with soldiers 145 kilometers west of the capital.

 

March 4, 2015: In neighboring Tunisia police killed two Islamic terrorists near the Algerian border in the Chaambi Mountains. This came in the midst of another major sweep of the area to find hidden Islamic terrorist camps. Algeria moved more troops to the border area opposite the Chaambi Mountains in 2014 to prevent Islamic terrorists from entering Algeria. These big sweeps in the Chaambi Mountains have been going on since 2013 when, for the first time since 2007, Tunisa had to deal with organized groups of Islamic terrorists. The recent sweeps have found more weapons and other supplies hidden by Islamic terrorists for later user. Unoccupied camps have also been uncovered but there appear to be fewer and fewer Islamic terrorists up in the hills. The terrorists are often found to have moved, sometimes across the border, because they detected the approaching troops. Tunisia believes the Islamic terrorists in these mountains are sustained by supporters in cities and towns who get supplies and new recruits to them. Thus Tunisia is now paying more attention to the Islamic terrorist support network in the cities and towns. Not surprisingly there’s a lot more Islamic terrorist activity on the Libyan border, where the same types of sweeps are conducted but more frequently.

 

March 1, 2015: Troops ambushed Islamic terrorists near Beni Douala (95 kilometers east of the capital) and killed one of them.

 

February 28, 2015: In the south (near Tamanrasset, 2,000 kilometers south of the capital) 40 policemen were injured while dealing with hundreds of young Tuareg men violently demonstrating against government attempts to drill exploratory shale oil wells in the desert area. The Tuareg (the southern branch of the Berbers) are the majority in this thinly populated area and fear that the fracking process required to recover the oil trapped in shale rock will pollute the limited local water supply. In addition to fighting with police the protestors burned down the home of the local mayor. The Tuareg are nomads and their language and genetic makeup are similar to the Berbers. Most Algerians are genetically Berber but only about 20 percent of Algerians are culturally Berber and about 15 percent of these Berbers are Tuareg living down south. Although the Berbers are largely farmers and urban dwellers living along the coast most Tuareg are still nomads (or consider themselves such). Over two thousand years of invasions and conquests by foreigners has resulted in most Algerians becoming culturally Arab. These cultural differences are often a source of conflict. Genetic studies have shown the Tuareg to be more Berber than those in the north, apparently because there was less intercourse with invaders. During the ice age (and until a few thousand years ago) the Sahara was a well-watered plain where the ancestors of the Berbers and Tuareg were dominant. As the area turned to desert after the last ice age ended 12,000 years ago many of these people fled to the Nile River and became the ancient Egyptians. 

 

February 24, 2015: In Tunisia security forces arrested over a hundred Islamic terrorism suspects after uncovering an ISIL plot to launch numerous attacks inside Tunisia. That sort of violence has few fans in Tunisia and many locals willing to call the police with reports of suspicious behavior.

 

February 18, 2015: In neighboring Tunisia four policemen were ambushed and killed by Islamic terrorists near the Algerian border in the Chaambi Mountains. This was the first such Islamic terrorist activity in this area this year. Police assured the public that they would hunt down and find the attackers.

 

February 16, 2015: The fifth round of peace talks began in Algeria between the Mali government and an alliance of six northern rebel groups. This round of talks featured the personal participation of the Mali prime minister for the first time. These talks have been making slow progress because of the reluctance of the majority of Malians (black Africans in the south) to grant the degree of autonomy the lighter skinned Arab and Tuareg minority in the north want. Getting the Mali prime minister personally involved is seen as a step forward but there is still no final agreement.  After three days of negotiations there was still deadlock but the Tuareg rebels agreed to an immediate ceasefire to halt the fighting that has been going on for weeks.

 

February 14, 2015: In the northeast troops killed an Islamic terrorists near the Tunisian border.

 

February 13, 2015: Soldiers searching for terrorists about 100 kilometers southeast of the capital found and destroyed twelve structures (some of them fortified) along with twenty bombs and grenades as well as some electronic equipment. Also found was the decomposing body of a man later identified as a wanted Islamic terrorist leader.

10 mars 2015 2 10 /03 /mars /2015 17:45
The closing ceremony of Exercise Flintlock 2015 - photo US Africom

The closing ceremony of Exercise Flintlock 2015 - photo US Africom

 

10 March 2015 by Africom - defenseWeb

 

The annual Flintlock exercise wrapped up on Monday in N’Djamena with a closing ceremony that brought together senior leaders from over 20 participating countries.

 

The Chadian exercise director, Brig. Gen. Zakaria Ngobongue, when bidding farewell to the guests and participants from different African and Western partner nations, who trained tirelessly in Chad, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon and Tunisia, thanked the troops for their professionalism. “I am pleased to note that the progress made during this exercise was tangible and these results were reached thanks to willing participants.”

 

Ngonbongue thanked partner nations for the quality medical and humanitarian assistance that benefited citizens in locations near Mao, Faya and Moussoro. Similar medical activities were also conducted in Agadez, Niger.

 

The closing ceremony of the Flintlock exercise was also attended by the Commanding General of U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM), Gen. David Rodriguez, who thanked Chad for being a great host to this year’s Flintlock despite the security challenges the country faces.

 

“It is important to recognize that exercise Flintlock 2015 was successfully conducted by Chad and other African partners while actively engaged in combat operations against Boko Haram. The capacity to execute real world operations while simultaneously training to increase capacity and capability, demonstrates a level of proficiency exhibited only by an extremely professional, capable, and disciplined military,” said Rodriguez during the closing ceremony.

 

This year’s exercise was the largest Flintlock to date and has continued to build on the success of previous exercises. The three-week Chad hosted event included the implementation of a collaborative Command and Control and information sharing systems, which will remain in place for African partners to share operational information and intelligence with each other, as well as international partners.

 

Over 1,000 personnel from over 20 countries participated in Flintlock ‘15, with locations in Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon and Tunisia. Ten flight crews from Belgium, the United States, Canada, Spain, Denmark, Germany, Sweden, The Netherlands, Italy, and the United Kingdom moved most of the troops and 500,000 pounds of cargo with 113 flights. In all the locations, each soldier received 150 hours of training.

 

They also conducted four community activities, met with key leaders, and treated 1,800 people in several medical assistance clinics. Chadian and U.S. military, as well as U.S. Embassy personnel, also conducted outreach to an orphanage in N’Djamena, supporting victims of war, HIV, and poverty. With the support of non-governmental organization Spirit of America, $4,500 of educational supplies, hygiene tools, and basic items like blankets, sheets, towels, and mosquito nets were given to 59 orphans.

 

The tactical portion of Flintlock 2015 consisted of small-unit combined training and activities involving partner nation counter-terrorism units and military humanitarian relief operations to help improve the basic medical, dental and veterinary access for some communities in Chad and Niger.

 

As an enduring exercise, Flintlock is not focused on any specific security situation, but instead on developing security capacity, building professionalism, and strengthening bonds among exercise participants. Flintlock exercises began in 2005 and are conducted by the Special Operations Command Forward – West Africa (SOCFWD-WA) and sponsored by Africa Command’s Special Operations component to develop the capacity of and collaboration among African security forces to protect civilian populations across the Sahel region of Africa.

 

Flintlock exercises strengthen security institutions, promote multilateral sharing of information, and develop interoperability among the partner nations of the Trans-Sahara Counter Terrorism Partnership (TSCTP). Through exercises such as Flintlock, the United States Special Operations Command provides military training opportunities to foster relationships of peace, security, and cooperation among all Trans-Saharan nations through the TSCTP program.

10 mars 2015 2 10 /03 /mars /2015 17:45
Réunion à Tunis du Comité directeur de l’Initiative « 5+5 Défense »

 

10.03.2015 Ministère de la Défense - Tunisie
 

Le 20eme Comité directeur de l’Initiative « 5+5 Défense » se tient les Mardi 10 et Mercredi 11 mars, à Tunis. Prennent part à ces assises des représentants des ministères de la Défense de Tunisie, d’Algérie, de Libye, du Maroc, de Mauritanie, d’Italie, d’Espagne, du Portugal, de Malte et de France.

 

La Tunisie, qui préside la session de 2015 de l’Initiative « 5+ 5 Défense », a proposé d’axer les travaux de cette réunion sur le renforcement des capacités opérationnelles des forces armées des pays de l’Initiative en vue de lutter contre les nouvelles menaces qui se dressent devant la région.

La Tunisie va œuvrer à sensibiliser les participants aux dangers du terrorisme et aux moyens de développer les compétences armées afin de combattre ce fléau dans un cadre euro-maghrébin.

Cette réunion sera consacrée à l’état d’avancement des projets en cours dans le cadre de l’Initiative, et ce en prévision de la 10eme session de la réunion des ministres de la Défense 5+5, prévue au cours de 2015 en Tunisie.

 

L’évaluation des activités programmées pour cette année et la préparation du calendrier des activités prévus pour l’année prochaine seront examinées lors de cette réunion. Le Comité directeur de l’Initiative « 5+5 Défense » se réunit deux fois par an. Chaque pays membre de l’Initiative « 5+5 Défense » y est représenté par deux membres.

 

Quant à la réunion des ministres de la Défense des pays membres de l’Initiative, elle se tient, une fois par an, dans le pays qui préside la session. L’Initiative « 5+5 Défense » dont la première session a eu lieu en Tunisie en 2003, a pour objectif l’instauration d’une coopération multipartite et de terrain relative aux questions sécuritaires d’intérêt commun et l’échange d’expériences, de compétences et de connaissances.

 

Les domaines de coopération de l’Initiative concernent la surveillance maritime de la région ouest de la Méditerranée, la contribution des forces armées dans la protection des civils en cas de catastrophes, la sécurité aérienne de la Méditerranée ouest, la formation et la recherche.

9 mars 2015 1 09 /03 /mars /2015 17:45
US-led exercise in Chad prepares troops to fight terror

A Chadian platoon practices dismounting during mounted operations during Exercise Flintlock '15 at Moussoro, Chad on 19 February 2015. (U.S. Army photo by Staff Sgt. Amber Martin)

 

9 March 2015 By Thomas Fessy - BBC Africa

 

Troops from Chad are leading the fight against the militant Islamists of Boko Haram in West Africa. Their troops are being trained to fight terror in an exercise deep in the desert.

 

Down at the firing range, it is the Chadians' turn. American special forces are training them on the machine gun. Chadian soldiers queue to lie down on a piece of cardboard, load the weapon and aim at a target around 150 metres away. Occasionally we hear the "ding" from a bullet hitting the metallic target. But what makes the soldiers cheer is when one of their comrades holds the trigger down, shooting several rounds at once from the automatic weapon. This shooting session is taking place in western Chad, in a section of the Sahel region that skirts the southern edges of the Sahara Desert. It is part of Operation Flintlock, an annual counter-terrorism exercise led by the United States and held with their Nato allies in West Africa. This tenth edition is particularly timely. These drills are taking place against the backdrop of a region preparing to take on Boko Haram in Nigeria. In fact, these Chadian troops may be going straight back into battle as soon as their training is over.

 

Read more

4 mars 2015 3 04 /03 /mars /2015 13:45
Défense: Le général de brigade Taoufik Rahmouni nommé à la tête de l’ARSD

 

3 mars 2015 kapitalis.com

 

Le général de brigade Taoufik Rahmouni vient d’être nommé directeur de l’Agence des renseignements de la sécurité pour la défense (ARSD).

 

Selon le décret présidentiel (n° 2015-43 du 20 février 2015), la nomination de l’ancien porte-parole du ministère de la Défense a pris effet à compter du 20 février 2015.

 

Créée par deux décrets (n° 2014-4208 du 20 novembre 2014 et n° 2014-4209 du 20 novembre 2014), cette agence est «un établissement public à caractère administratif doté de la personnalité morale et de l'autonomie financière».

 

Sa mission consiste à «assurer la protection des agents, des installations, du matériel et des secrets du ministère de la Défense nationale, à collecter les renseignements à propos des menaces potentielles à la sécurité des forces armées et de la sécurité du pays en général», à contribuer à la prévention et à la lutte antiterrorisme, et à mettre «l’expertise nécessaire» en la matière à la disposition du commandement militaire et du ministre de la Défense nationale.

 

Le général de brigade Taoufik Rahmouni aura donc la lourde et passionnante tâche de créer cette agence et de la doter des moyens, surtout humains, pour accomplir ses missions, notamment dans le domaine de la lutte antiterroriste.

12 février 2015 4 12 /02 /février /2015 18:45
US studying special operations airlift needs in Africa

 

12 February 2015 by Oscar Nkala/defenceWeb

 

The United States military is seeking to identify companies able to provide fixed wing air transport services on behalf of US Army Special Operations Command (SOCOM) in countries in Africa.

 

On February 4 the Federal Business Opportunities (FBO) register issued a notice saying Special Operations Command Africa was “conducting market research to identify parties having an interest in, and the resources to support, an emerging requirement for mobile fixed wing air transport services to move personnel and cargo within the northern regions of Africa and surrounding countries”.

 

SOCOM said the airlift services will cover the African nations of Libya, Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia and Senegal. Jordan, which is likely to the base for the Africa operations, is the only Middle Eastern country covered by the airlift requirement.

 

The fixed wing aircraft involved must be capable of transporting a minimum of 1 000 pounds and maximum of 4 500 pounds to include a mix of a maximum of 12 passengers and/or cargo. It must also be capable of taking off/landing on improved and unimproved dirt airfields of a minimum of 1 800 feet in length to support supply and personnel transportation requirements.

 

"The primary operation area where the air transportation support could be provided include, but are not be limited to, Libya, Jordan, Tunisia, Algeria, Senegal, and Morocco. Other locations within northern Africa may be dictated by operational requirements and timely coordination will ensure contractor support," the notice stated.

 

Responses are called for by February 23.

 

The notice comes amid calls for the Pentagon to prepare for a large-scale counter-insurgency campaign to destroy West African-based terrorist groups like Boko Haram and several other Islamist militant groups operating in Mali, Niger, Algeria, Mauritania and other 'safe havens' in the Sahel and Lake Chad sub-regions.

 

In remarks made during an address at the Centre for Strategic and International Studies in Washington, DC, last week, Africa Command (Africom) head General David Rodriguez said a US-led counter-insurgency campaign was necessary to eliminate the threat posed by new terrorist groups based in West Africa.

 

He said Africom is already preparing a response which will include operations that will target 'forces affiliated to Boko Haram' in four West African countries neighbouring Nigeria.

 

Presenting a lecture to students at the US Army's West Point academy early this month, Special Operations Command (SOCOM) commander General Joseph Votel said US Army commando teams must start preparing now for new deployments against Boko Haram and the Islamic State in north and west Africa.

 

“Boko Haram is creating fertile ground for (terrorist) expansion into other areas. While it is not yet a direct threat to the (US) homeland, it is impacting indirectly our interests in this particular area (West Africa) and creating another area of instability,” General Votel said.

 

So far, US special operations forces operating in the Africa and Middle Eastern regions have conducted a number of raids against al Shabaab in Somalia, Islamist militants in Libya and Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula in Yemen.

18 décembre 2014 4 18 /12 /décembre /2014 21:45
La Tunisie hérite de la présidence de «l’Initiative 5+5 Défense»

 

17-12-2014 par Anas Amine- lesafriques.com

 

La présidence périodique 2015 de «l’Initiative 5+5 Défense» a été confiée à la Tunisie pour succéder à l’Espagne. Une décision prise à la clôture de la 10ème réunion des ministres de la Défense nationale des pays du Maghreb et du sud de l’Europe, organisée du 10 au 12 décembre à Grenade (sud de l’Espagne).

 

Le ministre de la Défense, Ghazi Jeribi, a souligné, à cette occasion que «cette responsabilité permettra à la Tunisie de répondre avec efficience aux défis sécuritaires confrontés au Maghreb et de faire face aux menaces internes et externes qui pèsent sur la région».

 

La réunion a constitué une occasion aux hauts responsables méditerranéens pour passer en revue les risques qui menacent la sécurité et la stabilité de leurs pays, à savoir le terrorisme jihadiste, le trafic de drogue, la traite d’êtres humains, les migrations clandestines massives...

 

Par ailleurs, ils ont fait part d’une vive inquiétude face à la détérioration de la situation en Libye, dirigée par deux gouvernements et deux Parlements se disputant le pouvoir à distance, exprimant le souhait de voir se dessiner une solution à la crise.

 

Lancée en 2004, l’Initiative 5+5 Défense, regroupant cinq pays européens (France, l’Espagne, Italie, Malte et Portugal) et cinq Africains (Libye, Algérie, Tunisie, Maroc et Mauritanie), se propose de renforcer la coopération entre les États membres à travers la promotion de l’action commune et des compétences entre leurs forces armées respectives et l’échange d’expériences et d’expertises.

 

L’objectif de cette initiative est la prise en compte, en commun, des problèmes de sécurité dans la Zone de la Méditerranée occidentale, la lutte contre le terrorisme et les trafics de tout genre, la surveillance et la sécurité maritime, la sûreté aérienne, la protection des populations civiles en cas de catastrophes, en plus du domaine de la formation et de la recherche.

11 décembre 2014 4 11 /12 /décembre /2014 17:45
Tunisia AF C-130J Lockheed Martin photo by John Rossino

Tunisia AF C-130J Lockheed Martin photo by John Rossino

 

MARIETTA, Ga., Dec. 11, 2014Lockheed Martin

 

The Republic of Tunisia received its second C-130J Super Hercules during a ceremony today at the Lockheed Martin facility here.

Tunisia received its first C-130J in April 2013, marking the first delivery of a J-model to an African nation. Lockheed Martin signed a contract in 2010 with Tunisia to deliver two C-130Js, as well as to provide training and an initial three years of logistics support.

“Tunisia’s Super Hercules fleet is both a national and a regional asset, able to support more missions than any other aircraft in operation today,” said George Shultz, vice president and general manager, C-130 Programs, Lockheed Martin Aeronautics. “We are proud to have Tunisia as a member of the global C-130J family. As legacy operators, Tunisian Air Force crews have long showcased why the C-130 is the world’s most versatile aircraft and continue to do so with its C-130J fleet.”

Tunisia’s new C-130Js are the longer fuselage or “stretched” variant of the aircraft. Tunisia’s new C-130Js will support operations across the mission spectrum, including relief efforts around the world, firefighting and traditional airlift sorties.

Sixteen countries have chosen the C-130J Super Hercules to meet their air mobility needs. The C-130J is the standard by which all other airlifters are measured in terms of availability, flexibility and reliability. With more than 1.2 million flight hours to date, the C-130J is available in nine variants and offers operators 17 different mission configurations.

Headquartered in Bethesda, Maryland, Lockheed Martin is a global security and aerospace company that employs approximately 113,000 people worldwide and is principally engaged in the research, design, development, manufacture, integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems, products and services. The Corporation’s net sales for 2013 were $45.4 billion.

30 novembre 2014 7 30 /11 /novembre /2014 08:45
Map: Islamic State's Growing Sphere of Influence

Map: Islamic State's Growing Sphere of Influence

 

November 18, 2014 By Mirco Keilberth, Juliane von Mittelstaedt and Christoph Reuter

 

Chaos, disillusionment and oppression provide the perfect conditions for Islamic State. Currently, the Islamist extremists are expanding from Syria and Iraq into North Africa. Several local groups have pledged their allegiance.

 

The caliphate has a beach. It is located on the Mediterranean Sea around 300 kilometers (186 miles) south of Crete in Darna. The eastern Libya city has a population of around 80,000, a beautiful old town and an 18th century mosque, from which the black flag of the Islamic State flies. The port city is equipped with Sharia courts and an "Islamic Police" force which patrols the streets in all-terrain vehicles. A wall has been built in the university to separate female students from their male counterparts and the disciplines of law, natural sciences and languages have all been abolished. Those who would question the city's new societal order risk death.

Darna has become a colony of terror, and it is the first Islamic State enclave in North Africa. The conditions in Libya are perfect for the radical Islamists: a disintegrating state, a location that is strategically well situated and home to the largest oil reserves on the continent. Should Islamic State (IS) manage to establish control over a significant portion of Libya, it could trigger the destabilization of the entire Arab world.

The IS puts down roots wherever chaos reigns, where governments are weakest and where disillusionment over the Arab Spring is deepest. In recent weeks, terror groups that had thus far operated locally have quickly begun siding with the extremists from IS.

In September, it was the Algerian group Soldiers of the Caliphate that threw in its lot with Islamic State. As though following a script, the group immediately beheaded a French mountaineer and uploaded the video to the Internet. In October, the "caliphate" was proclaimed in Darna. And last week, the strongest Egyptian terrorist group likewise announced its affiliation with IS.

 

The Latest Label of Horror

Several inconsequential groups have also pledged loyalty to Islamic State, while others have gone so far as to announce their support for the group, such as Boko Haram in Nigeria, Abu Sayyaf in the Philippines and the Taliban in Pakistan. All of them are seeking to benefit from the attraction and the brutal reputation of the Islamic State, in addition to the weapons, money and fighters that are easier to assemble using the latest label of horror.

Many such groups once joined al-Qaida for similar reasons, but Osama bin Laden's forces have long-since become overshadowed by IS. Whereas al-Qaida was an ideological establishment with far-flung franchises, Islamic State seeks to exert control over entire regions, led by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the so-called "caliph."

Now, Tunisia of all places, the birthplace of the Arab Spring, has supplied the largest number of foreign jihadists to Islamic State. Many in the country are deeply disappointed with the new freedoms they now possess, and Islamists have also long been able to recruit new followers in Tunisia. In Egypt, where a new military dictatorship took control following the revolution, radical terror organizations have sprouted. And in Libya, fighting among militia groups has resulted in a complete collapse of state order.

Moreover, Islamists were long persecuted in these countries prior to the deposition of their secular rulers. The result was that for decades, jihadists under the thumb of Hosni Mubarak, Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali and Moammar Gadhafi left their home countries. But now, a few old jihadists and many who recently joined IS in Syria are coming back, and they have thrown their support behind Islamic State.


LIBYA: WHERE THE STATE HAS DISAPPEARED

Darna has long been a radical stronghold, having produced the greatest number of foreign suicide attackers from one single city in Iraq after 2004. Oppression by Gadhafi's security forces made it easy for Islamists to sell the jihad as an alternative to living under a dictatorship and the regime was happy to let them go. Every Islamist who left to fight the Russians or the Americans was one less danger back home.

After Gadhafi was toppled in 2011, many rebels headed for Syria to fight against Bashar Assad. At the same time, the revolution gave birth to several militia groups, not all of which were radical but some leaned Islamist. Extremists subsequently found a foothold in eastern Libya and perpetrated a series of bloody attacks against the police and the army, leading the state to pull back. The extremists remained. Today, Darna is ruled by several militia groups, the most important of which is the Islamic Youth Shura Council, an organization founded in the spring after splintering off from the Libyan terror group Ansar al-Sharia. In Darna, the leaders of Ansar al-Sharia have joined forces with Islamic State while in Benghazi they have not.

Initially, IS emerged in Libya in the form of a group of fighters returning from Syria. The so-called al-Battar Brigade brought Darna under its control by murdering politicians, judges and attorneys -- but also by killing commanders of other militias. Then, in September, an "emir" sent by Islamic State arrived in Darna, a previously little-known Yemenite named Mohammed Abdullah. On Oct. 5, the first meeting was held between the men from the Islamic State and Shura Council leaders, during which they announced their alliance and the founding of Islamic State's "Barka Province." At the end of October, hundreds of citizens publically proclaimed their loyalty to the "caliph."

Afterwards, an activist named Mohamed Batoha asked the predominantly foreign extremists what business they had being in Darna. Two days later, he was shot to death by gunmen in a passing vehicle, just as dozens of other critics had been before him.

 

'Hardly Different from Syria or Iraq'

"The fight against Gadhafi began in Benghazi on Feb. 17, 2011. But it is here where it will be determined whether the fight against the Islamists will escalate into a conflagration across all of North Africa," says a young activist who asked to remain anonymous. He is one of the few who has the courage to report from Darna. He too has been shot at by the Islamists, and he only barely escaped with his life. Since then, he has been trying to leave, but the extremists have set up roadblocks all around the city. "Eastern Libya is hardly any different from Syria or Iraq," he says.

The militias hunt down everybody who voices criticism, be it even just a comment posted on Facebook. Just last Tuesday, three young anti-IS activists were beheaded on camera in Darna. Suspected criminals are lashed. A murderer was executed in the local football stadium. Islamists are treated no better. The leader of Ansar al-Sharia in Benghazi has been missing ever since he refused to join the "caliphate" -- in all likelihood he was killed. A further militia leader has applied for asylum in Turkey.

The militias operate four camps on the outskirts of the city where they train several hundred foreigners for the fight in Syria. But ever since the Libyan army, under the leadership of General Khalifa Haftar, took over large sections of Benghazi, which had been controlled by Islamists until then, the jihadists have focused their efforts here. Some have even returned from Syria to provide support. They are thought to have established weapons depots in the forested mountains above Darna and to have stored short-range missiles in a warehouse belonging to a textile factory.

Last week, Darna was bombarded for the first time by the air force under General Haftar's control, which is supported by Egypt and the United Arab Emirates. But such strikes will hardly eliminate the Islamists. More plausible is that the bombings will increase the danger that militias, operating independently thus far, will join forces to fight the general's troops -- and will become part of the Islamic State alliance. Last week provided a look at the dangers facing the country. Islamists detonated a series of bombs at state facilities and at the embassies of Egypt and the United Arab Emirates in Tripoli.

Since summer, the Libyan capital has been under the control of an Islamist alliance calling itself "Fajr Libya" -- Dawn Libya. The group doesn't belong to Islamic State, but the route to the "caliphate" nevertheless runs through Tripoli. In August, Fajr Libya took control of Mitiga Airport in Tripoli, leaving the terminal in ruins and destroyed jets at the gates. A plastic tarp hanging over the entrance reads "International Airport Tripoli." And Mitiga is an international airport, even if there is essentially only a single destination: the "caliphate."

Flights originating in Mitiga are not allowed to land in many cities, but there are several flights weekly to Istanbul and Casablanca. "Libya is the hub for Islamists from Europe and North Africa," says a Libyan activist who escaped to Tunis. The Jihad route leads from Tunisia via Tripoli into Turkey and on to Syria. Thousands have followed the path into Syria, and only a few have returned.


TUNISIA: THE COUNTRY OF JIHADISTS

Mohammed Soussi, from Tunis, is one of those who traveled the Jihad route. Soussi, 27, holds a degree in economic science and had never been particularly devout. The soldier, who had served his country for two years, recently called his parents. But he placed his call from Turkey. "I am fighting for the Islamic State," he said, "for the liberation of Palestine and against Bashar Assad."

Taoufik Soussi, a 63-year-old retired military officer, has reconstructed the path his son took and he now knows where everything got started: in the Elmanar Mosque not far from the technical university in Tunis. Mohammed met an imam there who told him about the Islamic State and who ultimately paid his fare for a collective taxi, which took him to the Libyan border. Fighters with an Islamist militia from Sabratha were waiting on the other side, part of the Ansar al-Sharia network. Presumably, they brought Mohammed to Sabratha, as they had many other Tunisians, and spent several weeks training him for the fight in Syria. They then took him to Mitiga Airport.

According to government figures, 2,400 Tunisians have traveled to Syria, though other estimates place the number of people from Tunisia fighting for the al-Nusra Front or IS at 3,000. The Interior Ministry claims that a further 8,000 men have been prevented from traveling to Syria. Some potential jihadists were identified because they only possessed a one-way ticket to Istanbul while others were arrested at the Libyan border. Some 400 men have returned from Syria, according to government statistics, with most of them now in prison.

Tunisia is the country where the Arab Spring got its start. And while dictators or chaos have followed uprisings in Egypt, Syria and Libya, Tunisia has since held two parliamentary elections. Just recently, there was a peaceful transfer of power from the moderate Islamist party Ennahda to the secular party Nidaa Tounes. On average, the Tunisian population of 11 million is better educated than the people in almost any other county in the region. Why, then, do so many people from this country join the jihad?

 

Horrific Inventions

The imam who recruited Mohammed Soussi -- and who wishes to remain anonymous -- says: "The Islamic State is our promised land," a state "in which Muslims have wrested back their dignity." Stories about IS fighters killing fellow Muslims and raping women, he says, are merely horrific inventions of the Western media.

Many Tunisians are prepared to believe him. For them, the fight against Assad -- or at least the struggle they see as being that -- is merely a continuation of their own, incomplete revolution. The conditions that moved the street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi to light himself on fire -- the event on Dec. 17, 2010 which triggered the Tunisian revolt -- are still present. Many have yet to benefit from the country's newfound freedoms and the police are just as brutal as they have always been. Furthermore, one-third of all men with a university degree are unemployed and those lucky enough to have a job hardly earn enough to make ends meet. They are confronted with a choice: wait years for a job in Tunisia, jump on a rickety ship bound for Europe or join the jihad in Syria.

"Islamic State propaganda promises a fight for liberation similar to many Latin American movements in the 1970s," says Ahmed Naifar, who teaches religious studies at Zitouna University in Tunis. He believes that frustrated young Tunisians see the trip to Syria as a kind of revolt against corruption, brutality and daily indignities. It is a mood that is prevalent in many countries that experienced Arab Spring revolts.

Indeed, within the "caliphate" there are even proper Tunisian exile communities. They update their friends back home using Facebook and Twitter and they paint a picture of the good life, complete with their own homes, wives and monthly incomes. That is what attracts many to join, not the fighting, which many Tunisians have no use for. Indeed, the "caliphate" has become so popular that its leaders can choose who they would like to accept. They post "help-wanted" ads on Facebook for oil engineers, mechanics and translators.

Computer expert Hamsa Bin Ekbel, for example, was supposed to organize workshops in Syria for European jihadists. Most of them hardly speak any Arabic, but they and the videos they appear in are vital for Islamic State propaganda. That kind of work is also about the only thing Ekbel had to offer: He is paralyzed from the waist down and sits in a wheelchair. Hamsa was looking for recognition, says his brother Mohammed Bin Ekbel, and he was welcomed when he arrived in Syria.

 

A Desire to Build Up the 'Caliphate'

But his enthusiasm for Islamic State didn't last long. And after the propaganda success of recruiting the "wheelchair jihad," Hamsa Bin Ekbel quickly became a nuisance. The problems began with the fact that he needed three helpers, given that the "caliphate" isn't exactly amenable to wheelchairs. He edited a few videos before his Sudanese commander suggested it might be best if he returned home.

After just a few weeks, he was back home in Tunis. Hamsa Bin Ekbel only agreed to a short interview out of his fear that he will be arrested, but his desire to help build up the "caliphate" remains. "The society that is developing there is more just than capitalism and democracy," he says. "In Raqqa, there is a consumer protection authority which monitors hygiene in the slaughter houses, garbage is collected and buses are on time."

Hamsa Bin Ekbel was luckier than Mohammed Soussi, the young soldier.

This June, eight months after his disappearance, Taoufik Soussi received a second phone call from Syria. "Your son is now a martyr. You can be proud of him," said the man on the other end of the line. Mohammed, the caller said, was injured by an al-Nusra Front rocket attack and taken to a hospital in Turkey, where he died. He was buried in Syria.

Soussi's mourning father and Hamsa Bin Ekbel's brother have now founded RATTA, the Rescue Association of Tunisians Trapped Abroad, which now attends to around 150 families. They don't have sufficient money for an office so they meet in a café to watch the most recent IS videos. Mohammed Bin Ekbel clicks on a YouTube video from Kobani, where many Tunisians are fighting on behalf of Islamic State. He recognizes one of the fighters from other films; his family has asked RATTA for help bringing their son home. "No chance," Ekbel says quietly.

 

A Shot to the Head

But they hope to at least bring home those who have become disillusioned. Once they arrive in Syria, many realize that IS spends more time fighting against other rebel groups than they do against the regime. Some 300 fighters interested in returning home have turned themselves in to Syrian troops and have been arrested, Ekbel says.

The two activists blame the Ennahda government for having done too little to stop the jihad tourism. The moderate Islamist party seemed to believe they could control and moderate the radicals, but instead, they unwittingly strengthened the extremists, with their imams taking control of over 1,100 mosques that had previously been run by the secular regime.

Even in the 1980s, Tunisians joined the jihad in Afghanistan. The Tunisian Abu Ayyat, for example, was a comrade of Osama bin Laden's before being arrested and deported in 2003, only to be released after the revolution whereupon he founded Ansar al-Sharia. In 2012, the group attacked the US Embassy in Tunisia before murdering two opposition politicians in 2013. Only after that did the Tunisian government declare the group a terrorist organization. By then, however, the group had already send hundreds, if not thousands, of men to Syria.

In March 2012, the government banned men under 35 from traveling to Turkey and Syria and security officials stepped up efforts to combat radicals. Now, fewer men are making the trip to Syria, leading officials to focus their attentions on the radicalized returnees. Those suspected of having participated in the fighting are imprisoned. But it will be difficult to keep tabs on all jihadists. And what happens when men like Abu Jihad return?

The name refers to a Tunisian man of around 30 who is a member of the notorious IS "military police" -- and can be seen in one video killing several prisoners with a shot to the head.


EGYPT: PROTEST AGAINST OPPRESSION

Since last month, the "Sinai Province" has also been part of the "caliphate." There, Egypt's most radical terror group proclaimed its loyalty to Islamic State: Ansar Bait al-Maqdis, whose name essentially means "supporters of Jerusalem." For IS, the Sinai Peninsula is important both symbolically as well as strategically. Egypt is the most populous Arab country as well as being the historically the most important -- and Sinai borders on Israel, the Suez Canal, the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea, making it useful as a launch pad for terror attacks in Israel and Cairo and on Western tourists.

Ansar Bait al-Makdis also emerged out of the vacuum created by the collapse of the Mubarak regime and since the military putsch in July 2013, the group has carried out dozens of attacks killing hundreds of police officers and soldiers. For months, the group discussed a possible alignment with IS, with emissaries traveling back and forth. Mohammed Haydar Zammar is thought to be one of the IS leaders who has been negotiating with the Sinai terrorist group since the beginning of the year.

A naturalized German citizen of Syrian origin, Zammar belonged to the Hamburg cell of Mohammed Atta. Following the Sept. 11, 2001 attacks, Zammar was picked up by the CIA and taken to Syria, where Germany's foreign intelligence agency, the BND, participated in his interrogation. In early 2014, he was released in a prisoner exchange orchestrated by the Syrian rebel group Ahrar al Sham. "But days later, he simply disappeared," a negotiation leader told SPIEGEL. "He immediately went to the IS in Raqqa. He had likely planned it beforehand." Zammar is thought to have organized money transfers to Sinai and he is presumed to be in the region as well, say sources close to him. Were that true, it would be an indication that IS directly finances and controls local groups.

 

 

Conditions in the Sinai are perfect for Islamic State: It is bitterly poor, largely lawless, a hub of drug, weapons and human trafficking, and it is populated by Bedouins, who oppose the government in Cairo. But moderate Islamists and regime critics across Egypt make for attractive IS targets: They are brutally oppressed by the Egyptian military and many of them are in prison.

Or they are disillusioned men like Ahmed al-Darawi. A 36-year-old former policeman and father of two, he supported the Egyptian revolution. In 2012, he was even a candidate in the elections as a convinced democrat, full of hope for a better future.

But disappointed by the revolt and by the return of the military regime, Darawi radicalized and flew to Turkey last year before joining a rebel group in Syria that later pledged loyalty to Islamic State. Not long later, he blew himself up in Iraq -- a suicide bomber from the Arab Spring.

24 septembre 2014 3 24 /09 /septembre /2014 11:45
Le 1er Carthage CyberDefense Forum le 9 octobre à Tunis
 
21 septembre 2014 kapitalis.com

 

AlliaCERT et Securinets organisent la 1ère édition du Carthage CyberDefense Forum (CCDF) le jeudi 9 octobre 2014, à Tunis.

 

Le CCDF se donne our mission de développer une démarche de réflexion et d'échanges réunissant l'ensemble des acteurs du monde de la cyber-sécurité en Tunisie et de décloisonner le débat sur la cyber-sécurité.

 

Suite de l'article

18 septembre 2014 4 18 /09 /septembre /2014 11:45
Opération anti-terroriste dans la région de Mazreg Shams (Tunisie)

 

17-09-2014 mosaiquefm.net

 

Les ministères de l’Intérieur et de la Défense nationale ont indiqué aujourd’hui, 17 septembre 2014, dans un communiqué commun, que les unités spéciales de l’armée et de la Garde nationale ont mené une opération dans la région de Mazreg Shams (gouvernorat de Kasserine), en se basant sur des informations précises.

 

L’opération a permis l’élimination de deux terroristes : Un des deux terroristes a été blessé et a pris la fuite en direction d’une maison de la région. Ce dernier a refusé de se rendre, a indiqué le communiqué.

 

L’opération d’identification de l’identité des deux terroristes est en cours. Les premiers éléments indiquent qu’il s’agit de terroristes d’origine étrangère.

 

Les unités ont saisi deux Kalachnikov, une quantité de munition et des grenades. Deux individus accusés de soutenir les terroristes ont été arrêtés aussi lors de cette opération.

2 septembre 2014 2 02 /09 /septembre /2014 16:45
Tunisia receives donated US patrol boats

 

01 September 2014 by defenceWeb

 

The United States has donated two 13.5 metre patrol boats to the Tunisian Navy and will provide seven additional 7.6 metre patrol boats to the country in the next six months to enhance maritime security in the face of terrorism concerns in the region.

 

The two patrol boats were handed over at La Goulette naval base during a ceremony on August 28 attended by US Ambassador Jake Walles, Minister of Defence Ghazi Jeribi, and Vice Admiral Mohamed Khamassi.

 

The US embassy said the two vessels - valued at over $2 million - are part of an ongoing programme of assistance to the Tunisian Navy. The United States previously donated five 7.6 metre boats in August 2013.

 

The new vessels will enable the Tunisian Navy to enhance its maritime security in the face of growing concerns about terrorism in the region. At the same time, the boats will enable Tunisia to better police its exclusive economic zone and guarantee the flow of maritime traffic through this key waterway between North Africa and Europe.

 

“The US and Tunisia share the common objective of enhancing the operational effectiveness of the Tunisian armed forces in the fight against terrorism. The US Africa Command (AFRICOM) is developing a variety of ways to assist the Tunisian military accomplish this through the sharing of information, the expansion of training, and the supply of advanced equipment. These modern patrol boats highlight the Embassy’s work with the Tunisian Navy, but the U.S. continues to work with the Army and the Air Force as well. Through joint efforts by the three services, combined with those of the Ministry of Interior’s security forces and the country’s international partners, Tunisia can achieve the level of security that its citizens demand and that will be required to conduct successful elections this fall,” the US Embassy said.

 

Last month the United States announced it was giving Tunisia $60 million worth of military aid to help it fight Islamist militants who are threatening the country's nascent democracy. Speaking after talks with Prime Minister Mehdi Jomaa, General David Rodriguez, the head of US Africa Command, said some of the money would go on equipment to detect improvised explosive devices, new boats and training.

 

Also last month, the US donated ten tonnes of protective equipment including helmets, shields and bullet proof vests to equip the special counter-terrorism units of the Tunisian military and police as they battle a growing local and regional terrorist threat.

 

The United States in July gave approval for the sale of 12 Sikorsky UH-60M Black Hawk helicopters to Tunisia, worth $700 million including equipment, parts, training and logistical support. The UH-60M Black Hawk is the most advanced model of the UH-60/S-70 series, and features the ability to be armed with rockets and missiles. Tunisia has requested Battlehawk kits that effectively turn the aircraft into attack helicopters with 2.75 in laser guided rockets, Hellfire missiles, 7.62 mm and .50 cal machineguns, and thermal imagers and laser designators.

 

Tunisia’s air force recently ordered two stretched C-130J-30 Super Hercules transport aircraft from Lockheed Martin – the first African order for the type.

 

It is assumed that the armed UH-60Ms will be used against militant groups operating in Tunisia such as Ansar al Sharia and al Qaeda in the Islamic Maghreb. Tunisia is struggling to deal with the rise of conservative Islamist movements and militants since the 2011 revolt that ousted autocrat Zine El-Abidine Ben Ali and opened the way to democracy.

 

Tunisia is one of the main sources of Islamist militants travelling from North Africa to fight with radical groups in Iraq and Syria.

 

Apart from the United States, Italy has provided assistance to the Tunisian Navy and National Guard, supplying 12 patrol boats in an attempt to curb the flow of immigrants from North Africa. In terms of the deal, Italy is supplying six P270TN patrol boats for the Tunisian Navy and six P350TNs for the National Guard, all of them built by Cantiere Naval Vittoria (CNV) in Adria. Five P350TNs and three P270TNs have been delivered, with the first being supplied in December 2012. Another two P270TNs will be delivered by October while the remaining P350TN and P270TN (originally options) will be delivered by February 2015.

Présentation

  • : RP Defense
  • RP Defense
  • : Web review defence industry - Revue du web industrie de défense - company information - news in France, Europe and elsewhere ...
  • Contact

Recherche

Articles Récents

  • Chronique culturelle - 24 Nov.
    24 novembre 1977 : premier vol du Super Etendard de série 24.11.2016 source JFP 24 novembre 885 : début du siège de Paris par les Vikings. Très actifs durant le IXè siècle, les Vikings ont pris l’habitude de remonter les fleuves du Nord de la France pour...
  • Sortie en librairie le 21 novembre du livre LÉGIONNAIRE
    source MAREUIL EDITIONS Pour la première fois, un ancien officier de la Légion et un Légionnaire donnent la parole à 64 de leurs camarades. Pendant 2 ans, Victor Ferreira a rencontré près d’une centaine de Légionnaires à travers le monde en leur posant...
  • Brazilian Navy H225M Naval Combat Configuration
    17 nov. 2016 Airbus Helicopters Helibras and Airbus Helicopters have opened a new chapter in the history of the H225M multirole utility helicopter with the official presentation of the first aircraft in naval combat configuration. More info Helibras and...
  • Chronique culturelle - 17 Nov.
    La Bataille du Pont d'Arcole - Horace Vernet 17.11.2016 source JFP 17 novembre 1794 : début de la bataille de la Sierra Negra (Espagne) « opposant les troupes des généraux de Pérignon et Dugommier à celles du général espagnol de Carvajal. Cette victoire...
  • Le CEAM présente le CEILDT - Centre d’Expertise et d’Instruction des Liaisons de Données Tactiques
    15 nov. 2016 CEAM Petit clip de présentation sur le Centre d’Expertise et d’Instruction des Liaisons de Données Tactiques (CEILDT). Petit clip de présentation sur le Centre d'Expertise et d'Instruction des Liaisons de Données Tactiques (CEILDT).
  • Audition de M. Marwan Lahoud, président du groupement des industries françaises aéronautiques et spatiales
    photo Aseemblée Nationale 9 novembre 2016 Commission de la défense nationale et des forces armées - Compte rendu n° 15 Présidence de Mme Patricia Adam, présidente — Audition, ouverte à la presse, de M. Marwan Lahoud, président du groupement des industries...
  • Chronique culturelle - 15 Nov.
    Jean Gabin, chef de char du Régiment Blindé de Fusiliers Marins 15.11.2016 source JFP 15 novembre 1315 : bataille de Morgarten (Suisse actuelle). Convoités à la fois par la Bavière et l'Autriche, les Cantons suisses (Uri, Schwytz et Unterwald) donnent...
  • Chammal : les artilleurs appuient les forces irakiennes
    10 nov. 2016 Ministère de la Défense Opération Chammal : les artilleurs de la Task Force Wagram appuient les forces irakiennes et participent à la sécurisation des zones conquises aux alentours de Mossoul. Opération Chammal : les artilleurs de la Task...
  • Chronique culturelle - 10 Nov.
    La bataille de Tolbiac, toile marouflée, Panthéon de Paris, France - Joseph Blanc (1846-1904) 10.11.2016 source JFP 10 novembre 496 : bataille de Tolbiac (Zulpich - Allemagne actuelle). Le roi Clovis écrase les Alamans près de l'actuelle ville de Cologne...
  • Chronique culturelle - 9 Nov.
    Bataille de Coulmiers - Prise d'Orléans - 9 novembre 1870 09.11.2016 source JFP 9 novembre 1799 : coup d'Etat du 18 brumaire . Le général Bonaparte est porté au pouvoir par un coup d'Etat qui dure jusqu'au 11 novembre, mettant fin au Directoire et initiant...

Categories